The British Empire was, at its peak, the largest empire in history; it controlled just short of a quarter of the world's land area and a quarter of the population. There was a saying that "the sun never sets on the British Empire" because there were colonies all around the world.
It was primarily a maritime empire; from the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 well into the 20th century Britain was by far the world's greatest naval power ("Britannia rules the waves"), and a great trading nation as well.
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Celts → Medieval → Early modern → Industrial Britain → British Empire
The British Empire began in 1578 when Queen Elizabeth I started founding colonies in the Caribbean and North America. It expanded in the following centuries, partly through frequent fighting with European rivals like the Netherlands, France, Portugal and Spain over territory in Asia, Africa and the Americas. The loss of the "thirteen colonies" in North America after the American War of Independence was significant, but the zenith of the empire was only reached much later at the end of the 19th century under Queen Victoria, when the Empire covered nearly one quarter of the land in the world.
During the 20th century, the British Empire was to expand even further following World War I, when Britain was awarded some of the colonial possessions of the defeated Central Powers, reaching its greatest extent in 1921. Eventually, the effects of World War II on the United Kingdom led to a decline of empire, with most of its colonies attaining independence in the following decades. After a failed military intervention to hold onto the strategic Suez Canal in Egypt in 1956, many regarded Britain to be no longer a global power, though its prestige would be somewhat restored in 1982, when the UK was victorious over Argentina in the Falklands War. The formal handover of its last significant possession, Hong Kong, back to China in 1997 was seen as "the end of the Empire".
|“||Land of Hope and Glory, Mother of the Free, |
How shall we extol thee, who are born of thee?
Wider still and wider shall thy bounds be set;
God, who made thee mighty, make thee mightier yet,
God, who made thee mighty, make thee mightier yet.
—A.C. Benson, set to music by Edward Elgar, 1901
Today, the main remnants of the empire are the 14 'British Overseas Territories', most of which are self-governing except in matters of defence and foreign relations. The UK retains a cultural connection to many of its former colonies through the large Commonwealth of Nations, and some countries such as Australia, Canada or New Zealand keep a constitutional connection by having the British monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, as their head of state. The United Kingdom itself continues to be home to large communities of African, Caribbean, South Asian and Chinese origin as a result of its former colonial empire.
The British Empire left a lasting impact on its former possessions, and many British cultural exports continue to be popular in the former colonies. For instance, the game of cricket continues to have a strong following in countries such as India, Pakistan and Australia. Association Football (known as soccer in some places after an Oxfordian term) and Rugby football were also invented in England and saw a global spread in part through the empire, although only in rugby is a preeminence of former parts of the empire still pronounced. Perhaps the greatest legacy of the British Empire that can still be felt today is the spread of the English language around the globe; in modern times English has surpassed other prominent languages such as French and Latin to become by far the world's most widely studied foreign language.
Many former colonies, including Hong Kong, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and even the United States, continue to have a legal system that is heavily influenced by English Common Law. Unlike Roman law (which serves as the inspiration for Civil Law in much of continental Europe), Common Law has a very heavy focus on precedent, so a case from England that was settled centuries past may still influence jurisprudence in - say - Australia today. In addition, common law typically adopts an adversarial system, in which the court serves as an impartial referee between the prosecution and the defence. This stands in contrast to the inquisitorial system adopted by most civil law jurisdictions, in which the court plays an active role in investigating cases.
One of the remarkable things about the empire was the extent to which it was able to recruit former enemies into serving it. Overseas, groups who fought the empire and, after being defeated, provided some of its best regiments included:
- the Gurkhas of Nepal, who even today provide troops to the British, Indian and Bruneian armies. In addition, the Singapore Police Force continues to maintain a Gurkha Contingent as an elite special operations unit.
- the Sikhs whose kingdom of Punjab fell around 1850. Some Sikhs became soldiers while others were recruited into police forces in places like Aden, Singapore, Hong Kong and Shanghai. Today, the Sikh Regiment remains the most decorated regiment in the Indian Army.
- the Pathans of what are now Northwest Pakistan and East Afghanistan. They provided mainly cavalry regiments.
