There is nowhere else quite like Australia, the only country that has a whole continent to itself. With Indigenous cultures for over 65,000 years and truly global immigration in modern times, the country is famous for its natural wonders, wide open spaces, beaches, deserts, "the bush", and "the Outback". However, it is also highly urbanised, with an array of cosmopolitan cities – the largest and most famous being Sydney, situated on one of the most famous harbours in the world.
Australia is composed of six states and nine territories. Visiting all at once would be nearly impossible, as the states in Australia are much much larger than the states in the United States and are more comparable in size to provinces in Canada – with almost 5,000 km (3,100 mi) separating Brisbane and Shark Bay, the country is vast, about the distance from Madrid to Murmansk, Cairo to Nairobi or Maine to California.
|New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory (NSW) & (ACT) |
Australia's most populous state also has Sydney, the oldest and largest city, and surrounds the purpose built capital city of Canberra. The coast of New South Wales is lined with beach-side communities; a little inland are the mountain ranges of the Blue and Snowy mountains; further inland still are sweeping agricultural plains giving way to the outback.
|Northern Territory (NT) |
From the red deserts surrounding Uluru and Alice Springs up to the tropics of Darwin and Kakadu National Park, the Northern Territory is stunningly beautiful, and easier to access than you might think.
|Queensland (Qld) |
Famous for its sunny warm weather, Queensland offers coastal exploration from the vibe of the Gold Coast to the tropics of the Great Barrier Reef to the bustling city of Brisbane. It is also home to tropical rainforests of the Daintree National Park, and the island resorts of the Whitsundays. Inland lies the ranges of the hinterland, and further on the vast expanses and beauty of outback Australia.
|South Australia (SA) |
Renowned for the internationally recognised fine wines of the Barossa Valley, the beauty of the Flinders Ranges and the outback and events and culture of the City of Churches, Adelaide.
|Tasmania (Tas.) |
Separated from the mainland by Bass Strait, the mountainous state of Tasmania has the rugged beauty of Cradle Mountain in the west, the beaches of the east, and the wilderness of the south. Hobart was the site of the second European settlement in Australia, and many historic sites are well preserved.
|Victoria (Vic.) |
Small, vibrant and with something for everyone, Victoria has dramatic surf beaches along the southwest and central coast, green rolling farmland and photogenic national parks. Australia and Victoria's sporting, shopping, fashion and food capital is Melbourne.
|Western Australia (WA) |
A vast state. The southwest contains the state capital and major city of Perth. The wine growing and scenic destinations of Margaret River and Albany are towards the southern region. In the far north are the tropics and the beachside destination of Broome. Small townships, roadhouses, mining communities and national parks are scattered around the long distances between.
Tasmania is the most significant island of Australia and a state in its own right. There are 8222 islands in Australia, other main islands include:
- 1 Lord Howe Island — a showcase for nature two hours flying time from Sydney, administered as part of the state of New South Wales.
- 2 Norfolk Island — halfway to New Zealand, with nature and beaches
- 3 Christmas Island — famous for its red crab migration with flights from Perth.
- 4 Cocos (Keeling) Islands — coral atolls, populated, accessible by flights from Perth.
- 5 Torres Strait Islands — Indigenous culture between Cape York and Papua New Guinea, and requires permission from the traditional owners to visit. Flights from Cairns.
- 6 Kangaroo Island — the third-largest island in Australia containing wildlife, natural scenery, wineries and beaches.
- 7 Rottnest Island — a nature reserve with 63 beaches and 20 bays, located near Perth and home to the infamous Quokka
- 8 King Island — in the Bass Straight above Tasmania.
- 9 Whitsunday Islands — a famous tourist destination renowned for its white beaches
There are quite a few uninhabited islands including the Coral Sea Islands, some islands of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, the Ashmore and Cartier Islands and the remote Antarctic islands of Heard Island and McDonald Islands and Macquarie Island.
- 1 Canberra — the relatively small, purpose-built national capital of Australia is home to plenty of museums
- 2 Adelaide — the "City of Churches", the relaxed South Australian capital is close to world-renowned wineries
- 3 Brisbane — capital of sun-drenched Queensland and gateway to beautiful sandy beaches
- 4 Cairns — gateway to the Great Barrier Reef, Port Douglas, Daintree National Park, and many beautiful beaches and resorts; a great place for people to get away and relax
- 5 Darwin — Australia's tropical northern capital, at the top end of the Northern Territory
- 6 Hobart — picturesque and quiet capital of Tasmania, the site of the second convict settlement in Australia
- 7 Melbourne — Australia's second largest city, Melbourne is the country's sporting, shopping, food and cultural capital, while also being regarded as Australia's most European city
- 8 Perth — the most remote continental city on Earth, on the south-western edge of Western Australia
- 9 Sydney — Australia's oldest and largest city, famous for its picturesque harbour and natural beauty
- 1 Blue Mountains National Park — a mountainous national park in New South Wales, including the "Three Sisters" natural feature
- 2 Cradle Mountain-Lake St Clair National Park — most popular national park in Tasmania, home Australia's deepest lake and one of its most scenic mountains
- 3 Daintree Rainforest — the world's oldest living rainforest and a well preserved tropical rainforest, home to the largest groups of cassowaries.
- 4 Great Barrier Reef — see first hand this natural wonder, off the coast of Queensland and the world's largest coral reef system
- 5 Great Ocean Road — a spectacular coastal drive in Victoria past many scenic icons including the "Twelve Apostles" rocks standing in the ocean and the world's largest war memorial
- 6 Kakadu National Park — tropical adventure travel, Aboriginal culture and nature activities in the Northern Territory. Second largest national park in Australia about the size of Wales
- 7 Ikara-Flinders Ranges National Park – South Australia's most iconic national park containing a naturally formed amphitheatre and many fossils dating back from the Ediacaran era
- 8 Purnululu National Park – includes the Bungle Bungle Range, a spectacularly incised landscape of sculptured rocks rising over 250 metres high
- 9 Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park — Uluru (also known as Ayers Rock) and Kata Tjuta (The Olgas) are iconic rock formations in the "Red Centre" in the middle of the Australian outback
but we are many
and from all the lands of Earth we come.
We'll share a dream
and sing with one voice:
I am, you are, we are Australian
—"I am Australian" by The Seekers
|Currency||Australian dollar (AUD)|
|Population||24.5 million (2017)|
|Electricity||230±10 volt / 50 hertz and 240 volt / 50 hertz (AS/NZS 3112)|
|edit on Wikidata|
The sixth largest country in the world by area, Australia has a relatively small (but growing) population of 25 million. A G20 member, it has high living standards and quality of life. It is a significant player in the economic and political spheres of the Indo-Pacific region.
Aboriginal people have been living in Australia for at least 65,000 years. They arrived in successive waves from South and Southeast Asia. With rising sea levels after the last Ice Age, Australia became largely isolated from the rest of the world and the Aboriginal groups developed a variety of cultures, based on a close spiritual relationship with the land and nature, and extended kinship. For thousands of years Australian Aboriginal people maintained a hunter-gatherer culture, or (in some areas) a semi-sedentary culture, in association with a complex artistic and cultural life, including a very rich tradition of story and song.
The modern impression of Australian Aboriginal people is largely built around an image of the "desert people" who have adapted to some of the harshest conditions on the planet (equivalent to the bushmen of the Kalahari), but many others lived in forested and well-watered regions. Australia provided a comfortable living for the bulk of the Aboriginal people among the bountiful flora and fauna on the Australian coast – until the arrival of Europeans.
Although a lucrative Chinese market for shells and bêche de mer (sea cucumber) had encouraged Indonesian fishermen to visit Northern Australia for centuries, it was unknown to Europeans until the 1600s, when Dutch traders to Asia began to "bump" into the northwestern coast. The Makassan contact from Sulawesi also brought many Indonesian cultural elements to the Indigenous people living in Northern Australia, making Islam the first foreign religion brought in – and quite a few rock artworks seen in Arnhem Land and the Kimberley depict many Islamic elements.
Early Dutch impressions of this extremely harsh, dry country were unfavourable, and Australia remained for them somewhat of a marker sign pointing north to the much richer (and more lucrative) East Indies (modern day Indonesia). Deliberate exploration of the Australian coast was then largely taken over by the French and the British. Consequently, place names of bays, headlands and rivers around the coastline reflect a range of Dutch, French, or English names, however many place names are also from Aboriginal languages with places that were previously having Dutch, French, or English names renamed to Indigenous names, or dual named.
In 1770, the expedition of the Endeavour under the command of Captain James Cook navigated and charted the east coast of Australia, making first landfall at Botany Bay on 29 April 1770. Cook continued northwards, and before leaving put ashore on Possession Island in the Torres Strait off Cape York on 22 August 1770. Here he formally claimed the eastern coastline he had explored for the British Crown, naming it New South Wales. Given that Cook's so-called discoveries would lead to the first European settlement of Australia, he is often popularly conceived as its European discoverer, although he had been preceded by more than 160 years by the Dutch.
Following the exploration period, the first British settlement in Australia was founded in 1788 at what is today Sydney, led by Captain Arthur Philip who became the first governor of the colony of New South Wales. The process of colonisation led to conflict with indigenous Australians as well as diseases to which they had no immunity. Their populations declined throughout much (though not all) of the land, and were displaced by the British settlers. Originally comprising the eastern two-thirds of the continent, the colony of New South Wales was later split into several separate colonies. Tasmania (then known as Van Diemen's Land) became a separate colony in 1825, which was followed by South Australia in 1836, New Zealand in 1841, Victoria in 1851 and Queensland in 1859. The western third of the continent was not settled by Europeans until the British established a naval base in Albany, then known as King George Sound in 1826. The Swan River Colony was formally established in 1829 at what is today Perth. The Swan River Colony was renamed "Western Australia" in 1832.
While Australia began its modern history as a British penal colony, the most people who came to Australia after 1788 were free settlers, mainly from Britain and Ireland, and to a less extent other European countries such as France and what is now Germany. Convict settlements were mostly along the east coast, with scattered pockets of convict settlements in Western Australia. The state of South Australia, on the other hand, was settled entirely by free settlers. Many Asian and Eastern European people also came to Australia in the 1850s, during the Gold Rush that started Australia's first resource boom. Although such diverse immigration diminished greatly during the xenophobic years of the White Australia policy, from the Postwar Period Australia welcomed a successive series of immigration from continental Europe, the Mediterranean and later Asia and the rest of the world, becoming a highly diverse and multicultural society by the late 20th century.
The system of separate colonies federated to form the self-governing British dominion of Australia in 1901, each colony now becoming a state of Australia, with New Zealand opting out of the federation. The new country took advantage of its natural resources to rapidly develop its agricultural and manufacturing industries and made a significant contribution (considering its small population) to the Allied war effort in World War I and World War II in Europe as part of the British Commonwealth forces. Australia was directly attacked in the Pacific War. Australian troops also made a valuable, if sometimes controversial, contribution to the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Iraq War and the Afghanistan War. Australian Diggers retain a reputation as some of the hardest fighting troops along with a great social spirit.
Australia and Britain passed the Australia Act in 1986, ending any remnant power the British parliament may have had to pass laws for Australia. Similar to Canada, the British King remains as the head of state with an (Australian) appointed Governor-General as his representative in Australia.
During the second half of the 20th century, there was growth in Aboriginal activism, accompanied by a greater willingness by the general community to acknowledge both the Indigenous cultural heritage (particularly in the visual arts) and the darker side of colonial history. Significant areas of the country have been returned to Indigenous ownership as a result of the land rights movement. In 2008, then-prime minister Kevin Rudd delivered an official apology to the Aboriginal people in Parliament for the atrocities committed against them by the white majority. An Aboriginal ceremony has also been incorporated into Australia's State Opening of Parliament since 2008 as homage to its indigenous heritage.
Does Australia border two oceans, or three?
The number of oceans that Australia borders, is a little bit of an ambiguous one. The Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean boundaries are fairly unambiguous, but the third one, the Southern Ocean is. In most international contexts, the Southern Ocean begins only south of the 60°S point, but in Australia (including in government), the Southern Ocean begins at Australia's southern coastline, but at the 60° everywhere else. On most Australian maps, you will see "Southern Ocean" marked, particularly on South Australian diving maps and so unless otherwise indicated, the Southern Ocean on Wikivoyage's Australian articles follow the Australian context, not the international definition.
The landmass of Australia is both the world's smallest continent and the world's largest island; making up most of Oceania's land area.
The nation of Australia includes the Australian mainland, and some smaller islands (such as Tasmania). It is the world's sixth largest country, with a land area of 7,682,300 km2 (2,966,152 square miles). It is comparable in size to the 48 contiguous United States (which has an area of 7,663,941.7 km2) although it has less than one tenth the population, with the distances between cities and towns easy to underestimate. Australia is bordered to the west by the Indian Ocean, to the south by the Southern Ocean, and to the east by the Pacific Ocean. The Tasman Sea lies to the southeast, separating it from New Zealand, while the Coral Sea lies to the northeast. Papua New Guinea, East Timor and Indonesia are Australia's northern neighbours, all much closer than New Zealand, and are separated from Australia by the Arafura Sea and the Timor Sea with Papua New Guinea only being 4 km (2.5 mi) away from Australia.
Australia is highly urbanised with most of the population heavily concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts. Most of the inland areas of the country are semi-arid. The most populous states are New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland, but the largest in terms of area is Western Australia.
Large parts of Australia have been deforested to make way for agriculture but many native forest areas survive in extensive national parks and other undeveloped areas. Long term environmental concerns in Australia include water management, salinity, pollution, threats to biodiversity from invasive species, and conserving coastal areas, especially the Great Barrier Reef.
As a large country, Australia has a wide variety of climates. Most of the country receives more than 3,000 hours of sunshine a year. Generally, the north is hot and tropical, while the south tends to sub-tropical and temperate. Most rainfall is around the coast, and much of the centre is arid and semi-arid. The daytime maximum temperatures in the tropical city of Darwin rarely drop below 30°C (86°F) even in winter while night temperatures in winter usually hover around 15–20°C (60–70°F). Australian winters tend to be milder than those at similar latitudes in the northern hemisphere and snow falls only occasionally, even in most of New South Wales and Victoria. Temperatures in high-altitude areas of some southern regions can drop below freezing in winter (and sometimes even in the summer) and the Snowy Mountains in the southeast experience metres of winter snow. Parts of Tasmania have a temperature range more similar to Oregon and snowfall is very common in the central and western mountainous parts of the state.
As Australia is in the southern hemisphere the winter is June–August while December–February is summer. The winter is the dry season in the tropics and the summer is the wet. In the southern parts of the country, the seasonal temperature variation is greater. The rainfall is more evenly distributed throughout the year in the southern parts of the East Coast while in the rest of the south beyond the Great Dividing Range, the summers are dry with the bulk of the rainfall occurring in winter.
For those from the Northern Hemisphere, note the implications on cardinal directions: the sun (and stars) move anti-clockwise over here, and it's the northern slopes that get most sun. While this may be confusing any time, during hikes or off-piste activities your intuition may lead you to make critical mistakes. Double check how you are drawing your conclusions.
Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy, with a per capita GDP on par with other advanced economies.
The service industries, including tourism, education, and financial services, account for just over half of the Australian Gross Domestic Product – about 60%. Within the service sector, tourism is one of the most important industries in Australia, as it provides employment, contributes $73 billion to the economy each year and accounts for at least 11% of total exports.
Primary industry - mining and agriculture - has accounted for most of Australia's exports in the 20th and 21st centuries. Iron ore and coal are by far the largest exports, along with wheat, beef and wool. The mining sector is sensitive to global demand for iron ore, with events in the Chinese and Indian economies having direct impacts.
Australia has a comprehensive social security system, and the minimum wage is higher than the United States or the United Kingdom. Manual labourers and tradesmen are well-paid in Australia, often more so than white-collar professionals.
Australia has a federal system of government, with six state and two territory governments, as well as a national government. It also has several external territories in the surrounding oceans, which are given considerable autonomy, and often not fully integrated with the rest of Australia. Laws vary slightly from state to state, but are for the most part fairly uniform.
The national parliament is based on the British Westminster system, with some elements being drawn from the American congressional system. At the federal level it consists of a Senate and a House of Representatives. Each Member of the House of Representatives (colloquially known as a Member of Parliament (MP)) represents an electoral division, with more populous states having more electoral divisions and hence, more MPs. On the other hand, similar to the US Senate, each Australian state has an equal number of senators, with 12 senators being directly elected by the people in each state, and 2 senators each from the Northern Territory and Australian Capital Territory. The Prime Minister is head of the national government, and is the leader of the political party (or coalition of parties) which has the most Members in the House of Representatives.