- the Ibans of Sarawak formed a unit specialising in jungle warfare known as the Sarawak Rangers in 1862. They were highly skilled in guerrilla warfare, and played a key role in fighting the Japanese during World War II, as well as communist insurgents during the Malayan Emergency (1948-1960). After Sarawak merged with Malaya, North Borneo and Singapore to form Malaysia in 1963, the Sarawak Rangers were absorbed into the Malaysian Army as part of the Royal Ranger Regiment.
Within the British Isles the Scots, Irish and Welsh all resisted English domination at some time, but later helped build the empire. Famous examples included the Welshman Henry Morgan who was the greatest of all privateers and had his base at Port Royal in Jamaica, and the Irishman John Nicholson in India.
There are many articles that cover different aspects of the British Empire:
- United Kingdom — The country that built and ran the empire.
- Age of Discovery — The European powers exploring the globe.
- Colonial India and the British Raj — The story of the Indian Subcontinent's time as the largest part of the empire.
- Victoria — Many places today bear the name of Queen Victoria, who reigned at the peak of the British Empire.
- Early modern Britain and Ireland — History of the home archipelago up to the 18th century.
- Industrial Britain — The industrial growth of the country during time of empire.
- Around the World in Eighty Days — A famous novel by Jules Verne, detailing a journey through the empire and the rest of the world.
- On the trail of Kipling's Kim — An itinerary through the places described in the famous novel set in the British Raj.
- Atlantic slave trade — A crime against humanity started by the Portuguese Empire in the 16th century, and soon to be followed by several other empires including the British, the Spanish, the French, the Dutch, and the Danish.
- United States
- Braddock Expedition — A battle between Britain & France before American independence which saw the emergence of many of the future American independence heroes.
- Early United States history — How the United States became a nation and declared independence from the British Empire.
- From Plymouth to Hampton Roads — An itinerary of East Coast towns that featured in the early British colonies and later in the War of Independence.
- Cameron Highlands, Malaysia — Hill station built by the British to escape the tropical heat of the lowlands. Today, it is a popular holiday destination for Malaysians and Singaporeans, and the heart of Malaysia's tea growing industry.
- Fraser's Hill, Malaysia — Quaint, colonial-era hill station with a high concentration of British colonial buildings.
- Darjeeling, India — Colonial-era British hill station that is today a popular tourism destination, and the heart of India's tea growing industry.
- Kolkata, India — Capital of India under British rule, and home to a large number of colonial buildings dating back to that period.
- Pyin U Lwin, Myanmar — Colonial-era hill station, with the majestic National Kandawgyi Gardens, a botanical garden built by the British during the colonial period.
- George Town, Malaysia — A UNESCO World Heritage Site, and the first British settlement in Southeast Asia. Today, the city boasts a well-preserved core of colonial shophouses that were built in a fusion style with European and Asian elements, as well as numerous government buildings dating back to the days of colonial rule. The colonial-era Eastern & Oriental Hotel is one of the most luxurious in the country, and played host to many foreign celebrities and dignitaries over the years.
- Hong Kong — Although returned to China in 1997, Hong Kong still retains many reminders of its British colonial legacy, and also retaining most of its governing structures from colonial times. Government House, today the official residence of the Chief Executive, was the official residence of the Governor in colonial times, and is open to the public twice a year. There are also numerous other colonial buildings scattered around the territory, including the Old Supreme Court, the old Central Police Station and the former Victoria Prison.
- Yangon, Myanmar — One of the best preserved examples of a British colonial capital in Asia, the city still boasts a large number of surviving colonial buildings. The Strand Hotel is a luxurious colonial-era hotel that visitors can stay in (provided you can afford it, of course).
- Shanghai — The Bund is a street along the west bank of the Huangpu River, mostly in the former British and American concessions, and lined with many mainly British and American colonial buildings.
- Boston, United States of America — Site of the Boston Tea Party in 1773, one of the key events in the leadup to the American War of Independence. The Boston Tea Party Ships & Museum commemorates this key event in American history. Boston is also home to a few buildings dating back to the British colonial period, the most famous being the Old State House, on which symbols of the British crown have been restored. The square in front of the building is where the Boston Massacre occurred in 1770, when British soldiers killed 5 people who were protesting unpopular legislation that had been passed by Parliament.