King Charles III of the United Kingdom is also King of Australia and the head of state, and is represented in Australia at the federal level by the Governor-General. The roles of the King and Governor-General are largely ceremonial, and the Prime Minister wields the most authority in government. A referendum to change Australia to a republic was defeated in 1999, but it failed as the proposal allowed the president to be dismissable by the PM, even though there was general support for a republic Australia. Republicanism in Australia remains a regular conversation point, albeit low on the list of real priorities.
The Cabinet of Australia serves as the executive branch, and is headed by the Prime Minister, who appoints his Cabinet ministers from among the members of both houses of Parliament. The judicial branch is topped by the High Court of Australia, which replaced the UK Privy Council as the highest court of appeal in 1986.
State and territory governments are organised similarly to the national government with a state parliament serving as the legislature, a Premier (Chief Minister in the territories) serving as the head of the state government, and its own judiciary. There is also a Governor for each state serving as the King's representative in a mostly ceremonial role.
The two major political parties in Australia are the Australian Labor Party (ALP or just "Labor") and the Liberal Party (Australian slang: The Libs), which operates in coalition with the National Party (referred to as the "Coalition"). There are smaller parties such as the Greens and teal independents. The centre-left Labor Party spells its name "Labor" instead of "Labour" to differentiate it from other Commonwealth countries that used "Labour Party" but also because of the American labor movement. The Liberal Party is a centre-right conservative party, with the term "liberal" referring to a free market economy. As the word ‘Liberal’ in Australia is associated with the Liberal Party, ‘liberalism’ and ‘liberal politics’ are generally not talked about in Australia like it is in other English-speaking countries.
Australia has a multicultural population practising almost every religion and lifestyle. Over one-quarter of Australians were born outside Australia, and another quarter have at least one foreign-born parent. Virtually every large Australian city and town reflects the immigration from Europe, Asia, the Middle East, Africa and the Pacific that occurred after World War II and continued into the 1970s. In the half century after the war Australia's population boomed from roughly 7 million to just over 20 million people. The cities of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth are culturally very diverse, and home to communities originating from all corners of the globe.
In all major cities you will find a variety of quality of global foods available in many restaurants. Sydney mainly promotes itself as the urban nature capital, Melbourne especially promotes itself as a centre for the arts and culture, while Brisbane promotes itself through various, multicultural urban villages. Adelaide is known for being a centre for festivals, and for German cultural influences, while Perth is known for its food and wine culture, pearls, gems and precious metals, and the international fringe arts festival and finally Hobart mainly promotes itself for the convict history. Smaller rural settlements generally still reflect a majority Anglo-Celtic culture often with a small indigenous population. Most rural centres still welcome visitors and generally have a history and local produce to share.
There are approximately one and a half a million Australians who identify as Aboriginal people who live throughout the country in cities and in rural Aboriginal communities, which is about three percent of the population. Although not particularly obvious to a new visitor, there are many opportunities and cultural activities for people wanting to explore Aboriginal culture.
Contrary to popular mythology, descendants from the original fleets of British convicts are a minority, and even during the years of transportation free settlers outnumbered convict migrants by at least five to one and some places like South Australia officially had zero convicts. Nevertheless, it is seen as a badge of honour for someone to be 'Australian Royalty' in having been descended from a convict, however tenuous that connection may be.
Australians can be more socially conservative than some European cultures, but tend to be relaxed in their religious observance. Modes of address are casual and familiar and most Australians will tend to address you by your first name from first contact, and will expect that you do the same to them.
The national holidays in Australia are:
- 1 January: New Year's Day
- 26 January: Australia Day, marking the anniversary of the First Fleet's landing in Sydney Cove in 1788.
- Easter weekend ("Good Friday", "Easter Saturday", "Easter Sunday" and "Easter Monday"): a four day long weekend in March or April set according to the Western Christian dates. Very few go to church, but instead many Australians travel on Easter weekend, so expect hotel rooms and airtickets to sell out months in advance.
- 25 April: ANZAC Day (Australia and New Zealand Army Corps), honouring military veterans
- Second Monday in June: King's birthday holiday (celebrated in Western Australia in September, with WA observing Western Australia Day a week earlier)
- 25 December: Christmas Day
- 26 December: Boxing Day
Many states observe Labour Day, but on different days. Most states have one or two additional statewide holidays, with Victoria and South Australia having a day off for a horse race (The Melbourne Cup and The Adelaide Cup). Western Australia has Western Australia Day typically the first Monday in June (recognising the founding of the state since 1829) but also celebrates the Queen's Birthday at a different date to the rest of the country, either at the end of September or early October, due to the usual June date is such close proximity to Western Australia Day. Victoria also has a day off for the AFL grand final friday.
When a public holiday falls on a Saturday or Sunday, the following Monday (and Tuesday if necessary) are usually declared holidays in lieu, although the celebrations and the retail closures will occur on the day itself. Most tourist attractions are closed Christmas Day and Good Friday. Supermarkets and other stores may open for limited hours on some public holidays and on holidays in lieu, but are almost always closed on Christmas Day (25 December), Good Friday, Easter Sunday and ANZAC Day morning.
Other than official holidays, there are also days of national or regional cultural significance that might as well be holidays such as:
- AFL Grand Final: The championship game of the Australian Football League, and the most watched event perennially on the Australia sporting calendar. Expects all pubs to be packed full of people watching the game, while many people will hold big watching parties in their homes. Held on the last Saturday of September or first Saturday of October.
- NRL Grand Final: The championship game of the National Rugby League. Particularly popular in Queensland and New South Wales. Usually held on the last Sunday of September or first Sunday of October.
Peak holiday times
Most attractions in Australia remain open year-round, some operating at a reduced frequency or shorter hours during the off-peak season. Many attractions (but not all) are closed on Christmas and New Year's day.
Summer school holidays start before Christmas and last the whole of January, and it is considered the busiest and most expensive time to visit (unless you're visiting Northern Australia). Holiday homes on beaches are often booked out months in advance as well as charging a significant premium. The long Easter weekend can also be busy as parents take their kids out for a last time before Winter arrives.
Australian teenagers celebrate the end of school at the end of November and early December for the 3 weeks known as schoolies. The volume of teen revellers can completely change the nature of some of the cities and towns they choose to visit, especially coastal towns like Byron Bay in New South Wales, the Gold Coast in Queensland, Rottnest Island in Western Australia, and various localities along the Mornington Peninsula in Victoria.
Australia can have up to seven different time zones during the daylight savings period, and five at other times. Time zone boundaries do not always follow state boundaries. For instance, the towns of Broken Hill and Silverton, although in New South Wales, follows South Australia time, Lord Howe Island has its own time zone despite being a part of New South Wales and a number of outback communities officially follow NT time.
In the east, Tasmania, New South Wales and Victoria always have the same time. Queensland doesn't observe daylight saving, so it is an hour behind the other eastern states during that period.
In the centre, Broken Hill and Silverton (NSW), South Australia and the Northern Territory are half an hour behind during the winter, but the Northern Territory doesn't observe daylight saving while South Australia, Broken Hill and Silverton do. During daylight saving South Australia remains half an hour behind New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania, but moves half an hour ahead of Queensland. The Northern Territory remains half an hour behind Queensland at all times of they year, but moves an hour and a half behind New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania during daylight savings.
In the west, Western Australia is two hours behind the eastern states in winter, and also doesn't observe daylight saving. It moves three hours behind the eastern states that observe daylight saving (remaining two hours behind Queensland), 2.5 hours behind South Australia, Broken Hill and Silverton while remaining 1.5 hours behind the Northern Territory.
There is also the unusual +8:45 time zone, also known as Australian Central West Standard Time (ACWST or CWST) followed in some towns near the South Australian/Western Australian border. While not an official time used, it's generally the time used, and not the time zone used in either the rest of WA nor SA. There are even highway signs telling you to change your clocks, and Apple has a separate region (which can be found under "Eucla"). What makes this case even more confusing, is that the only South Australian town in the CWST zone; Border Village, meaning it would follow daylight savings, follows +9:45, one hour ahead of Eucla, and 45 minutes behind the rest of SA. On the contrary, the chances of being impacted on Border Village is next to zero given that all commercial activity is on the WA side in the town of Eucla which follows UTC+8:45.
Although the chances of a traveller going to the extremely remote Outback WA towns of Blackstone, Irrunytju, Warakurna, Wanarn, Kiwirrkurra, and Tjukurla are very low, whilst all of these towns are in WA, they follow ACST (NT time), 1.5 hours ahead of the rest of WA, and since the NT does not follow DST, these remote towns also don't follow DST.
There are no official abbreviations or names for Australian time zones, and you may see a few variations used. EST, CST, WST along with EDT, CDT are sometimes used. Sometimes AEST, etc., with the 'A' prefix distinguishing them from the North American time zones with the same names.
In those states which observe daylight saving, it commences on the first Sunday in October and ends on the first Sunday in April.
|State/Territory||Standard Time||Daylight Saving Time|
|Heard Island and McDonald Islands||UTC+5||N/A|
|Cocos (Keeling) Islands||UTC+6.5||N/A|
|Eucla, Cocklebiddy, Madura, Mundrabilla||UTC+8.45||N/A|
|Border Village, SA||UTC+8.45||UTC+9.45|
|South Australia, Broken Hill and Silverton||UTC+9.5||UTC+10.5|
|Northern Territory, Blackstone, Irrunytju, Warakurna, Wanarn, Kiwirrkurra, and Tjukurla||UTC+9.5||N/A|
|New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, the ACT and Jervis Bay Territory||UTC+10||UTC+11|
|Lord Howe Island||UTC+10.5||UTC+11|
The mains supply voltage standard is 230 V with a type I plug (angled live/neutral pins with a straight earth). Popularly referred to as a "two-forty volt socket". Hotel bathrooms will often have a type C and A socket marked "for shavers only" that will down-convert to 110 V for a North American style socket for shavers. Voltage is compatible with Europe and you'll just need a conversion plug that can be obtained from supermarkets and convenience stores (as well as the airport). From North America or other 110 V countries, check your appliance for voltage tolerances before using a conversion plug.
Topics in Australia
- See also: English language varieties
Although Australian English is both heavily influenced by both American and British English, Australia also has its own set of terminology. Unlike Australian slang, these are also used in formal conversations, on the TV and even in government. Most of these are also used in neighbouring Papua New Guinea, and for those in neighbouring New Zealand or Singapore, some of these will be familiar, but they generally are unheard of in the U.S., the UK, Canada or any other English speaking country outside Oceania or Southeast Asia.
The English language is universally spoken and understood in Australia. Australian English as generally spoken is distinctive in accent and idiom. It mostly developed from the speech of the United Kingdom and Ireland in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, however, the 20th century brought a lot of American influence, giving Australia its own unique variety of English.
Nevertheless, as Australia is a global melting pot, particularly in the major cities, you will encounter cultures and hear languages from all around the world, and you will often find areas and suburbs that predominately reflect the language of their respective immigrant communities. Foreign languages are taught at school, but students rarely progress past the basics.
Australia follows mostly British spelling and an eclectic mix of American and British terminology, such as eggplant (not aubergine), boot (not trunk), toll-free (not freephone), take-away (not takeout) and truck (not lorry). American terminology is understood everywhere, while British terminology isn't well understood apart from South Australia and the elderly. In all that, some terminology is uniquely Australian, and is unlikely to be heard anywhere else, except maybe in neighbouring New Zealand, Singapore or Papua New Guinea.
In a culinary context, "chips" refers to both the British and American senses of the word in Australia, which can be confusing for visitors. Australians typically infer the meaning from context. So what would be called "crisps" in the UK is called "chips" in Australia, while what would be called "fries" in the U.S. is called "hot chips" in Australia, but usually shortened to "chips". However, "fries" is used in American fast food chains, and is beginning to see some use outside of that.
Some words also have different meanings in Australia. For example, thongs in Australia would refer to flip-flops, not underwear or the term dual carriageway would just mean there needs to be two lanes in each way, regardless of whether it's divided or not while divided highway can be a divided single lane highway. The same applies for opposites as well.
People in rural areas may have a broader accent, using some of the slang words that have become outmoded in metropolitan areas, while highly educated urban dwellers sometimes use a cultivated accent similar to that of their British equivalents. Australian slang should not present a problem for tourists except possibly in some isolated outback areas. Australians understand different varieties of English, and you may look foolish in your attempts at the local slang.
There is little regional variation in Australian English, although accents tend to be broader outside of the large cities, and the pronunciation of certain words like "dance" and "renaissance" varies between regions. Most regional differences come down to word usage. For example, swimming clothes are known as cossies or swimmers in New South Wales, togs in Queensland, and bathers elsewhere. Many indigenous communities around Australia and the Torres Strait Islands speak English as a second language.
It is rare to find signs in a second language, except in urban areas with a high population of Asian immigrants and students, where signs and restaurant menus in Vietnamese and Chinese are a common sight; and also around Cairns and the Gold Coast in Queensland where some signs (but not road signs) are written in Japanese or Chinese, due to the large number of tourists. Some warning signs at beaches are written in several foreign languages.
Visitors who do not speak basic English will find communicating with Australians difficult, and should do some advance planning. Some tour companies specialise in offering package deals for Australian tours complete with language guides, but mostly in Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, German, Italian, French, Indonesian and Korean. Some tours also give tours in Spanish, Malay and Portuguese, although this isn't as common. Only a very small minority of tours give tours in Hindi, Arabic and Swahili, and finding one of these is once in a blue moon.
Fewer than 150 indigenous languages are still in daily use, spoken day to day by as little as 42,300 people, particularly those living in rural outback communities, and those in the Torres Strait Islands. There are initiatives to revive the languages within Australia's large Aboriginal community, however given the significant differences between the languages (many can't be proven to relate to one another) that continues to prove a challenge. Learning an Aboriginal language will be useful only in specific local areas. Almost all Indigenous Australians speak English as well, although residents of some remote communities may not be fluent in the language. On top of the Aboriginal languages spoken, various creole-based languages are spoken such as Australian Kriol or Torres Strait Creole.
The standard sign language is Auslan (standing for Australian Sign Language). When a sign interpreter is present for a public event, he or she will use Auslan. Users of British and New Zealand Sign Languages will be able to understand much, though not all, of the language. Auslan and NZSL are largely derived from BSL, and all three languages use the same two-handed manual alphabet. Users of sign languages that have different origins (such as the French Sign Language family, which also includes American and Irish Sign Languages) will not be able to understand Auslan.
Special Category Visa
eVisitor or Electronic Travel Authority
Electronic Travel Authority
All visitors - apart from citizens of New Zealand - require a visa in advance of travel.
If you are visiting for a holiday of less than 90 days, there are three types of visas you may apply for, depending on your nationality.
- Electronic Travel Authority (ETA) subclass 601 is available online to nationals of Brunei, Canada, Hong Kong (SAR or BN(O)), Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea (ROK) and the United States. In addition, citizens of Taiwan are also eligible for an ETA, but must apply through an approved Taiwanese travel agent, or by email through the relevant Australian diplomatic mission if living abroad. A service fee of $20 applies. This fee can sometimes be avoided if you obtain your ETA through a travel agent when booking your travel with them. Some online agents may also sell ETAs.
- eVisitor (subclass 651) for citizens of the European Union, Norway, Iceland, Switzerland, the United Kingdom (British Citizens only, other types of British nationality not eligible) and a few European microstates. These visas are free, but otherwise effectively identical to the ETA. You must apply online.
- Visitor Visa (subclass 600). Passport holders of 55 countries, including all the ETA and eVisitor eligible countries and Argentina, Bahrain, Brazil, Chile, Kuwait, Maldives, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the UAE can make applications online. Other nationalities must apply using the paper form, and may need to visit an embassy or visa processing centre.
- Like the ETA and eVisitor, a Visitor 600 is by default issued for a three month stay. Unlike the other options however, a 600 visa can be issued for a longer stay of up to one year. For more than a three month stay, you will likely be asked for supporting documentation about the reason for your visit and your ties to your country of origin and may need to attend an interview. Depending on your nationality, the embassy or visa processing centre may also require you to have an Australian sponsor before issuing the visa. The fee is $140. ETAs and eVisitors are valid for multiple entries within a 12-month period. If you're eligible for either, it may be easier to stay the three months you're allowed, go to New Zealand, Singapore, Thailand or some other country reachable by a low cost airline for a few days and come back - restarting the 90-day clock. Doing this more than once, however, may cause immigration authorities to become suspicious, so proceed with caution if you pursue this route.
- There is a special arrangement for parents of Australians, including Australian permanent residents. The 600 visa can be valid for 18 months, three years, or five years and allow a maximum stay of 12 months during an 18-month period, depending on the circumstances.
In most cases, ETAs and eVisitors are approved instantly and the visa will be issued and available for use immediately. If further enquiries are needed you may be asked to return to the application system later to see if you've been approved. Over 90% are processed the same day. In the worst-case scenario your application can be diverted for manual checks that can take months. if you have a complex national history, or any criminal record (including minor offences) you should allow plenty of time for the application.
If you are visiting Australia to work, study or for medical treatment, check to make sure you have the right kind of visa, as a tourist visa may not be sufficient. Breaching the conditions or planning to breach the conditions of your visa will result in visa cancellation, deportation, and/or a period of exclusion.
For all tourist visa classes you must be able to demonstrate your ability to support yourself financially for the time you intend to spend in Australia and meet character requirements. If you have a criminal conviction, contact an Australian Embassy or visa processing centre before applying or making travel arrangements.
New Zealand citizens may travel to Australia without a pre-arranged visa. When they arrive, they will be automatically granted a Special Category New Zealand Citizen visa (subclass 444) if they have no criminal conviction or tuberculosis. This visa allows them to travel, live, work and study in Australia for as long as they like. New Zealand citizens with criminal convictions or tuberculosis may be denied this visa and should seek advice from an Australian diplomatic mission before travel. Non-citizen permanent residents of New Zealand are not eligible for this visa and should apply for a visa based on the passport they hold.
Inorganic powder limitation
Passengers on transit through Australia are prohibited to carry more than 350 ml or 350 grams of inorganic powder into aircraft's cabins.
If you are transiting through Australia, remain airside for a maximum of 8 hours, have a confirmed onward booking, have the correct entry documentation for the onward destination and are a citizen of New Zealand, the European Union, Andorra, Argentina, Brunei, Canada, Cyprus, the Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Iceland, Indonesia, Japan, Kiribati, Liechtenstein, Malaysia, Mexico, Monaco, Nauru, Norway, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, South Africa, the Republic of Marshall Islands, Samoa, San Marino, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Korea (ROK), Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Tonga, Tuvalu, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom (regardless of nationality status), the United States, Vanuatu or Vatican City, you do not need to apply for any advance visa. All other passengers who transit through Australia must apply for a free-of-charge Transit Visa (subclass 771) before travel.
At selected airports, visitors who are citizens of Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, Singapore, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States may make use of the SmartGate for automated immigration clearance when entering Australia. Being able to use SmartGate does not exempt you from visa requirements. Australia no longer stamps passports or issues visa stickers; all visas, entries and exits are recorded electronically.
Customs and quarantine
Australia has strict quarantine requirements regarding importing animal and plant derived products (any food, wooden products, seeds, etc.) You must declare all such material, even if the items are permitted. Baggage is frequently scanned and may be examined by dogs. You may be fined $220 on-the-spot if you accidentally fail to declare, or even prosecuted in serious cases. Declared material will be examined and, depending on the circumstances, may be retained, disposed of, returned to you, or treated by quarantine at your expense. (You may have to pick the item up at a later time.) Processed and sealed chocolates and other confectionery are usually permitted after being declared and examined, as are reasonable quantities of infant formula with an accompanying infant. Different rules apply depending on the origin country of foods, and the state in which you are entering Australia. Check with the Department of Agriculture and Water Resources for more details.
Travellers who are 18 years old or older are allowed to bring up to 2.25 litres of alcoholic beverages and up to 25 cigarettes or 25 grams of other tobacco products (including cigars) into Australia duty-free. These items may not be imported by anybody under the age of 18, and travellers who exceed their duty free allowance are liable to tax on all goods of that category, not just the amount in excess of the limit.
Some shells, coral and items made from a protected species are also prohibited to discourage the trade in items that may originate from a threatened ecosystem or species.
While there are no restrictions on the amount of money that can be brought in or out, Australian customs also requires you to declare if you are travelling with $10,000 or more (AUD or its equivalent in foreign currency) and you will be asked to complete some paperwork. Not declaring may expose you to a fine, possible seizure of the cash, or in the worst case even arrest.
Australia is a long way from anywhere else in the world, so for most visitors the only practical way of getting into Australia is by air.
Australia's major points of entry, in decreasing order of importance, are the airports in Sydney (SYD IATA), Melbourne (MEL IATA), Brisbane (BNE IATA) and Perth (PER IATA). There are also limited international services into Adelaide, Cairns, Canberra, Darwin and the Gold Coast.
Sydney is a 3-hour flight from Auckland, New Zealand, a 7-11 hour flight from many countries in Asia, a 14-hour flight from the west of the United States and Canada, a 14-hour flight from Johannesburg, a 13-16 hour flight from South America, and up to a 24-hour flight from western Europe (including a stopover). On account of long journey times from some destinations, most travellers from Europe must have a stop-over, commonly in Singapore, Hong Kong, Dubai, Doha, Bangkok or Kuala Lumpur. Since March 2018, Qantas operates a nonstop flight from London Heathrow to Perth taking "only" 17 hours — the first ever regular nonstop route between Europe and Australia. Qantas also has plans to introduce more ambitious non-stop routes from Sydney to London and New York later.
If you have to change to a domestic flight in a gateway city, Sydney, Brisbane and Perth all have separate domestic terminals, requiring some time and complexity to transit: check the guides. Melbourne, Adelaide, Darwin, Cairns and the Gold Coast all have gates in the one terminal building or within easy walking distance of each other.
Australia's largest airline is Qantas, which together with its low-cost subsidiary Jetstar operate many flights into Australia. Virgin Australia flies several routes from south-east Asia and the Pacific islands into Australia. For those coming from Europe, Singapore Airlines and Hong Kong's Cathay Pacific make good alternatives to Qantas, British Airways or the Gulf airlines for flights into Australia. Some routes into Australia are operated by discount airlines such as AirAsia X, AirAsia Indonesia, Scoot and Jetstar Airways. As of 2022, several additional airlines in partnership with Australian carriers have started operating services to Australia. These include Air Canada & United Airlines.
Private aviation companies such as Australia Jet Charter and JetCorpAustralia offer direct private flights year-round using a variety of aircraft. Popular airports for charter jets include Sydney Bankstown Airport, Gold Coast Airport, and Melbourne Essendon Airport.
Cruise ships are available mostly in the November to February cruising season, and there are usually about 10 ships that arrive in Australia from other countries during this time. You can cruise to Australia, and then fly home. Holland America Line, Princess Cruises and Royal Caribbean all offer cruises to Australia across the Pacific.
You may sail to Australia in your own yacht, just make sure you submit the right paperwork to Border Force, and arrive at an approved port of entry.
There are no international ferry services operating.
By overland transport
There was a time when a couple of tour operators offered overland trips from London to Sydney, with only a short hop by air from Southeast Asia to Northwestern Australia while the bus went by barge. The only such tour operator is Madventure which runs 4 different routes: 26 weeks through Iran, Pakistan, and India; 26 weeks through the Caucasus & Central Asia; 64 weeks around Africa, the Middle East, & South Asia; and 64 weeks through Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus, & Central Asia.
For those determined to travel overland as much as possible from Europe, you can travel independently to Singapore from Europe by train and/or bus on scheduled services, and fly from there to Perth (3,500 flight kilometres). For the truly determined overland traveller, you can get a ferry from Singapore to Indonesia and make your way across to Bali, where you can fly to Darwin (2,000 flight kilometres). For the intrepid, ferries to West Timor, a bus to Dili and a flight to Darwin will mean only 700 km in the air.
Travel to Darwin by cargo ship/ barge by ANL and Swire (the only two routine cargo haulers between Dili and Darwin) is not permitted (June 2016). For determined travellers, you may be able to obtain passage from Singapore by freighter vessel, organized through a travel agent.
Australia is huge but sparsely populated over much of its area and is larger than the contiguous US, and you can sometimes travel many hours before finding the next trace of civilization, especially once you leave the south-eastern coastal fringe. Its mainland is the sixth largest country by area, which means that it will take you a few days (around 6) to fully appreciate just ten percent of a state or territory.
Almost all modern Australian maps, including street directories, use the Geocentric Datum of Australia (GDA) as their grid reference, which is for all purposes identical to the WGS84 used by the GPS. You can locate most things on an Australian map or street directory if you just have the "GPS coordinates".
There are restrictions on carrying fruit and vegetables (including honey) between states and even between regions of states that are involved in fruit growing. If you are driving over 100-150 km outside large metropolitan areas or interstate, or flying between states, don't stock up on fruits and vegetables.
- See also: Driving in Australia
Australia has a generally well-maintained system of roads and highways, and cars are a commonly used method of transport. All the mainland state capitals are linked to each other by good undivided highways. Some parts are divided highways but many sections are one lane each way with occasional overtaking lanes around every 5-20 km depending on the state. Roads linking minor centres (or what can look like short-cuts on the map) can be narrow or gravel roads and are generally slower.
In general, unlike Europe, South Africa or the US, there are no freeways connecting major centres, and divided dual carriageways that link major centres don't go for very long, and you could get roundabouts or traffic lights at random areas with only 1 km notice. While Sydney to Melbourne can be fully achieved on divided dual carriageways, however, particularly in the NSW section, there are plenty of flat junctions. Sydney to Brisbane can also be achieved on 99% divided dual carriageways/motorways, with plans to build the remaining one percent as a freeway (expected to be completed by 2027), but the remaining section traverses through the busy centres of Heatherbrae and Coffs Harbour. Other routes like Melbourne to Adelaide are only partial divided freeways (approximately 250 km/750 km – about a third of the route), but yet there's still towns to be bypassed, and there is only a very short freeway/dual carriageway section in South Australia.
Drives like Sydney to Perth or Adelaide to Darwin would be much better off achieved by a plane, and journeying here often takes around half a week, and these are routes that Australians themselves only do about once or twice in their lifetime. Distances are huge, and if you put it onto a European perspective: is the distance between Madrid and Moscow, and on a North American perspective, the distance from Miami to Los Angeles.
Major hazards on Australian roads are wildlife and large trucks. Be sure to take extra care when driving at dusk or in the dark, as the risk of animal collisions increases significantly. Major regional areas have paved (sealed) dual-lane roads, but isolated areas may have poorly maintained dirt roads or even tracks. Distances and speeds are specified in kilometres and fuel is sold by the litre. There are no tolls on roads or bridges outside of the urban areas of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane or Toowoomba. While public transport is usable in the cities of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth, a car is handy, sometimes even essential, to get around anywhere else.
Australia drives on the left. Overseas visitors who are used to driving on the right should take care when they first drive, and again when they are driving on country roads with little traffic.
Generally, overseas licenses are valid for driving in Australia for three months after arrival. If the licence is not in English, an International Driving Permit (IDP) is required in addition to your licence. Licensing regulations and road rules vary slightly from state to state.
Australia's low population density and large size makes for long driving times between major centres.
The default speed limit in most of Australia is 50 km/h in built-up areas, and 100 km/h on rural roads, unless signed otherwise except in the NT where urban defaults are 60 km/h, and in WA and the NT, rural defaults are 110 km/h. Many major rural roads have a posted speed limit of 110 km/h especially in the Outback. Average speed is seldom above 80 km/h due to the poor road conditions and limited overtaking opportunities. On some national highways that traverse mountain ranges and travel through small towns, even averaging 60 km/h can be a challenge. Speed limits are strictly enforced in Australia, and even creeping ever so slightly above the speed limit could earn you a ticket with a hefty fine.
While major highways are well serviced, anyone leaving well-maintained roads in inland Australia should take advice from local authorities, check weather and road conditions, and carry sufficient spare fuel, spare parts, spare tyres, matches, food and water. Some remote roads might see one car per month or less.
Cellular coverage is non-existent outside of national highways and towns and you should take some precautions in case of emergency.
Heat and dehydration at any time of year can kill you. If stranded, stay with your vehicle and do what you can to improve your visibility from the air. Do not take this advice lightly; even local people die out there when their car breaks down and they are not reported missing. If you do have to abandon your car (say you break down and then get a lift), call in quickly to the local police station, to avoid the embarrassment and cost of a search being started for you.
Major cities around Australia have multiple outlets providing a wide range of rental vehicles from major international rental companies. Several major international providers with bases in Austraia include Enterprise, Alamo[dead link], National[dead link], Avis, Budget, Hertz, Thrifty, Sixt & Europcar.
In smaller towns car rental can be difficult to find. One-way fees often apply from smaller regional outlets.
Australia also hosts many national brands including Redspot, East Coast, Jucy & Nobirds. Smaller cars you can rent can be manual (stick-shift), whereas anything larger will mostly be automatic.
If you do not hold an Australian driving licence, some rental vehicle companies will require you to take a free driver knowledge test, aimed at tourists, that covers the basic road rules, or will take you on a short drive to assess whether you are competent behind the wheel.
A campervan is a vehicle, usually a minivan, converted into a motorhome (recreational vehicle), most often catering to the vast number of young European and American backpackers traversing the country. The East Coast from Sydney to Cairns is especially abundant with happy, hungover youths travelling around in these vehicles. Driving in Australia has more information on renting or buying a campervan.
Larger towns and cities have taxi services, and can be hailed on the street in most CBDs. Uber, Didi and Ola Cabs are available in major cities. There are several smartphone taxi booking applications such as myDriver, GoCatch that make finding a licensed taxi simple.
Outside of cities, towns may have a limited taxi service, and smaller or remote towns may have no service at all.
When travelling alone, it is customary for a passenger to sit in the front passenger seat, next to the driver. However, if you prefer to sit in the back then it isn't a problem.
Due to the large distances involved, flying is a well-patronised form of travel in Australia. Services along the main business travel corridor (Melbourne-Sydney-Brisbane) are run almost like a bus service, with flights leaving every 15 minutes during the day.
The best fares are almost always available on the most competitive routes, whereas routes to remote destinations with fewer flights tend to be more expensive. Qantas actually do often offer competitive prices, so don't ignore that option just because they are the national carrier. There are only a handful of main airlines in Australia, so it won't take long to compare their prices on domestic routes:
- Qantas, the full-service national carrier, flying to major cities and some larger regional towns;
- Virgin Australia, a nationwide full-service airline, flying to major cities and a few larger regional towns;
- Jetstar[dead link], Qantas's discount arm with limited service and assigned seating.
Several airlines service regional destinations. Expect discounts on these airlines to be harder to come by, and for standard airfares to be above what you would pay for the same distance between major centres.
- Qantaslink, the regional arm of Qantas, covering the smaller cities in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and Western Australia;
- Regional Express, covering larger towns & cities on the eastern seaboard and in country South Australia;
- Skywest[dead link], covering regional Western Australia, Bali and Darwin;
- Airnorth, covering the Northern Territory;
- Skytrans Airlines, covering regional Queensland.
- Sharp Airlines, covering several regional towns in Victoria and South Australia.
- See also: General aviation
Scheduled aviation only flies to a handful of the thousands of airports around Australia. There are numerous options to charter aircraft that may take you direct to smaller country towns or even offshore islands. The costs can be comparable to scheduled airlines if there are 3 or more people flying in a group. The Australian Private Pilots Licence permits private pilots to carry passengers and to recover the cost of the plane hire and fuel from passengers, but not to advertise for passengers or fly commercially. That said, if you check the web pages of local flying clubs, there are always private pilots willing to fly on a fine weekend if someone is willing to put in for the cost of the plane and fuel.
Visitors from areas with well-developed long distance rail systems such as Europe and Japan may be surprised by the lack of high-speed, inter-city rail services in Australia. A historical lack of cooperation between the states, combined with sheer distances and a relatively small population to service, have left Australia with a national rail network that is relatively slow and used mainly for freight. Nevertheless, train travel between cities can be very scenic and present opportunities to see new aspects of the country, and can be a cost-effective way to get to regional towns and cities, which tend to have more expensive flights than those between the state capitals.
The long-distance rail services that do exist are mainly used to link regional townships with the state capital, such as Bendigo to Melbourne, or Cairns to Brisbane. In Queensland, a tilting train operates from Brisbane to Rockhampton and Brisbane to Cairns (Spirit of Queensland). Queensland also has passenger services to inland centres including Longreach (The Spirit of the Outback), Mount Isa (The Inlander), Charleville (The Westlander) and Forsayth (The Savannahlander). There are also inter-city train services operated by Journey Beyond on the Melbourne-Adelaide (The Overland), Sydney-Adelaide-Perth (Indian Pacific) and Adelaide-Alice Springs-Darwin (The Ghan). However, these are not "high-speed" services and actually cost more than flying, so if you do not enjoy train travel as part of your holiday then this is probably not for you.