- Plymouth, United States of America — Where the Puritan pilgrims on the Mayflower landed in 1620, a key event in the founding myth of the United States.
- Jamestown, United States of America — Site of the first successful British settlement in what is today the United States of America.
Former British Colonies
- South Sudan — formerly part of Sudan, became independent in 2011
- Tanzania — formed from the merger of the colonies of Tanganyika and Zanzibar
- Malawi — known as Nyasaland under colonial rule
- Zambia — known as Northern Rhodesia under colonial rule
- Zimbabwe — known as Southern Rhodesia under colonial rule
- Botswana — known as Bechuanaland under colonial rule
- South Africa
- Eswatini — formerly known as Swaziland
- Internationally recognised as part of Somalia, but de facto independent
- Sierra Leone
- Ghana — known as Gold Coast under colonial rule
- Parts of northwestern Cameroon, including the cities of Bamenda and Buea. Originally part of the German colony of Kamerun, which was partitioned between the French (French Cameroun) and British (Northern Cameroons and Southern Cameroons) following the defeat of Germany in World War I. French Cameroun became independent in 1960, while in 1961, Muslim-majority British Northern Cameroons became part of Nigeria, and Christian-majority British Southern Cameroons merged with Cameroun to form the modern country of Cameroon.
- India — included what is today the separate countries of Pakistan and Bangladesh under colonial rule
- Pakistan — originally part of British India, split off to form a separate country on independence in 1947.
- Bangladesh — originally part of British India, it became part of Pakistan after the end of British colonial rule in 1947, before becoming independent in 1971
- Sri Lanka — known as Ceylon under colonial rule
- Nepal — never formally colonised but under British suzerainty during the period of colonial rule in India, and still provides Gurkha forces to the British and Indian militaries to this day.
- Bhutan — never formally colonised but under British suzerainty from 1910-1947
- Malaysia — formed in 1963 from the merger of Malaya (which had already gained independence from Britain in 1957), British North Borneo (today Sabah) and Sarawak. Singapore, which was part of Malaya under British colonial rule, was originally part of Malaysia, but was expelled in 1965 and became independent.
- Myanmar — known as Burma under colonial rule
- Singapore — part of Malaya under colonial rule, but remained a British colony when the rest of Malaya was granted independence in 1957; included Cocos (Keeling) Islands and Christmas Island, which were later transferred to Australia in 1955 and 1958 respectively. Became part of Malaysia after the end of British colonial rule in 1963, but expelled from the federation in 1965 and became independent
- Parts of Sumatra in modern-day Indonesia, including Bengkulu (known as Bencoolen under British colonial rule). Ceded to the Netherlands as part of the Anglo-Dutch treaty of 1824, in which Britain gave up its colonies in Sumatra to the Dutch, in exchange for the Dutch ceding their colony in Malacca to the British.
- Hong Kong
- United Arab Emirates — British protectorates called the Trucial States 1820-1968
- Jordan — known as Transjordan when administered as the eastern part of the British Palestine Mandate
- Israel — Current-day Israel and the Palestinian Territories constituted Mandatory Palestine
- Palestinian Territories
Britain also held concessions in various parts of China, including Shanghai, Tianjin, Hankou (now part of Wuhan), Gulangyu in Amoy (now called Xiamen), Shamian Island in Canton (now called Guangzhou), Jiujiang and Zhenjiang. At Weihai the concession included a naval base.
- The Thirteen Colonies, today part of the United States of America
- The Mosquito Coast in modern-day Honduras
- Trinidad and Tobago
- Saint Kitts and Nevis
- Saint Lucia
- Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
- Antigua and Barbuda
- New Zealand
- Papua New Guinea
- Samoa — originally part the German colony of Samoa, which was split between the United Kingdom and the United States after the defeat of Germany in World War I. The British-controlled western half was known as Western Samoa under colonial rule, and re-named to just "Samoa" after independence. The American-controlled eastern half remains the U.S. territory of American Samoa
- Kiribati — called the Gilbert Islands under colonial rule
- Vanuatu — called the New Hebrides under a French-British condominium, a unique form of colonial rule
- Solomon Islands
- Nauru — former German colony that was placed under joint administration by the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand (the latter two of which were British dominions at the time) following the defeat of Germany in World War I. Became independent in 1968.