Tasmania has no passenger rail services. The Northern Territory has the rail line linking Darwin to Adelaide through Alice Springs only, and the Australian Capital Territory has a single railway station close to the centre of Canberra.
Long distance train operators
There is no centralised ticketing service covering all the long-distance railway operators in Australia, and you will need to buy separate tickets from each operator if your journey involves multiple operators.
- Great Southern Railways - A private train operator running luxury tourist train services; The Ghan between Adelaide and Darwin via Alice Springs, The Indian Pacific between Sydney and Perth via Broken Hill, Adelaide and Kalgoorlie, and The Overland between Adelaide and Melbourne.
- NSW Trainlink Regional - Links Sydney to Melbourne, Brisbane and Canberra, and regional connections to most New South Wales towns, including Dubbo, Coffs Harbour, and Wagga Wagga.
- V/Line - Train & coach services in Victoria, including combined Train and Coach services between Melbourne and Adelaide, Melbourne and Canberra.
- Queensland Rail - Long distance passenger train services in Queensland, including its flagship Spirit of Queensland service between Brisbane and Cairns.
- The Savannahlander - A privately-run train service that links Cairns with the outback town of Forsayth, using old heritage trains, and providing overnight accommodation and tours on the way.
- Transwa - State government run, operating train services to Kalgoorlie and Bunbury. Transwa also operates coach services to much of the state where former rail services operated in the past, especially the southwest of the state.
No rail pass includes all train travel throughout Australia. However, if you are a train buff that intends travelling extensively by rail, there are some passes that may save you money. Plan your trip carefully before investing in a rail pass. Country train services are infrequent and can arrive at regional destinations at unsociable hours.
- Discovery Pass. Use any NSW Trainlink services (trains and coaches). Get anywhere in NSW, and north to Brisbane and south to Melbourne.
- Queensland Rail Coastal Pass and Queensland Rail Explorer Pass.
Local public transport
Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Wollongong and Newcastle have commuter rail and bus services integrated into the city public transport, with trams also running in Melbourne, Adelaide, Sydney, Newcastle, Canberra, and the Gold Coast, and ferries in Sydney, Brisbane and Perth. Sydney is home to Australia's sole Metro line. The remaining capital cities have bus services only. See those city guides articles for public transport details.
Some regional cities and towns have local bus services, but see the destination guides for service information, as frequency can be poor and weekend and evening services non-existent.
Australia had a tradition of motorail, allowing you to carry carry your car with you on special car carriages attached to the back of the train. This service is now only available on Great Southern Railways between Adelaide, Perth, and Darwin. You cannot remove your car at any of the intermediate stations.
Bus travel in Australia is cheap and convenient, although the distances involved for interstate connections are daunting. Greyhound has the largest bus route network. There are no bus services from the other capital cities to Perth.
- Firefly Express, ☏ 1300 730 740 (local rate), (international callers), [email protected]. Firefly Express has services connecting Adelaide, Melbourne and Sydney.
- Greyhound, ☏ 1300 473 946 (local rate), [email protected]. Greyhound travels to over 1100 destinations in Australia daily every day of the year. It has a variety of ticketing options allow you to travel at your own pace, hopping on and off as many times as your ticket allows.
- Murrays, ☏ , [email protected]. Murrays has services connecting Canberra with Sydney, the NSW South Coast and snowfields.
Sydney, Brisbane, and Perth have ferries as part of their public transport system. Some smaller roads in the regional areas still have punts to carry cars across rivers and canals. The islands of the Barrier Reef have some scheduled services, and there are a few cruises that cross the top of Australia as well.
However, large inter city ferry services are not common.
- The Spirit of Tasmania. The only long distance ferry route connects Tasmania to the mainland and carries cars and passengers on the route across Bass Strait daily between Geelong and Devonport.
- Sealink connects Kangaroo Island, Australia's second largest southern island to Cape Jervis in mainland South Australia with regular car ferries.
- Spencer Gulf Searoad (SeaSA) offers an short cut across the Spencer Gulf between Wallaroo on the Yorke Peninsula and the Lucky Bay near Cowell or Franklin Harbor on the Eyre Peninsula. The service has been suspended frequently, but is operating as of October 2022.
It is legal to hitch hike in some states in Australia, so long as certain guidelines are followed. However, it is less commonly done than in neighbouring New Zealand. In Australia hitch hiking is often frowned upon by locals and police, especially in metropolitan areas.
Hitch hiking is illegal in Victoria and Queensland. It is also illegal to stand on the verge or walk along freeways (often called "motorways" in New South Wales and Queensland) in all states (effectively making hitch hiking illegal in many practical places, in all states).
If forced to hitch hike due to an emergency you may find a motorist willing to take you to the nearest town to obtain help. (Many major inter-city highways and freeways have emergency telephone units to request help.)
It is common to see a tourist hitching in rural areas. The best time to hitch hike is early morning. The best location is near, but not on, the main exit from the town you are in.
Cycling the long distances between towns in Australia is not common, and most long distance highways in Australia have poorly developed facilities for cyclists. for example, to cycle between Sydney and Brisbane you would have to allow 2–3 weeks with around 80–100 km per day.
Intrepid travellers do manage to cover the longer distances by bicycle, and have a different experience of Australia. Long distance cyclists can be encountered on the Nullarbor and other isolated highways.
In some states, former railway lines have been changed into rail trails. Rail Trail Australia website has good material of routes off the main highways, with the Murray to the Mountains Train being the best quality trail with the most to see and do along the route. In Western Australia long distance cycle trails have been developed for mountain bikers. The Munda Biddi trail is many days through bushland, with huts provided for camping along the route.
Wherever you cycle - if you leave the urban sprawl of the capital cities, plan carefully and carry supplies.
- Main article: Hiking and bushwalking in Australia
Walking through some parts of Australia is the only way to experience some particular landscapes. In Tasmania the Central Highland Overland Track and the South Coast Track are good examples of walking/hiking holiday to do items. The Bicentennial National Trail is one of the longest trails in the world, stretching from Cooktown in Northern Queensland, to Healesville in Victoria.
- See also: Australasian wildlife
Australian flora and fauna is unique to the island continent, the result of having been isolated from the rest of the world for millions of years. Amongst Australian animals are a large group of marsupials (mammals with a pouch) and monotremes (mammals that lay eggs). Just some of the animal icons of Australia are the kangaroo (national symbol) and the koala. A visit to Australia would not be complete without taking the chance to see some of these animals in their natural environment.
Wildlife parks and zoos
- Wildlife parks and zoos are in every state capital city, but also check out the animal parks if you are passing through smaller towns, like Mildura or Mogo, or staying on Hamilton Island. See the Warrawong Fauna Sanctuary if you are in South Australia, or visit the koalas with best view in the world, at Taronga Zoo in Sydney.
In the wild
- Kangaroos and wallabies are in national parks all around Australia. You won't see any kangaroos hopping down the street in Central Sydney, but they're common on the outskirts of most urban areas.
- Wombats and echidnas are also common, but harder to find due to their camouflage and tunnelling. See lots of echidnas on Kangaroo Island.
- Koalas are present in forests around Australia, but are notoriously very hard to spot, and walking around looking upwards into the boughs of trees will usually send you sprawling over a tree root. Best seen during the day, there is a thriving and friendly population on Raymond Island near Paynesville in Victoria. You have a good chance on Otway Coast, on the Great Ocean Road, or even in the National Park walk near Noosa on the Sunshine Coast.
- Emus are more common in central Australia. You will certainly see some if you venture into the outback national park at Currawinya
- Platypus are found in reedy, flowing creeks with soft river banks in Victoria, Southern New South Wales, and the very southern region of Queensland - seen at dusk and dawn - you have to have a bit of luck to see one. Try the platypus reserves in Bombala or Delegate in New South Wales, or in Emu Creek at Skipton just out of Ballarat.
Much of Australia's modern history was as a penal colony for convicts from the United Kingdom, and there are many historical sites that still stand as a reminder of the days of convict transportation. Perhaps the most famous of these sites are Port Arthur in Tasmania and Fremantle Prison in Fremantle, located near Perth, Western Australia. There are also many other sites scattered throughout the country.
Australia has many landmarks, famous the world over. From Uluru in the red centre, to the Sydney Harbour Bridge and Opera House in Sydney.
Small Australian towns have a tradition of making big sculptures as landmarks. See Big things in Australia.
Australia has thousands of heritage-registered sites, with 20 UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Perhaps the best of what can be found in the natural side of Australia is best found in its national parks. Australia has more than 500 or so national parks, which makes Australia the country having the most number of national parks in the world. Although that number can make it somewhat hard to pick, there are some particular national parks in particular that stand out to travelers more than others. Some national parks (including Australia's largest) are located in very remote areas with no roads leading there, and the only way to access them is off-road driving in a four-wheel drive; be sure to make ample preparations and stock up on food, water and fuel before you attempt to visit one of these, and it is highly recommended that you rent a satellite phone despite the high cost in case of emergencies. Queensland, Western Australia and South Australia are also home to conservation parks, which are also protected areas of outstanding natural beauty, but not considered to be of enough national significance to be declared national parks.
In New South Wales, a trip is never complete without going to Blue Mountains National Park, just west of Sydney and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, home to several indigenous sacred sites, along with several lookouts, mountains and plateaus. Other national parks in New South Wales that are popular include Royal National Park, a popular beachside spot and the world's second oldest national park just south of Sydney, Kosciuszko National Park for being home to Australia's tallest mountain on the mainland, Dorrigo National Park or New England National Park for its Gondwana Rainforests, or a more isolated Mungo National Park home to the unusual but yet great "Walls of China" formation.
In the Northern Territory, the two most famous parks by far are Kakadu National Park and Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park, two icons of Australia which are both pretty self explanatory. Other popular national parks include Litchfield National Park home to several waterfalls, Nitmiluk for the Katherine Gorge, Tjoritja / West MacDonnell National Park and Watarrka National Park for their gorges and canyons.
In Queensland, similar to the Northern Territory, the two most famous and internationally recognized parks are the Daintree Rainforest and the Great Barrier Reef, one for being the world's oldest living rainforest while the latter for being the world's largest reef system. Other popular national parks include Lamington National Park for its Gondwana Rainforests or Great Sandy National Park for being the world's largest sand island and the only place in the world where forest grows on sand or the Whitsunday Islands, home to some of the world's whitest beaches. Other important but relatively unknown national parks include Boodjamulla National Park, a world heritage site for its fossils or Carnarvon National Park for its landscape and rock art.
In South Australia, national parks tend to be of different quality, and by far the most recognised one is Ikara-Flinders Ranges National Park, what first comes in mind for many who think about South Australia. Others include Naracoorte Caves National Park, a world heritage site for its fossils, or the Coorong, the world's longest beach and an important Aboriginal cultural site.
Tasmania has by far the most wilderness, and with almost a little less than 50% of its national parks as world heritage sites, it can be hard to decide which ones to visit. Cradle Mountain-Lake St Clair National Park is by far its most iconic national park, while Southwest National Park is the largest in the state. For those interesting in mountains that are easily accessible, Hartz Mountains National Park or Mount Field National Park is generally the national park to go, with the latter along with Ben Lomond National Park known for skiing and snowsports. For the parks of other kinds, Freycinet National Park is known for its beaches while Tasman National Park has some of the world's highest ocean cliffs.
Victoria, despite being the smallest mainland state has quite a lot more to offer than you might think. Its most iconic one is Port Campbell National Park, and although the name of the park is not well known, one of its main features – the 12 Apostles is what brings so much visitors to it. Others include Wilsons Promontory, home to the southernmost point of the Australian mainland, or Murray Sunset National Park, home to a pink lake.
Western Australia, being the world's second largest jurisdictions has plenty to offer. In particular, the one that's most known is Nambung National Park for its Pinnacles Desert, but others include Kalbarri National Park or Karijini National Park both home to several unique geological formations, or Murujuga National Park for being home to some of the world's densest collections of rock art. Purnululu National Park or Shark Bay both tend to be a bit far from Perth, but both are UNESCO World Heritage Sites, both offering something unique in sight. And if you thought that everything that's scenic has to be on land – you could be hardly ever more wrong. The Ningaloo Marine Park (and Exmouth and Coral Bay) have a lot to offer, especially for those keen in marine life.
- Main article: Astrotourism in Australia
The vast open outback in Australia makes Australia a prime destination for space-enthusiasts. However, unlike the Northern Hemisphere, the constellations here are very different, owing to the fact that Australia is in the southern hemisphere. There are plenty of astrotourism sites, ranging from a cities, to as far deep in the outback as you can go.
Sport is an integral part of the Australian culture from the capital cities to country towns. As a testament to this, Australia has a track record of being one of the best performing teams at the Olympics despite its relatively small population. The majority of games are played over the weekend period (from Friday night to Monday night). Australian sports fans are generally well behaved, and it is not uncommon for fans of two opposing teams to sit together during a match, even if the teams are bitter rivals. While the cheering can get really passionate, actual crowd violence is extremely rare.
The term "football" can be ambiguous in Australia, and differs in meaning depending on where you are and who you are talking to. However, the term on its own is almost never used to refer to association football, which is known as "soccer" in Australia. In general, "football", or the slang term "footy", refers to rugby league in the states of Queensland and New South Wales, while it refers to Australian rules football anywhere else in Australia.
The unqualified term rugby always refers to rugby union in Australia, even in Queensland and New South Wales where rugby league predominates. Therefore, if someone from Queensland or New South Wales askes if you "prefer football or rugby", they are asking if you prefer rugby league or rugby union.
- In the winter in Victoria Australian rules football (Aussie Rules, or in some areas just "footy") is more than just a sport, it is a way of life. Catch a game at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. Although originating from and most popular in the state of Victoria, the premier national competition, known as the Australian Football League (AFL), has teams from Sydney, Brisbane, Adelaide, Perth, and the Gold Coast as well. The AFL Grand Final, held at the Melbourne Cricket Ground either in late September or early October each year, is the most watched event on the Australian sporting calendar. The AFL now runs a women's league, known as AFL Women's, during the summer. While obviously not as popular as the men's game, it still enjoys a decent following. The next women's season in 2020 will feature 14 teams from all of the current men's AFL markets.
- In summer, international cricket is played between Australia and at least two touring sides. The games rotate around all the capital cities. To experience the traditional game catch the New Year's test match at the Sydney cricket ground played for 5 days starting from the 2nd of January, or the Boxing Day Test match in Melbourne. Or for a more lively entertaining form, that only takes a few hours, try a twenty-twenty match. The final form is "One Day" Cricket, international matches generally start at 13:00 and finish at 22:00 or 23:00 (a "Day-Nighter"), with most domestic and occasional international matches played from 11:00 to 18:00. The Australia Day One Day International is held in Adelaide every 26 January. The Ashes is a series of five test matches played between the Australian and English national teams. It is held in Australia every three or four years, and is one of the highlights of the cricket calendar. Whenever Australia hosts the series, the five matches are held in the five largest cities of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide.
- The Australian Open[dead link], one of the tennis Grand Slams, is played annually at Melbourne Park, including the main stadium of Rod Laver Arena, near the Melbourne city centre. Or the Medibank International in Sydney Olympic Park in January.
- Catch a rugby union Super Rugby game, with teams playing from Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Argentina and Japan in Brisbane, Canberra, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney during late Summer/Autumn. The Australian national team, the Wallabies, also host international teams during winter, including New Zealand, South Africa and Argentina for The Rugby Championship (formerly the Tri Nations tournament).
- Rugby League is a winter game played mainly in New South Wales and Queensland, with the National Rugby League (NRL) competition being the premier competition. Teams include Melbourne in Victoria, Brisbane, North Queensland and the Gold Coast in Queensland, a team from New Zealand, with the rest of the teams coming from suburban areas in Sydney, and some in regional areas of New South Wales such as Newcastle and Canberra. The competition culminates in the NRL Grand Final, which is held every year in the Stadium Australia in Sydney. The biggest event in the rugby league calendar of Australia is the State of Origin series between teams representing the states of New South Wales and Queensland, which consists of an annual series of three matches of which two are played in Sydney and Brisbane, and the third is played in either of those cities or sometimes, Melbourne or Perth. Many fans consider the level of play in the State of Origin series to be even higher than that in the Rugby League World Cup.
- Netball is Australia's largest female sport, and there are weekly games in the domestic Super Netball league (which replaced a previous transnational league that also included New Zealand sides). The Australian national team is arguably the strongest in the world, with England, New Zealand and Jamaica usually posing the biggest challenge to Australian dominance.
- Soccer is a growing sport that is aspiring to reach European levels. Many immigrants and second-generation Australians hail from European countries where passion for the sport is very high. The Australia national team (the Socceroos) won the Asia Cup for the first time in 2015 and have raised the sport's profile significantly. There is a national A-League, which is a fully professional league involving teams from Australia and one from New Zealand, with games played weekly during the summer. Most cities have a semi-professional "state league" played during winter, with most clubs being built around a specific ethnic/migrant community, for example a Newcastle league side Broadmeadow Magic, which was built around the cities' Macedonian population. While women's soccer is less popular as a spectator sport, it enjoys a decent following, with the national team (the Matildas) regularly participating in the World Cup. The women's counterpart to the A-League is the W-League.
- F1 Grand Prix The Melbourne Grand Prix in March takes place on a street circuit around Albert Park Lake, only a few kilometres south of central Melbourne. It is used annually as a racetrack for the Australian Grand Prix and associated support races.
- The Supercars Championship is a popular form of motor racing unique to Australia involving powerful cars, comparable to NASCAR racing in the United States—though unlike NASCAR, which races almost exclusively on oval tracks, the Supercars series uses road courses and street circuits. Events are held all over the country between March and early December. The famous Bathurst 1000 is traditionally held in October.
- Horse racing is Australia's third most popular spectator sport after Australian rules football and rugby league, and races are held regularly in all of Australia's state capitals. The premier event in Australia's horse racing calendar is the annual Melbourne Cup[dead link], which also ranks among the most prestigious races in the world. The day of the Melbourne Cup is a public holiday in the state of Victoria, and even many people throughout Australia who do not usually follow horse racing will tune in just for this day.
- Greyhound racing, although less popular than horse racing, also has a significant following in Australia, which has the world's largest greyhound racing industry. Greyhound racing tracks can be found in all of Australia's state capitals, as well as in many small towns throughout the country.
- Anne Beadell Highway
- Gibb River Road
- Grand Pacific Drive
- Great Ocean Road
- Gunbarrel Highway
- Oodnadatta Track
- Stuart Highway: crossing Australia north-south
- Tourist Drive 33
- Waterfall Way
- Military museums and sites in Australia
- in the surf. Australia has seemingly endless sandy beaches. Follow the crowds to the world-famous Bondi Beach in Sydney, or Surfers Paradise on the Gold Coast. Or find a stretch all for yourself (but beware of dangerous rips on beaches, it is considerably safer to find a patrolled beach). The surf is smaller and warmer in the Tropical North, where the reef breaks the swell, and larger and colder in the south with waves rolling in from the Southern Ocean. (And yes, in the middle it is just right).
- in calm tropical oceans. Cable Beach in Broome is swept pristine daily by the tide, has perfect sand, and warm water - go in winter.
- in thermal pools. South of Darwin there are many natural thermal pools such as Berry Springs & Mataranka, surrounded by palms and tropical foliage. The most expensive resort in the world couldn't dream of making a pool this good.
- in freshwater lakes. Inland Australia tends to be dry, but there are freshwater lakes where you would least expect them. Explore inland of Cairns at the Atherton Tablelands, or head outback to the Currawinya National Park. Watch out for crocodiles.
- in rivers. If its hot, and there is water, there will be a place to swim. Wherever you are, just ask around for the favourite swimming spot, with a waterhole and rope to swing on. Watch out for crocodiles.
- in man-made pools. The local swimming pool is often the hub of community life on a summer Sunday in the country towns of New South Wales and Victoria. Many of the beachside suburbs of Sydney and Newcastle have man made rock/concrete pools called 'baths' where you can swim beside the ocean beaches.
- on the beach! Find your spot by the water, and get out the towel. Tropical north in the winter, down south in the summer. As always when in Australia, protect yourself from the sun.
- Main article: Hiking in Australia
Bushwalking is a popular Australian activity. You can go bushwalking in the many national parks and rainforests. Some areas also have guided bush walks by the local Aboriginal people, and these are an excellent opportunity to learn about the culture of the local Aboriginal ethnic group.
- Snorkelling take a trip out to the Great Barrier Reef on the Queensland coast, or the Ningaloo Reef off the coast of Western Australia. Or take a trip out to Julian rocks off Byron Bay, or just dive in off the beach to see the tropical fish in Bundaberg.
- Scuba Diving
- Rock Climbing
- Mountain Biking. Try the trails in the Snowy Mountains or black mountain in Canberra, or cycle for days along the Munda Biddi Mountain Bike trail in Western Australia.
- Horse Riding. The horse has a rich tradition in the settlement of Australia since the arrival of the first European settlers. Relying on the horse to travel the vast distances and harsh environments of Australia was the foundation of a strong and lasting relationship between Australians and their horses. Today horse riding in Australia includes many recreational and occupational activities from cattle musters on vast stations, to the multimillion-dollar racing industry. On the outskirts of towns and cities and out in the rural landscape, you will see the many pony paddocks and much loved horses that are a testament to the ongoing passion and commitment Australian horse owners have to their horses and the enjoyment they bring.
- Skiing. New South Wales and Victoria have well developed ski facilities. Tasmania can also have skiing for a few months of the year, given the right weather.
- Surfing. If you think Australia is the most unpopulated and most remote place on earth where you can go to escape any trace of human contact, just find a good surf break in the most remote corner of Australia and you will be guaranteed to find someone surfing it. Australians love to surf and wherever there is surf there are Aussie surfers, any time and under any conditions. Virtually every coastline, except along the top end from Cairns across to Karatha has surf and surfers there to ride it.
- Sky Diving, all around Australia
- Hot Air Ballooning, in Canberra, Brisbane or in the Red Centre.
- Kitesurfing and windsurfing in and around Geraldton, Western Australia and at Coronation Beach, the windsurfing and kitesurfing capital of Australia
It has been said that if there are two flies crawling up a wall, then you just need to look around to find the Aussie who will be running a book.
- Casinos. Crown Casino in Melbourne is Australia's largest, located at Southbank, but there are others scattered in every capital city and in Cairns, Launceston, Alice Springs, the Gold Coast and Townsville.
- Day at the races. All capital cities have horse racing every weekend, with on-track and off-track betting available. They are usually family occasions, and fashion and being seen are part of the event. Just about every pub in New South Wales will have a tab, where you can place a bet without leaving your chair at the bar. Greyhound racing and trotting happens in the evenings, usually with smaller crowds, more beer, and less fashion. Smaller country towns have race meetings every few months or even annually. These are real events for the local communities, and see the smaller towns come to life. Head outback to the Birdsville races, or if you find the streets deserted it is probably ten past three on the first Tuesday in November (the running of the Melbourne cup).
- The unusual. Lizard races, cane toad races, camel races, crab races. Betting on these races is totally illegal and you'll find the TIB (Totally Illegal Betting) around the back of the shed.
- Two up. If you are around for Anzac Day (25 April), then betting on coins thrown into the air will be happening at your local RSL club, wherever you are.
- Australia has almost a quarter of all the slot machines (locally known as "pokies" or "poker machines") in the world, and more than half of these are in New South Wales, where most pubs and clubs have gaming rooms (labelled "VIP lounges" for legal reasons) where one can "have a slap" and go for the feature.
- If none of this appeals, and you just have too much money in your pocket, every town and suburb in Australia has a TAB (Totalisator Agency Board – betting shop). Pick your sport, pick a winner, and hand over your money at the counter.
Gambling is illegal for under-18's. This can often restrict entry to parts of pubs, clubs, and casinos for children.
Each of Australia's states and mainland territories is home to a royal show, which are agricultural fairs that also feature amusement rides and other forms of entertainment, and serve as Australia's equivalent of state fairs in the United States. These shows are held in the respective state and territory capitals, usually during the spring or autumn months.
- See also: Shopping in Australia
Exchange rates for Australian dollars
As of 30 January 2023:
Exchange rates fluctuate. Current rates for these and other currencies are available from XE.com
No, those aren't coins made out of gold, it's just an informal way of what Australians call a $1 or a $2 coin. It is mostly used in the terms of when donating, often for not-for-profit museums or charities. However, unlike Canada's loonie and toonie, Australians do not distinguish between $1 and $2 coins, and so if you do see a place that requests for a gold coin donation, you could give either $1 or $2 (or nothing, as it's a donation), but most give $2.
The Australian currency is known as the dollar, denoted by the symbol "$" or "A$" (ISO code: AUD). It is divided into 100 cents (c). In this guide, the "$" sign denotes Australian dollars unless otherwise noted.
Coins come in denominations of 5¢, 10¢, 20¢, the 12-sided 50¢, $1 and the tiny $2. The pre-2006 New Zealand 5¢, 10¢ and 20¢ coins were virtually identical to their Australian counterparts, save for a different tails side, so it's not uncommon to come across them among your Australian change and you may also encounter SGD coins, particularly 20c coins. Notes come in denominations of $5 (mauve), $10 (blue), $20 (red), $50 (yellow) and $100 (green). $100 notes are rare and sometimes hard to use in shops. Australian notes are printed on plastic polymer rather than paper. If the total of a transaction is not a multiple of 5 cents the amount will be rounded to the nearest five cents if you are paying in cash. The exact amount will be charged if paying by card.
The dollar is not pegged to any other currency, and is highly traded on world foreign exchange markets, particularly by currency speculators. Its exchange value to other currencies can be quite volatile, and 1-2% changes in a day are reasonably regular occurrences.
You won't need much cash in Australia, as almost all businesses accept credit and debit cards. These are usually preferred by businesses, with many refusing to accept cash. A small amount of cash can come in handy though, including as an emergency reserve.
As the Australian dollar is considered to be a major world currency, it is widely available at money changers and banks throughout the world.
Money changers in Australia operate in a free market, and charge a range of flat commissions, percentage fees, undisclosed fees built into the exchange rate, or a combination of all three. You can avoid rip-off rates by using banks in major centres, and staying clear of airports and tourist centres. However, both the best and worst rates come from the small private sellers, and you can certainly save money over the banks by shopping around. Always get a quote before changing money. You'll usually need to have photo identification with you, although you may be exempt if only changing a small amount.
Dedicated currency exchange outlets are widely available in major cities, and banks can also exchange most non-restricted currencies. These exchange outlets - especially the ones at the airport - can charge 10% over the best exchange that can be obtained from shopping around. Australian banks usually offer an exchange rate around 2.5% from the current exchange midpoint. A flat commission of $5–8 can be charged on top. Some outlets advertise commission free exchange, usually accompanied by a worse rate of exchange. Don't assume every bank will offer the same exchange. There are vouchers for commission free exchange at American Express available in the tourist brochure at Sydney Airport.
International airport terminals will have teller machines that can dispense Australian currency with Cirrus, Maestro, MasterCard or Visa cards.
Opening an Australian bank account is fairly straightforward if you have a residential address in Australia. You will need to provide evidence of your identity, such as a passport, to the bank in order for your application to be processed. The largest retail banks in Australia are National Australia Bank (NAB), Australia and New Zealand Banking Group (ANZ), Commonwealth Bank and Westpac.
Cash dispensing Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs) are available in almost every Australian town. Australian ATMs are deregulated and may impose a surcharge over what is charged by your bank or card issuer. The fees can vary between institutions and between locations, but are usually around $2. The ATM will display the charges and you will have the option to stop the transaction before you are charged. Check with your bank as to what additional fees they apply to withdrawals in Australia.
Fast changing currency valuations
The Australian dollar is one of the world's more dynamic currencies, partly because of its relation to commodity prices such as iron and coal. Within the past 10 years the 'Aussie' has swung between 50¢ to $1.50 to the United States dollar, making the cost of visiting range from reasonable to very expensive depending on exactly when you are there.
Australia is generally an expensive place to visit, with some surveys having ranked Australia as the third most expensive country in the world in terms of consumer prices, only behind Norway and Switzerland.
Dorm accommodation in a capital city is around $30, but can run as low as $15 in Cairns or cheaper backpacker centres. A basic motel in the country or in the capital city suburbs would cost around $100 for a double. City Centre hotel accommodation in capital cities can be obtained for around $150 upwards for a double. Formule 1/Motel 6 style hotels (which are not common) can be around $60–90 for a double.
Car hire (rental) will cost around $65 a day. Public transport day passes from $9–20 per day depending on the city.
A cafe meal costs around $10–15, and a main course in a restaurant goes from around $17 upwards.
A basic takeaway meal - a burger, sandwich, or couple of slices of pizza cost $5–10, a Big Mac costs $4.50, and you can usually grab a pie or sausage roll for around $4. A takeaway pizza from Pizza Hut big enough to feed two costs around $10.
A middy/pot (285mL) of house beer will cost you around $5, and a glass of house wine around $8 in a low end pub. To take away, a case of 24 cans of beer will cost around $45, or a bottle of wine around $10.
An airfare between neighbouring eastern capitals is around $120 each way but can get as low as $60 if you book at the right time, or around $350 to cross the country assuming that you are flexible with dates and book in advance. A train trip on the state run trains will usually cost slightly less. A bus trip, a little less again. A train trip on the private trains will be the most expensive way to travel.
There is usually no admission charge to beaches or city parks. Some popular National Parks charge between $6 and $20 per day (per car, or per person depending on the state) while more out of the way National Parks are free. Art Galleries and some attractions are free. Museums generally charge around $10 per admission. Theme parks charge around $70 per person.
Australia has a 10% Goods and Services Tax (GST) that applies to all goods and services except unprocessed foods, education and medical services. GST is always included in the displayed price of any consumer purchases. Receipts (tax invoices) will contain the GST amount.
Tourist Refund Scheme
If you buy goods over $300 at one place at one time you can obtain a refund of the GST if you take the items out of Australia within 60 days and unlike in many other countries, this applies to both Australian citizens and foreigners. Make sure you get a tax invoice from the supplier (which will have the goods itemised, the GST paid, and the ABN of the supplier). Pack the items in hand luggage, and present the item(s) and the receipt at the TRS, after immigration and security when leaving Australia. If any of the items have to be checked in for whatever reason, make sure that you locate the customs office and let customs officers sight the goods before checking-in your bags. Also allow at least an extra 30 minutes before departure, and if possible enter the details online before you arrive at the airport. The refund payment can be made by either cheque, credit to an Australian bank account, or payment to a credit card. There is no refund available for GST on services. Remember the goods are now considered duty-free, and you'll have to pay GST on them if you bring them back into Australia and they are in excess of your duty-free allowances.
Credit cards are widely accepted in Australia. Almost all large vendors such as supermarkets accept cards, as do many small stores. Visa and MasterCard are the most universally accepted cards, then American Express, then Diners Club with other cards either never or very rarely accepted. American Express and Diners Club are accepted at major supermarket and department store chains. Any card showing the Cirrus or Maestro logos can be used at any terminal displaying those logos. Australian debit cards can also be used via a system known as EFTPOS.
Apple Pay, Google Pay and contactless credit cards are accepted at virtually all terminals. You will only need to enter a PIN if the purchase is over $200.
All Australian credit cards are issued with a PIN. If you have an overseas card without a PIN you can still sign for purchases, however shopkeepers unused to dealing with overseas cards may not be aware of this. Try to have a PIN on your card if your bank allows it. If not, you may have to explain that you have an overseas card and wait while the shopkeeper finds a pen.
Credit card surcharges are imposed at all car rental agencies, travel agents, airlines, and at some discount retailers (such as Aldi) and service stations. They are increasingly common in cafes, bars and restaurants. Surcharges are far more common and higher for American Express and Diners Club (typically 2%-4%) than they are for Visa and MasterCard (typically 1.5%). Businesses are legally required to put a sign up indicating the size of any surcharge they impose.
UnionPay credit cards as well as AliPay and WeChat Pay are becoming more common in tourist shops and restaurants due to the rising number of Chinese visitors. It is difficult to use them in other businesses however.
Bargaining is uncommon in Australian stores, though vendors are usually willing to meet or beat a quote or advertised price from a competing retailer. It's also worth asking for a "best price" for high-value goods or purchases involving several items. For example, it would not be unusual to get 10% off an item of jewelry that was not already reduced in price. The person you are dealing with may have limited authority to sell items at anything other than the marked price. Attempting to haggle without a reason will most likely be perceived as rude in Australia and will be unsuccessful.
Tipping is not customary in Australia, although tips are accepted if you freely choose to give one.
Restaurants are required to include the cost of service and taxes in posted prices. You may, however, choose to leave a small tip if the service was exemplary. When paying by credit card, some restaurants give the option of adding a tip to your payment, although it is completely optional. Other places provide a coin jar or bowl by the cashier labelled "Tips", but the vast majority of Australian diners do not leave one. Bartenders are rarely tipped.
Other types of service personnel, including hotel staff, porters, tour guides, food delivery drivers and hairdressers do not expect to receive tips.