- Tuvalu — called the Ellice Islands under colonial rule
British Overseas Territories
Although the term 'British Empire' is rarely used today, some destinations do remain in the form of 'overseas territories'. They are typically self-governing and, with the exception of Gibraltar, have never been part of the European Union. The majority are islands. They include:
- Akrotiri and Dhekelia — two military bases on Britain's former colony Cyprus
- Bermuda — the most populous British overseas territory
- British Antarctic Territory
- British Indian Ocean Territory — the subject of a territorial dispute between Britain and Mauritius, home to a joint British and American military base and off limits to the general public
- British Virgin Islands
- Cayman Islands
- Falkland Islands — focal point of the 1982 war against Argentina
- Gibraltar — acquired in the early 18th century and subject to an ongoing dispute with Spain
- Pitcairn Islands — home to descendants of the Bounty mutiny
- Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha — former exile for Napoleon Bonaparte
- South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
- Turks and Caicos Islands
The Commonwealth of Nations is a loose grouping of 53 countries, most of which are former British colonies. All Commonwealth countries are independent, though some of them still share the same monarch as the United Kingdom, with an appointed Governor-General serving as the monarch's representative in each country. The monarch of the United Kingdom retains the position as Head of the Commonwealth, though this position is purely symbolic and does not carry any powers over member countries. The heads of government of the Commonwealth countries meet every two years at the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM), which is hosted by different member countries. The British monarch typically also attends or sends a member of the royal family as a representative.
For historical reasons, the diplomatic missions between Commonwealth countries are known as high commissions rather than embassies, and the head of the mission is known as a high commissioner rather than an ambassador. The Queen of the United Kingdom is also Queen of Canada, Australia, Papua New Guinea, New Zealand, Jamaica, Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas, Belize, Grenada, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands and Tuvalu. If an ambassador nominally represents the head of state, a hypothetical New Zealand ambassador to Australia would be representing Elizabeth II to...herself. Wellington would therefore send a high commissioner representing the head of government (in this case the prime minister) instead of an ambassador representing the head of state.
The following are a list of some of the 53 former colonial countries that choose to be part of the British Commonwealth, with or without the British monarch as the head of state:
- New Zealand
- South Africa
- Sri Lanka
The Commonwealth Games are a multi-sport games competed by national teams from countries in the Commonwealth, the UK and British Overseas Territories. The games are similar in format to the Summer Olympics, and are held every four years, two years apart from the Summer Olympics. The first games were held in 1930 as the British Empire Games. Unlike at the Olympics, the home nations of the UK (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) send separate teams to the Commonwealth Games, and the Games feature several non-Olympic sports that are popular in the Commonwealth such as squash and lawn bowls.
The legacy of British colonial rule is a complex one that differs significantly based on location, political leanings, as well as ethnic background. For instance, in the United Kingdom itself, Conservatives tend to be highly nostalgic for the military achievements of the former British Empire, while supporters of the Labour Party tend to be more critical of the various less glamorous aspects of colonial rule. Attitudes towards British colonial rule among the former colonial subjects also vary greatly between the former colonies; while many locals in Hong Kong regard colonial rule positively and are proud of their British colonial heritage, people from India and Ireland for instance tend to be very critical of British colonial rule and its role in exacerbating various famines. In Australia, Canada and New Zealand, colonial rule is typically regarded with mixed feelings among the white population, but strongly negatively among indigenous communities.
- Medieval Britain and Ireland
- Age of Discovery
- Atlantic slave trade
- Cricket - a game played by almost all countries of the Commonwealth
- Rugby football - a sport that originated in England and is today played in many nations of the former British Empire, although other countries (such as Argentina, France, Italy and Japan) have also enthusiastically taken it up as well
- Association football (soccer) was invented in England and was in part spread through merchants, missionaries, teachers and expatriates throughout the entire world.
- Monarchy of the United Kingdom