Tipping is also not expected in taxis, and drivers will typically return your change to the last 5 cents, unless you indicate that they should round the fare to the nearest dollar. It is not unusual for passengers to instruct the driver to round up to the next whole dollar.
Casinos in Australia generally prohibit tipping of gaming staff, as it is considered bribery. Similarly, offering to tip government officials will usually be interpreted as bribery and can potentially be treated as a criminal offence.
Australia's base trading hours are Monday to Friday, 09:00-17:00. Shops usually have a single night of late night trading, staying open until 21:00 on Fridays in most cities and on Thursdays in Brisbane, Melbourne and Sydney. Sunday trading is common in the main cities but does not exist in all rural areas. Opening hours beyond these base hours vary by the type of store, by location, and by state. See our localised guides for more local information.
Major supermarket chains in main centres are generally open at least until 21:00 on weekdays (and often until midnight), but generally have reduced hours on weekends. Convenience stores such as 7/11 are open 24 hours in major centres.
Fast food restaurant chains are commonly open 24 hours or at least very late. Many food courts in city centres typically close by 4PM and completely close on weekends if targeting office workers, but other eateries and food courts in shopping centres have longer hours.
Fuel/service stations are open 24 hours in major centres, but often close at 6pm and on Sundays in country towns.
Australia's weekend is on Saturday and Sunday of each week. Retail trading is now almost universal in larger cities on weekends, although with slightly reduced hours. Again, Western Australia is an exception with restrictions on large stores opening on Sundays. In smaller country towns shops are closed on Sundays and often also on Saturday afternoons. Businesses in towns with heavy tourist visitation will often be open on Saturday and Sunday as a means of serving weekend visitors, but will take their weekends on Monday and Tuesday instead, so expect reduced service in some towns on those days.
Tourist-oriented towns and shops may stay open longer hours. Tourist areas within cities, such as Darling Harbour in Sydney have longer trading hours every night.
Australian banks are open Monday-Friday 09:00-16:00 only, often closing at 17:00 on Fridays. Cash is available through Automatic Teller Machines (ATM) 24 hours, and currency exchange outlets have extended hours and are open on weekends.
- See also: Australian cuisine
Australian cuisine was mainly influenced by its British and Irish colonial heritage until the 1960s and 70s, but with a history of immigration from other parts of Europe like Germany, Italy, Greece and Poland, the influence of these cultures has become more evident in Australian cuisine than its British and Irish beginnings. The large influx of Asian migrants has also left its mark on Australian cuisine, with many Australian chefs incorporating Asian influences in nominally Western dishes.
The various Aboriginal ethnic groups have their own distinctive cuisines, though due to the fact that they make extensive use of exotic ingredients, these have for the most part not become a part of mainstream Australian cuisine.
Generally speaking, table manners in Australia conform to European norms.
Places to eat
BYO - Bring Your Own
BYO stands for Bring Your Own (alcohol). In many of the urban communities of Australia you will find small low-cost restaurants that are not licensed to serve but allow diners to bring their own bottle of wine purchased elsewhere. This is frequently much cheaper than ordering a bottle of wine in a restaurant. Beer can be taken to some BYO restaurants, others allow only wine. Expect to pay a corkage fee which can vary from $2–15, or may be calculated by head. BYO is not usually permitted in restaurants that are licensed to sell alcohol.
Where has Burger King gone?
Visitors are often surprised to find that there are no Burger Kings in Australia. Instead, in Australia, Burger King is called "Hungry Jack's". The name was chosen as there was already a small takeaway called Burger King in Adelaide, and so for trademark reasons, "Burger King" had to choose another name.
In 2001, Hungry Jack's won the rights to use the name "Burger King" as the trademark had expired, but as the name had become established, the chain instead chose to keep its name "Hungry Jack's".
There is no shortage of places to eat out in the cities and towns. In addition to good restaurants offering cuisine from around the world, there are also the following:
- Pubs, the counter lunch is the name for a lunch served in the bar of a pub. Traditionally served only at lunchtime in the lounge. Today most pubs provide lunch and dinner and many have a separate bistro or restaurant. Steak, chicken parmigiana and nachos are common.
- Clubs, clubs, such as bowling clubs, leagues clubs, RSLs are in many towns and cities. They are most common in the states of Queensland and New South Wales. Most allow visitors, and sometimes offer good value meals. A membership fee is often required.
- Cafes, most towns and suburbs have a cafe or coffee shop, serving breakfast and light meals and cakes throughout the day. Not unusual for them to close after 4PM.
- Bakeries, usually a good place to buy bread rolls, a pie or a sausage roll.
- Fast food restaurants, McDonald's (or Macca's), Subway and KFC are common. Burger King is rebranded as Hungry Jack's. Red Rooster is an Australian chain, offering barbecued chicken and other mostly chicken-based items and Oporto is an Australian version of Nando's.
- Take-away, milk bars, sushi stores and other take-away stores usually sell sushi, pies, barbecued (rotisserie) chicken, hamburgers, fish and chips, gyros, and kebabs.
- Food courts, most shopping centres have a food court, even in country towns.
- Picnic, the Australian climate is usually amenable to getting whatever food you can, and heading to the nearest park, river, lake or beach. Electric BBQ facilities are often available.
- Barbecue, is a popular Australian pastime and many parks in Australia provide free barbecues for public use. Contrary to the stereotype, Australians rarely "Throw a shrimp on the barbie" (also, in Australia a shrimp is referred to as a prawn). Steaks, chops, sausages, chicken fillets, fish, and kebabs are popularly barbecued.
- Wineries, many of Australia's wineries have restaurants serving modern Australian cuisine that overlook their vineyards, where you can also purchase their wines to go with your meal. Typically only open for lunch, though an exception is Penfolds' Magill Estate Restaurant in Adelaide, which only opens for dinner.
It may come as a disappointment that native foods are not actually available that much in Australian restaurants, nor consumed by Australians much themselves. They are available in supermarkets and in some of the remoter parts of the country. Traditional Aboriginal diets can include endangered species, the consumption of which is strictly restricted to specific communities and unlikely to be available to you.
- Kangaroo, if you fancy some, it is available from many supermarkets and butchers. Barbecue it until medium rare, but best not to overcook as it may become quite tough. It tastes much like beef. It occasionally makes it onto the menu in restaurants, mostly in tourist areas. Kangaroos are abundant, do far less damage to the sensitive Australian environment than hoofed animals, and produce far fewer carbon emissions as well. Kangaroo is a great environmental statement to make whilst barbecuing.
- Crocodile, meat from farms in the Northern Territory and Queensland is widely available around the top end, and occasionally elsewhere. At Rockhampton, the beef capital of Australia, you can see the ancient reptile on a farm while munching on a croc burger.
- Emu, yes, you can eat the other half of the Australian Coat of Arms as well. Emu is low in fat and available in specialty butchers. Try the Coat of Arms in a pie in Maleny or on a pizza in The Rocks.
- Bush tucker, many tours may give you an opportunity to try some bush tucker, the berries, nuts, roots, ants, and grubs from Australia's native bush. Macadamia nuts are the only native plant to Australia that is grown for food commercially. Some of the other bush foods can be an acquired taste, though native seasonings are certainly worth trying, and are increasingly being featured in Australian fine dining restaurants. Bush tucker ice cream can sometimes be found at farmers' markets and outdoor festivals.
Australia has a good deal of British-inspired food that is not well known internationally. Definitely worth a try.
Vegemite, a salty yeast-based spread, best spread thinly on toast. If you aren't up for buying a jar, any coffee shop will serve vegemite on toast at breakfast time. It may not even be on the menu, but the vegemite will be out the back in the jar next to the marmalade. If you do buy a jar, the secret is it to spread it very thin, and don't forget the butter as well. It tastes similar to Marmite in the UK or Cenovis in Switzerland. Australians are quite used to the taste, and may spread the Vegemite very thick; but this is not recommended for first-timers.
The Tim-Tam is a chocolate fudge-filled sandwich of two chocolate biscuits, all dipped in chocolate. You can buy them from any supermarket or convenience store. Tim-Tams are required to perform the Tim-Tam Slam manoeuvre. This requires biting a corner off both ends of the Tim-Tam, then using it as a straw to drink a cup of tea or coffee. This melts the centre and creates an experience hard to describe. Finesse is needed to suck the whole biscuit into your mouth in the microseconds between being fully saturated and dissolving. Tim-Tams are sold in packs of 11, so be sure to agree on the sharing arrangements before buying a packet with your travel partner, or onward travel arrangements may be disrupted. During summer Tim-Tams are often stored in the freezer and eaten ice cold. Not as good are the Indonesian-made Tim-Tams sometimes found in discount grocery stores. These can be differentiated by being thinner and often individually-wrapped.
The lamington is a cube of sponge cake covered in chocolate icing and dipped in desiccated coconut. It's named after Lord Lamington, who served as Governor of Queensland from 1896 to 1901. The home-baked form can be found at a local Saturday morning market, or your local bakery. The plastic-wrapped varieties sold in supermarkets are not as good.
The pavlova is a meringue cake with a cream topping usually decorated with fresh fruit. Served on special occasions, or after a lunchtime barbecue. Often the source of dispute with New Zealand over the original source of the recipe.
ANZAC biscuits are a mix of coconut, oats, flour, sugar and golden syrup. They were reputedly sent by wives and care organisations to world war I soldiers in care packages, but the story is likely apocryphal. They are available from bakeries, cafes and supermarkets, and are popular in the lead up to ANZAC day (25 April).
Damper is a traditional soda bread that was baked by drovers and stockmen. It has basic ingredients (flour, water and perhaps salt) and usually cooked in the embers of a fire. It is not available in bakeries and only commonly served to tourists on organised tours. Best eaten with butter and jam or golden syrup as it is dry and bland.
A Chiko roll is a deep-fried snack inspired by the egg roll or the spring roll. Despite the name, it contains no chicken. Its filling is boned mutton, vegetables, rice, barley, and seasoning. Its shell is thicker than an egg roll, meant to survive handling at football matches. Available anywhere fish and chips are sold.
The Australian Meat Pie is considered to be the national dish by many. A variation is the pie floater from Adelaide which is a pie inverted in a bowl of thick mushy pea soup.
Cuisines widely available in Australia, often prepared by members of the relevant culture, include:
- British, Australia's colonial heritage is perhaps best represented by the ubiquity of fish and chips, and virtually every neighbourhood and small town in a coastal area will have a local fish and chip shop. Common types of fish used in Australia include flake (various types of small shark), flathead, barramundi and King George whiting. Unlike in the UK, fish and chips is typically served with ketchup and tartar sauce in Australia. British and Irish style pubs are common throughout populated areas of Australia, although they feature Australian staples such as chicken parmas, schnitzels and pasta.
- Chinese, synonymous with the term "takeaway" in the past generations. Many Chinese restaurants still cater to takeaway addicts today, mostly of the Australianised Chinese variety, but major cities have small "Chinatowns" or suburbs with a large number of ethnic Chinese residents that have excellent restaurants serving authentic Chinese food. Cantonese Dim Sum is available in dedicated restaurants in most large shopping malls.
- Thai restaurants are common everywhere. Sydney in particular is known as one of the best destinations for Thai food in the world.
- Italian, the Italian community is one of the largest ethnic communities of non Anglo-Saxon origin in Australia, and they have contributed greatly to the cafe culture that has flourished across the major cities over the past few decades. Restaurants either serve Italian food that has been adapted to suit Australian tastes, or authentic regional Italian food, with the latter tending to be pricier and in more upmarket surrounds. Head to Lygon street in Melbourne or Leichhardt in Sydney if you're a fan.
- Greek is not quite as widespread as Italian above, but good options exist in every city and town.
- Lebanese and other Middle Eastern, especially in Sydney. A Manoosh is a tasty pizza variation that is somewhat more healthy as well.
- A fusion dish that's becoming increasingly popular nationwide is the halal snack pack (also known by many alternate names). It consists of halal-certified doner kebab meat (originating from Turkey) and chips, smothered in sauces of your own choosing, and often cheese. Typically served in styrofoam containers as a takeaway dish. In Adelaide, the AB is similar to the halal snack pack of the eastern states, but it usually not halal.
- Indian is available in most cities, and often represent a good mid-range restaurant option.
- Japanese, including bento takeaway shops, udon restaurants and sushi trains. They are often operated by Koreans, whose own cuisine is also well represented in the major cities (particularly Sydney and Melbourne).
- Vietnamese, Pho and Cha Gio (spring rolls) are easy to find in the major cities.
- German, South Australia and Queensland in particular have had a long history of German settlement, and German restaurants can be found in major cities and in country towns that were historically settled by Germans. The schnitzel is a German dish that has been Australianised and is widely available in pubs and cafes throughout the country, though unlike German schnitzels, which are usually made of pork, Australian schnitzels are usually made of chicken or beef. A good selection of German or German-inspired sausages is also available at many butchers.
- Asian fusion refers generally to Asian-inspired dishes.
Modern Australian is a recently developed cuisine that is often seen in fine dining establishments, analogous to Modern American cuisine in the United States. This cuisine mixes cooking styles and flavours from different parts of Europe and Asia, paying homage to the diverse origins of Australia's population, and often incorporates native Australian flavours from the bush as well.
Eating vegetarian is available in Australia and many restaurants offer at least one or two vegetarian dishes. Some will have an entire vegetarian menu section. Vegans may have more difficulty but any restaurant with a large vegetarian menu should offer some flexibility. In large cities and in the coastal backpacker-friendly towns along the east coast, you will find vegetarian and vegan restaurants. The market town of Kuranda or the seaside towns of Byron Bay are a vegetarian's paradise. In other regional areas especially in the Northern Territory, North Western Australia and north Queensland vegetarians are often poorly catered-for, but most towns will have a Chinese or Thai restaurant that will provide steamed rice and vegetables. Sydney and Melbourne in particular cater well for vegans and vegetarians with a lot of purely vegetarian restaurants, vegan clothing stores and vegan supermarkets.
Quick vegetarian options include:
- 'Smashed Avo' is a mix of avocado and feta cheese, served on toast and with an egg. A popular breakfast option and (unfairly) associated with free spending millennials.
- Sushi rolls and tofu pockets, available at sushi shops everywhere
- Vietnamese spring rolls (Bahn Mi) are also readily available with vegetarian fillings
- Korean restaurants offer rice bowls (such as Bibimbap) with no meat
- Pie shops of spinach rolls (filled with spinach and ricotta cheese)
- Most food halls have a dedicated salad counter
More remote outback areas may have very few vegetarian options (lots of processed meat pies and little else), so it is worth packing some vegetarian supplies before you go.
People observing kosher or halal will easily be able to find specialist butchers in the capital cities, and will also find a number of restaurants with appropriate menus and cooking styles. Outside the capital cities, it will be much more difficult to find food prepared in a strict religious manner. Fast food chains often offer Halal certified meals in areas with high Muslim populations in Western Sydney and Melbourne.
Australian restaurants generally provide options for people with common allergies such as nuts and seafood. Ask the waitstaff if in doubt.
The gluten free diet fad has spread to Australia, and there is no shortage of gluten free products in supermarkets, bakeries and restaurants, albeit often at higher prices than the regular versions of those products.
Melbourne's Queen Victoria Market, Adelaide's Central Market and the Fremantle Markets near Perth are perhaps Australia's best known examples of traditional European-style food markets. The Sydney Fish Market is one of the most iconic traditional seafood markets in the world.
All of the capital cities and most regional towns in Australia host a "farmer's market", which is generally held each week in a designated area on a Saturday or Sunday. These markets mostly sell fresh fruits and vegetables, as hygiene regulations in Australia forbid the selling of meat directly from market stalls. Butchers who set up shop at a farmer's market would usually trade their wares from a display cabinet within their boot (trunk). The attraction of markets is the lower prices and freshness of the produce. The attraction for the traveller will be the cheap and excellent fruits on offer - depending on the region and season (in places like Queensland or the Northern Territory, you're more likely to find mangoes while down in Tasmania you're much more likely to find apples). In regional areas the market is usually held outside the town itself in an empty paddock or sports field, markets in capital cities are easier to reach but the prices are typically more in line with those you would find in supermarkets. See the destination guides for details.
Drinking beer is ingrained in Australian culture. Although Fosters is promoted as an Australian beer overseas, it is rarely consumed by Australians in Australia, and is almost impossible to find. Beers are strongly regional and every state has its own brews: Coopers and West End in South Australia, Carlton and VB in Victoria, Tooheys in NSW, XXXX (pronounced "fourex") in Queensland, Boags and Cascade in Tasmania, and Swan in Western Australia. There are also local microbrew choices, which can be harder to find, but are often worth seeking out. A range of imported European and American bottled beers are available in all but the most basic pub.
Light (Lite) beer refers to lower alcoholic content, and not lower calories. It has around half the alcohol of full strength beer, and is taxed at a lower rate, meaning it is also cheaper than full strength beer. Low calorie beer is sold as low carb.
Because Australians like their beer to stay cold while they drink it, draft beer glasses come in a multitude of sizes, so that you can drink a whole glass before it warms up in the summer heat. The naming of beer glasses varies widely from state to state, often in confusing ways: a schooner is 425mL everywhere except South Australia, where it's only 285mL, a size that's known elsewhere as a middy or pot, except in Darwin where it's a handle, but in Adelaide a "pot" means a 570mL full pint, and a pint means what a schooner does elsewhere, and... you get the idea. The local beers and the local descriptions are covered in detail in the state guides.
Bottle naming is a little easier: the standard sizes across Australia are the 375 ml stubby and the 750mL long neck, or tallie. Cans of beer are known as tinnies, and 24 of them make up a slab, box, carton, bag or case.
Australia produces quality wine on a truly industrial scale, with large multinational brands supplying Australian bottleshops and exporting around the world. There are also a multitude of boutique wineries and smaller suppliers. Very good red and white wine can be bought very cheaply in Australia, often at less than $10 a bottle, and even the smallest shop could be expected to have 50 or more varieties to choose from.
The areas of the Barossa Valley (near Adelaide), Hunter Valley (near Sydney), Yarra Valley (near Melbourne) and Margaret River (near Perth) are particularly renowned for their wineries and opportunities for cellar door sampling, but northern Victoria and Mudgee also have a large variety. You are never too far from a wine trail anywhere in southern Australia.
Try the local wines wherever you can find them, and ask for local recommendations. Try not to get taken in by the label, or the price tag. The best wine is rarely the one with the best artwork, or the most expensive price. However, it is probably wise to avoid the house wine if it comes straight from a cask (4-litre container). Wines at the cellar door are almost invariably sold at around 20% premium to the same wine in the shops in the local town.
If you still prefer overseas wines, the Marlborough region of New Zealand is usually well represented on wine lists and in bottle shops in Australia.
See also Grape grazing in Australia.
Bundaberg Rum (Bundy) is an Australian dark rum particularly popular in Queensland and many Queenslanders will not touch any other brand of rum. It is probably the most famous Australian made spirit, mass-produced in Bundaberg and available everywhere.
For many years one had to search to find other Australian distilled spirits, mostly from niche players, but there are distilleries in every state of Australia if you look hard enough and more are popping up all the time–Adelaide gin distilleries 75° and the Adelaide Gin Company have grown in esteem over the past few years. The tiny Sullivan's Cove distillery in Tasmania made waves in 2014 when one of their whiskies was named the World's Best Single Malt, kicking off a mini-boom in Australian whisky, and they repeated the feat in 2018 and 2019. If $8,000 for a bottle of their 2014 French Oak is a bit steep, drop into the Lark Distillery on the scenic Hobart waterfront precinct, book a gin blending experience at Archie Rose in Sydney, pick up a bottle of 151 East Vodka in Wollongong or after a few days in Kununurra you are definitely going to need an Ord River Rum.
Mixed drinks are also available, particularly vodka, scotch, bourbon and other whiskey mixers. Spirits are also available as pre-mixed bottles and cans but are subject to higher taxation in this form, so it is cheaper to mix them yourself. Spirits are served in all pubs and bars, but not in all restaurants. A basic spirit and mixer (vodka and orange juice for example) will cost you about $7 at a bar or nightclub, but can vary ~$5–12.
The legal drinking age throughout Australia is 18 years. It is illegal either to purchase alcohol for yourself if you are under 18 years of age or to purchase alcohol on behalf of someone who is under 18 years of age. The only legally acceptable proof-of-age documentation are an Australian drivers licence, state-issued proof-of-age card, Keypass card or a passport, and it would be wise to carry one if you want to purchase alcohol or tobacco and look under 25 - vendors will frequently ask for ID for anybody who looks to be 25 or younger. In Western Australia, South Australia, the Northern Territory and Tasmania, foreign drivers licences and foreign ID cards are NOT legally acceptable as proof of age documentation, and people who are unable to produce a passport or valid Australian ID will be refused service. Only actual ID documents will be accepted - photographs or photocopies will NOT be accepted.
It is illegal to go into a gambling area of a pub or club when under 18. Often there is a lounge, restaurant or bistro area in a pub or club that permits under-age people provided they are accompanied by a responsible adult over 18 and don't approach the bar or wander around. Some city pubs even have video games and playgrounds for children. Some country pubs have large open areas out in the back where kids can run and play.
In general, you can take alcohol (say a bottle of wine or beer) to consume at a park or beach. Alcohol consumption is banned in some public places as 'street drinking'. These are often indicated by signs and is particularly the case in parks and footpaths where public drunkenness has been a problem. However, if you are a family with your picnic basket and blanket out at lunchtime with a bottle of wine, you are unlikely to encounter any problems.
Alcohol can be purchased for consumption on premises only in licensed venues: pubs, clubs and many restaurants. You can purchase alcohol for private consumption in bottle shops, which are separate stores selling bottled alcohol. In some states you can buy alcohol in supermarkets. In those states where you can't, bottle shops and major supermarkets are often found in very close proximity. Although licensing laws and hours vary from state to state, and individual stores have different trading hours, as a rule of thumb, alcohol is generally available in towns to take-away seven days a week, 08:00-23:00, from bottle shops, supermarkets, licensed grocers/milk-bars and pubs. Outside of these hours though, it is almost impossible to buy alcohol to take home; unless you're in the middle of Sydney or Melbourne, so if you're planning on a party at home; it's a good idea to stock up and check on the local trading hours so you don't run out at 00:30 with no opportunity to buy more. Alcohol is not available at petrol stations or 24-hour convenience stores anywhere in Australia.
Public drunkenness varies in acceptability. You will certainly find a great deal of it in close proximity to pubs and clubs at night time but much less so during the day. Public drunkenness is an offence but the Police won't pick you up unless you're causing a nuisance. You may spend the night sobering up in a holding cell or be charged.
Driving while affected by alcohol is stigmatized, policed by random breath-testing police patrols in Australia, and inherently dangerous. Drink driving is a very serious offence in Australia, punishable by a range of mechanisms including loss of licence. The acceptable maximum blood alcohol concentration is 0.05% Australia-wide, often lower or not allowed for operators of heavy vehicles and young or novice drivers. Police officers are also empowered to randomly test drivers for the recent use of prohibited drugs. Refusing any of these tests is a criminal offence. The operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence of prohibited drugs or alcohol will always result in arrest and a required court appearance many weeks from the date of arrest and it can comprehensively disrupt travel plans. Random breath-testing is common early Saturday and Sunday mornings, and many people are caught the morning after.
Buying a round of drinks is a custom in Australia, as in many corners of the world. It is generally expected in a pub that when you arrive and make your first trip to the bar that you will offer to buy a drink for others you are drinking with. Similarly this will likely be done to you when someone else joins the group. This is called a shout, and incurs an obligation that you will generally return the favour in a following round, and that also you will generally maintain the same drinking pace as your associates in the round throughout the evening. If someone in the same round as you has an empty glass, who is ahead of you in drinks bought, you should declare that it is your shout, and make your way to the bar. If someone offers to buy you a drink, but does not offer to buy for the person who already has bought you a drink, you should say you are already in a shout, and decline. If they buy you and the people in your round a drink, they have joined the shout. Its generally not polite to switch between shouts during an evening. It you are in a large shout, and you decline a drink, you still have to buy a drink for the round when it comes to your turn. If you wish to skip a round, to do so on your shout. It is generally poorly received to buy a round, and then to refuse a drink when one is purchased for you. Often the drink will just be bought for you without even asking. Don't be surprised if someone who bought you a drink earlier in the night, later says that it is your shout. Not joining a shout can be awkward in some groups. The best way is to say you are driving, and you will buy your own drinks. This is also an acceptable way to drop out after one round, when the score is even.
Milo is a malt and chocolate drink now made by Nestlé that was invented in Australia, and has since become immensely popular in parts of Southeast Asia. It can be found in any Australian supermarket.
Australia has a strong coffee culture, especially Melbourne, a city with extensive Italian immigration. The joke is that Italians visiting Melbourne think the coffee is worse than their home city's, but better than every other city in Italy. Even service stations and fast food places will sell decent coffee. However, because of the strong preference for local coffee shops, many of the major chains in other countries don't exist -- Starbucks has a tiny handful of stores in Melbourne and Sydney, and none elsewhere in the country. Don't be taken aback by the lack of chains; try the local flavour instead!
Tea is much less popular than coffee in Australia, but is nevertheless not hard to find; most places that sell coffee also sell tea. There are some high-end hotels that serve traditional English afternoon tea, while Devonshire tea is a fairly popular weekend pastime among Australians, with numerous bakeries serving it. Queensland is also home to small tea-growing industry.
- Main article: Studying abroad#Australia
Australia is a popular destination for University students, especially from East Asia, Southeast Asia and India. Australia offers world class universities in an English speaking environment, along with potential opportunities to actually gain resident and work visas on a path to citizenship. If you are intending to study in Australia, you will need to be on a visa class that allows this. Students and academics invited to visit Australian universities will generally also need an appropriate visa, even if their visit is of a short enough period to be covered by a tourist electronic visa. For very short term or part-time courses, check with your Australian consulate or embassy.
Australia also happens to be a great place to get Barista certification, with graduates being maybe able to command higher wages in coffee shops back in their home countries. Such courses can usually be conducted on a standard tourist visa.
Accommodation is readily available in most Australian cities and tourist destinations. As with everything else in Australia, it tends to be on the expensive side by international standards.
When is a hotel not a hotel?
In Australian English, a hotel can also refer to what most of the rest of the world would call a pub. While country hotels (pubs) tend to have accommodation on site, most city hotels do not. A country hotel that does not have a public bar is typically called a motel.
All state capitals have a number of 4 or 5 star standard hotels, often with upmarket restaurants, bars, room-service, and other premium hospitality services. Other 2 or 3 star hotels are scattered around the inner-cities and inner suburbs. Best to check local guides and reviews to know what you are in for. Most hotels offer internet connectivity, occasionally for an inflated fee. Most hotels (distinct from the country pubs known as hotels) have private bathroom facilities. It isn't unknown for all options to run out during major events in cities such as Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide.
Most pubs in Australia offer some form of accommodation. It can vary from very basic shabby rooms, to newly renovated boutique accommodation. The price is usually a good reflection of what you are in for. It is still quite unusual to have a private bathroom, even in the nicer pubs. The rooms are often on the second floor directly above the bar area and can be noisy, particularly on Fri/Sat nights.
Outside of the major centres, the pub is called a Hotel. A motel won't have a public bar. A motel that does have a bar attached is called a Hotel/Motel.
In very small towns local pubs offer the only accommodation available to travellers. Accommodation in these pubs tends to be budget-style with shared bathrooms but private rooms.
Pub accommodation is even available in the centre of Sydney, making getting back to your room after a beer a simple endeavour.
If you travel as a single, and want a private room, pubs usually have single rooms at a discount over a double room. Most motels will charge the same price for one or two people sharing a room.
Typically, motel-style accommodation will have a private room with a bed or number of beds, and a private shower and toilet. Many motels have family rooms, that will usually have a double bed and two single beds in the one room.
Motel rooms in the cities will generally cost upwards from $100. Usually the cost is the same for one or two adults, with any extra people charged an additional fee. Prices for additional children can range from free to $20 per child. During quiet times its not unusual for motels to offer standby discounts.
Most motels will serve a cooked or continental breakfast to your room in the morning, for an additional charge. Some may have a restaurant or serve an evening meal. Some may have a toaster in the room and kettles are widely provided.
Hostels and backpackers
Budget hostel-style accommodation with shared bathrooms and often with dormitories is approximately $20–30 per person per night. Facilities usually include a fully equipped kitchen with adequate refrigeration and food storage areas. Most hostels also have living room areas equipped with couches, dining tables, and televisions.
There are several backpacker hostel chains in Australia. If you are staying many nights in the same brand of hostel, consider their discount cards, which usually offer a loyalty bonus on accommodation, and other attraction and tour discounts negotiated by the chain.
Holiday parks are an Australian holiday institution and a great way to stay if you have your own wheels. These are basically an upgraded version of caravan parks, but as the new marketing indicates, they now cater to regular travellers as well. A typical holiday park offers the following types of accommodation:
- Cabins fully equipped with bedding, kitchens, TV, wifi and more, for travellers without their own home on wheels. Most can house 4 or more people with rates starting from around $100/night.
- Powered sites for parking your caravan/campervan/motorhome/RV. Some parks offer ensuite sites featuring a little bathroom with shower & toilet.
- Unpowered sites are for those intending to pitch their own tent, starting from around $20/night.
Regardless of where you stay, the price includes access to communal facilities including BBQs, showers, kitchens, self-service laundries, pools, tennis courts and jumping pillows. The largest park chains covering the country are Top Parks/Discovery Parks and Big 4, but there are also plenty of independent options.
There are a couple of caveats to holiday parks:
- They're typically located on the outskirts of towns, so they're not very practical unless you have your vehicle.
- Most cater to families, which is great if you have kids, but not so much if you're looking for peace and quiet.
- During school holidays, parks tend to jack up their rates and require multiple-night minimum stays, and the best ones sell out anyway.
- If you change your mind, too bad, since reservations are typically nonrefundable.
Camping is a popular pastime. In addition to camping at holiday parks, national parks often provide cheap or free camping sites, which expect you to be more self-sufficient. Often toilets are provided and sometimes cold showers. Paid camping permits are sometimes required at popular parks, with some popular spots filling up during the holidays in summer. In Australia it is common to be within an hour's drive of a national park or recreation area that will permit some form of camping, even in the capital cities. Expect to pay around $5–10 per night per person for a camping permit, and national park admission fees in the more popular national parks (e.g.: Wilsons Promontory National Park, Kosciuszko National Park, etc.), however entry and camping is free in the majority of national parks further from population and tourist centres.
Some other camping areas are run by government or even local landowners. Expect around $10 per person per night, depending on the time of year.
You can try your luck sleeping on a beach or pitching a tent overnight in a highway rest area, or out in the bush for a free bed. Most rest areas and beaches prohibit camping and many even prohibit overnight parking to discourage this. Generally the closer you are to civilization or a tourist area, the greater the chance of being hassled by the authorities.
Camping in state forests is often preferable to national parks if you're after a camping experience over sightseeing, as collecting of your own fire wood is allowed (sometimes felling of trees is permissible dependent on the area) and camping is not restricted to camp sites. Some other activities that are generally allowed in state forests that are not allowed in national parks are: bringing in dogs/pets, open fires, motorbikes and four-wheel driving. State forests are generally free to stay in, although you will need to check locally if public access is allowed.
Much as the name suggests, this usually involves a cabin or homestead accommodation on a working property. Suited for a stay of two or more days, this accommodation usually allows you to get a little involved in the running of the farm if you wish. It is common for dinner to be provided in the homestead, and a breakfast pack to be provided to your cabin.
Holiday homes are homes rented by their owners, often using local real estate agents or specialised web sites. Sometimes located in prime positions, but also sometimes in the residential sections of cities and towns. Minimum rental periods of at least 2 days usually apply, rising to a week during periods when they are busy. At a minimum will have bedrooms, a lounge, bathroom.
Bed and Breakfasts tend to be a premium form of accommodation in Australia, often focused on weekend accommodation for couples. They certainly don't offer the discount form of accommodation they do in part of the United Kingdom, and the local motel will usually be cheaper.
Sometimes extra rooms in a person's home, but often a purpose built building. You should expect a cosy, well kept room, a common area, and a cooked breakfast. Possibly private facilities. Substantial discounts often apply for mid-week stays at bed and breakfasts.
There are many true resorts around Australia. Many have lagoon pools, tennis, golf, kids clubs, and other arranged activities. The island of the Whitsundays have a choice of resorts, some occupying entire islands. Port Douglas also has many resorts of a world standard.
Serviced apartments are a very popular form of accommodation in Australia, with all capital and most regional cities having multiple such hotels. These often include hotels located in prime positions in the centre of town.
Guests are typically able to stay for as little as one night, and discounts are often available for bookings of a week and over. Rooms tend to be larger than in standard hotels, and amenities typically include a kitchen, washer and dryer, and separate bedrooms. Apartment hotels generally don't offer breakfast or have a restaurant, but there are usually cafes located nearby (often next door) which cater to guests.
Houseboats are available to rent on some scenic rural rivers, and provide an excellent opportunity to spend time in the wilderness. These usually have kitchens in them so you can bring your own food to cook.
Station wagons and vans
In most parts of Australia it is illegal to sleep in your vehicle but it is possible to get around this by simply rigging up curtains all around the windows so no one can see in from the outside. Trade vans can be picked up for as little as $1,000, with a more trustworthy van setting you back no more than $3,000-4,000. Add a mattress, pillow, portable gas cooker, cookware and a 20 L water container and you are off. If you get caught the fine could be as much as $150 each, so do it at you own risk. But if you are strategic in where you stay you probably won't get caught. Just be sensible and don't disturb the locals. Also, be aware of parking restrictions in certain parts of the cities and town, although overnight parking restrictions are rare. The parking inspectors can be ruthless and a $100+ fine is not uncommon.
All cities and towns in Australia have free public toilets. Many parks, and most beaches have free electric barbecues as well. Popular beaches have fresh water showers to wash the salt water off after you swim, so for those on a tight budget (or for those that just love waking up at the beach) simply wash in the ocean (please do not pollute the ocean or waterways by using detergents or soaps) and rinse off at the showers. Almost all taps in Australia are drinking water, the ones that aren't will be marked. Service stations (petrol/gas) almost always have taps, so these are a good place to refill the water containers each time you refuel.
Some of the best experiences you may have in Australia will be by taking that road on the map that looks like it heads to a beach, creek, waterfall or mountain and following it. You may just find paradise and not another soul in sight. And lucky you, you've got a bed, food and water right there with you.
Travelling in a small group lowers the fuel bill per head, as this will likely be your biggest expense.
Enjoy, and respect the land by taking your rubbish/bottles/cigarette butts with you and disposing of them properly.
Australian citizens, New Zealand citizens and permanent residents of Australia can work in Australia without any further permits, but others will require a work visa. It is illegal for foreigners to undertake paid work in Australia on a tourist visa. Be aware that any form of compensation for services performed, monetary or otherwise (e.g. room and board), counts as payment in Australia, meaning that such work would be illegal on a tourist visa. Volunteer work is allowed provided it is incidental to the trip (i.e. not the main purpose for the trip). Foreigners in Australia on a student visa are allowed to work for up to 20 hours a week during term time, and full-time during the school holidays. Working illegally in Australia runs a very real risk of arrest, imprisonment, deportation and being permanently banned from re-entering Australia. All visitors who do not hold Australian permanent residency or citizenship (including New Zealand citizens who aren't also Australian permanent residents or citizens) are not allowed to access Australian social security arrangements for the unemployed, and will have limited, or more usually, no access to the Australian government's health care payment arrangements.
Payment and taxes
Most Australian employers pay via direct deposit to Australian bank accounts and therefore you should open a bank account as soon as possible. Some banks allow you to open account from abroad, for example Commonwealth Bank and HSBC.
You should also apply for a Tax File Number (TFN) as soon as possible. You can apply on-line for free at the Australian Tax Office website, though you can generally get it quicker if you just go to one of their offices. You can start working without one, but you are advised to get one as soon as possible as your employer would have to withhold tax from your salary at the highest rate should you not provide one. Register your TFN with your bank as soon as possible, otherwise any interest you accrue will be taxed at the highest rate. The Australian financial year runs from 1st July to 30th June, and tax returns for each financial year are due on 30th October, four months after the accounting period ends. Check with Australian tax agents about Australian tax liability and filing an Australian tax return. A return can be filed relatively painlessly by creating a myGov account and linking it with the ATO (you may need to call the ATO for help linking your account if you don't have the right Australian-issued ID).
Along with your taxes, the ATO will collect a Medicare levy, 2% of your income which is used to fund the Australian public healthcare system. Some foreign workers are exempt from the levy; if that applies to you, make sure to apply for a Medicare Entitlement Statement so you can use it to get a refund. Apply early, as the statement can take time to issue and you need it when lodging your tax return.
Australian employers will make compulsory payments out of your earnings to an Australian superannuation (retirement savings) fund on your behalf. Visitors on temporary working visas who are not citizens of Australia or New Zealand should claim this money when they leave Australia. This payment is known as a Departing Australia Superannuation Payment (DASP) and you can apply online. New Zealand citizens can transfer their superannuation money to their New Zealand KiwiSaver account; contact your provider to arrange this.
Working holidaymaker scheme
Australia has a working holidaymaker program for citizens of certain countries between 18 and 30 years of age. It allows you to stay in Australia for 12 months from the time you first enter. You may work during that time, but only for 6 months at any one employer. The idea is for you to take a holiday subsidised by casual or short-term jobs. If you're interested in a working holiday, some useful skills and experience might be: office skills to be used for temp work; or hospitality skills to be used for bar or restaurant work. An alternative is seasonal work like fruit picking, although much seasonal work will require that you work outside the major cities. Working for 3 months in seasonal work will allow you to apply for a second 12-month visa.
You can apply online for a working holiday visa[dead link], but you must not be in Australia at the time. It takes just a few hours to process usually and it costs about $440 (as of March 2017). On arriving in Australia ask for the working holiday visa to be "evidenced", so you can show your future employer.
It's recommended to arrive in Australia with sufficient funds which is a minimum of $5000 if you are on a working holiday visa. The cost of living in Australia is quite high and it may take a few days or weeks to get a job.
Work visas in Australia change frequently and sometimes without any notice, so always check with your local Australian High Commission, Consulate or Embassy and the Immigration Department's website.
The most straightforward way to get a work visa (subclass 457, 186 & 187) is to find an Australian employer who will sponsor you. Your employer will need to demonstrate that they cannot hire anyone with your skills in Australia. Locally advertised jobs are usually explicit in requiring a valid work visa before your application can be considered. Getting the visa might take a couple of months from the beginning of the application process and you will need a medical examination by a doctor approved by the immigration officials before it can be granted (among other things, you will need a chest x-ray to show that you do not have tuberculosis). An employer with a good background and efficient immigration lawyers could get your 457 approved within a week. Your work visa will only be valid for the employer who sponsored you and you will have to leave within 30 days of your employment ending.
Regional Sponsored Migration Scheme (RSMS) visa (subclass 187) is the easiest employer nominated visa to acquire, although you will have to live and work in a designated 'regional' area. These areas are mostly rural and far removed from the larger cities, although Adelaide does count in this scheme.
Skilled independent visas (subclass 189, 190, 489) may be pursued if you have a valuable specialised skill and don't want to be tied to a specific employer.
There is also a temporary graduate visa (subclass 485) which allows graduates of Australian universities to stay on and work in Australia, and is usually valid anywhere from 18 months to 4 years depending on your level of education, and your major. Your major must be from a list of skilled occupations for which there is a labour shortage in Australia. This list is updated every year, and whether or not you qualify for this visa is dependent on the list at the time of your graduation, not at the time you begin your studies.
You can apply to immigrate as a skilled person or business person, but this process will take longer than receiving a work visa. You can also apply for permanent residency as the holder of a work or study visa, but your application will not be automatically accepted. If you have a lot of money, there are several investor's visas available which allow you to live in Australia with a view of obtaining permanent residency. After four years of legal residency which must include one year as a permanent resident, you are eligible to apply for Australian citizenship.
There are several volunteer opportunities in Australia. Many worldwide organisations offer extended travel for those wanting to volunteer their time to work with locals on projects such as habitat restoration, wildlife sanctuary maintenance & development, scientific research, & education programs such as Australian Volunteers, World Wildlife Fund, Gap 360, Go Discover Abroadand Xtreme Gap Year[dead link].
Unless you are actively trying to insult someone, a traveller is unlikely to insult or cause offence to an Australian through any kind of cultural ignorance.
Australian modes of address tend towards the familiar. It is acceptable and normal to use first names in all situations, even to people many years your senior. Many Australians are fond of using and giving nicknames - even to recent acquaintances. It is likely being called such a name is an indication that you are considered a friend and as such it would be rare they are being condescending.
It is generally acceptable to wear revealing clothing in Australia. Bikinis and swimming attire are okay on the beach, and usually at the kiosk across the road from the beach. It is normal to wear at least a shirt and footwear before venturing any further. Most beaches are effectively top optional (topless) while sunbathing. Just about all women wear a top while walking around or in the water. There are some clothing optional (nude) beaches, usually a little further removed from residential areas. Thong bikinis (more commonly called g-string bikinis in Australia as thongs refer to flip-flop footwear) are fine on all beaches and some outdoor pools for women and men, although they are not as common as conventional beachwear. Some outdoor pools have a "top required" policy for women.
Cover up a little more when visiting places of worship such as churches. In warm conditions casual "t-shirt and shorts" style clothing predominates except in formal situations. Business attire, however, is considered to be long sleeved shirt, tie, and long trousers for men, even in the hottest weather.
Using Australian stereotypical expressions may be viewed as an attempt to mock, rather than to communicate. If you pull it off well, you might raise a smile.
Australians are often self-deprecating; however, it is rude to ever agree with a self-deprecating remark. Boasting about achievements is rarely received well.
Social classes do not feature as prominently in Australia as they do in many other countries, and you will notice that tradespeople and manual labourers are very well paid and accorded a lot more respect in Australia than elsewhere. Be careful not to imply that you are looking down on people whose jobs may be considered menial by the standards of other countries. Service workers, including hotel staff, waiters, cleaners, taxi drivers and shop employees, expect that customers will treat them as equals.
Most Australians are happy to help out a lost traveller with directions, however many urban dwellers will assume that someone asking "excuse me", is asking for money, and may brush past. Looking lost, holding a map, looking like a backpacker or getting to the point quickly helps.
Aboriginal Australians likely arrived in the Australian landmass 65,000 years ago and number over half a million people today. They have faced significant discrimination over the years since European settlement took their traditional lands, and sensitivity should be given at all times. Aboriginal people actually come from many different 'nations' with distinctive cultures and identities that spoke up to 250 different languages before European settlement.
Many areas of Aboriginal land are free to enter. Some areas carry a request from the Aboriginal people not to enter, and you may choose yourself whether or not to honour or respect that request. Uluru holds great spiritual significance to the Anangu people, who live in the area; while climbing it used to be a popular tourist activity, it has been illegal since October 2019. The Anangu feel themselves responsible if someone is killed or injured on their land (as has happened many times during the climb), so please keep off.
Some Aboriginal land requires permission or a permit, and some areas are protected and illegal to enter. You should check before making plans to travel off the beaten track. Permits are usually just a formality for areas which regularly see visitors, or if you have some other business in the area you are travelling through. Often they are just an agreement to respect the land you are travelling on as Aboriginal land. Some Aboriginal Land Councils make them available online.
If you need to refer to race, the politically correct term is Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal people is usually okay and referring to sacred sites and land as Aboriginal sites, or Aboriginal land is okay too, though these terms only refer to people indigenous to mainland Australia or Tasmania. Avoid using Aboriginal as a noun to describe a person, as some people see negative connotations in this. The terms "Aborigine" or "Abo" are deeply offensive and should never be used. The word native generally not a preferred term, but reasonably acceptable – just use indigenous instead. People indigenous to the Torres Strait Islands do not identify as "Aboriginal", as they are more ethnically Melanesian than their southern neighbours; just stick to the term Torres Strait Islander.
Other areas to consider when interacting with indigenous Australians are:
- Australia Day is considered a day of invasion by many Aboriginal people, and consequential protests against that day is frequent.
- It is best not to mention the name, nor show any image of a deceased person to an indigenous Australian. Though Aboriginal custom varies, it is best to avoid the possibility of offence.
- Permission to photograph an Aboriginal person should always be asked, but in particular in the more remote areas such as Arnhem Land and Northern Territory.
- Avoid disrespecting sacred Aboriginal places like climbing on Uluru or the Three Sisters etc. While this may sound obvious that it's disrespectful, the number of indigenous sites that have been damaged, vandalised, or even destroyed by tourists is quite unimaginable.
- While indigenous Australians have been given equal rights on paper, they are still often arrested or pulled over by a cop for things that a non-indigenous person wouldn't usually get arrested for. Talking about this subject may be highly sensitive, and to this day, there's a case every now and then of Aboriginal people, particularly children getting assaulted by police. This topic should be avoided whenever possible.
Contemporary Australian society is rather secular, and only a minority of Australians go to church regularly. Most Australians are tolerant towards people of all faiths, and people wearing religious attires such as hijabs, kippahs or crucifixes will in general not face harassment although Islamophobia does exist. Attempting to proselytise or inconveniencing others with your religion, however, will more often than not result in a negative response. This includes diets, and often people who have dietary restrictions get given a frown, particularly in rural Australia, although in urban areas, it is more tolerated.
It can be very offensive to some, saying that Australia is or was a British country or that the culture is based solely on that of the UK. Australia is an independent country and Australians have many origins from all over the world, including most of the locals. It has a culture a bit similar to that of Europe, but there are a lot of things that are uniquely Australian and some that are brought from other countries of the world, not to forget the heavy American influence.
The number 000 (called 'triple zero' or 'triple oh') can be dialled from any telephone in Australia free of charge. This number will connect you with the police, fire brigade, coastguard or ambulance service after you tell the emergency operator which service you need.
If you want to contact these services but the situation is not an emergency, don't call 000: you can call the police assistance line on 131 444. This includes requesting a call out for noise complaints. Poisons information advice, which can also advise on snake, spider and insect bites, is available on 131 126. Information on locating the nearest medical services can be obtained by calling 1800 022 222 (except for Tasmania).
If you require assistance during a flood, storm, cyclone, tsunami, earthquake or other natural disaster you can contact the State Emergency Service in each state (except for Northern Territory) on 132 500. You will be connected with your local unit and help can be organised from there. If the emergency is life-threatening, call 000 instead.
You can dial 000 from all mobile phones. Mobile phones sold in Australia recognise it as the emergency number and will use any available network to place the call. However, if you have a phone obtained outside Australia, using the universal emergency number 112 is a better idea. Using 112 will use any available network, will work even if your phone is not roaming, and will work even if the phone does not have a SIM. 112 works from Australian purchased phones too.
Calls from fixed line (landline) phones may be traced to assist the emergency services to reach you. The emergency services have limited ability to trace the origin of emergency calls from mobile phones, especially outside of urban areas, so be sure to calmly and clearly provide details of your location. Because of the number sequence for emergency calls, around 60% of calls to the emergency numbers are made in error.
Nobody will likely respond to your call unless you can effectively communicate to the operator that you need assistance. If you are in need of assistance, but cannot speak, you will be diverted to an IVR and asked to press 55 to confirm that you are in need of assistance and have not called by accident. Your call will then be connected to the police.
Except for 112 from a mobile, emergency numbers from other countries (for example, '911', '17' or '100') do not work in Australia.
Keep a sense of perspective. Tourists are far more likely to be killed or injured as pedestrians, drivers or passengers on Australian roads than all the other causes of death and injury combined.
Driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs is prohibited. Most states use a prescribed standard of alcohol in the blood to determine whether driving is criminal. The prescribed (allowed) content ranges from zero to 0.05. Random breath testing for blood and alcohol is carried out.
Australia is a huge country and driving between cities and towns can take longer than you expect, especially if you are used to freeway or motorway driving in Europe, Asia or North America. While the major highways are comparable to those overseas, secondary highways in rural areas need to be treated with some care. Speed limits vary by location, road and by state. Avoid the stresses of fatigue by not planning to drive too far in a day. Authorities strongly recommend a break (with some walking outside the car) every two hours. Often, there are designated rest stops on numbered M, A routes as well as National Highways and Routes, but they are almost non existent on unpaved highways, state routes, B or C highways.
Driving between towns and cities comes with a risk of hitting or crashing due to swerving to avoid wildlife. Kangaroos have a habit of being spooked by cars and then, bewilderingly, jumping in front of them. Take extra care when driving through areas with vegetation close to the road and during dawn and dusk when wildlife is most active. Wildlife is not usually an issue in major urban areas (with the exception of Canberra where a series of parks provides ample habitat for kangaroos, which often cross major roads).
Urban Australians jaywalk, dodge cars, and anticipate the sequence of lights. Although most drivers will stop for a red light, running the amber light is common, so ensuring the traffic has stopped before stepping from the curb is always a good idea. People from countries that drive on the right will take a while to get used to looking the correct way when crossing.
Around 10–20 overseas travellers drown in Australia each year. Most of these drownings occur at ocean beaches, where statistics put visitors at significantly higher risk than locals. Check the Beach Safety website.
Beach goers should swim between the red and yellow flags which designate patrolled areas. Beaches are not patrolled 24-hours a day or even during all daylight hours. In most cases the local volunteer surf lifesavers or professional lifeguards are only available during certain hours, and at some beaches only on weekends, and often only during summer. If the flags aren't up, then there's no one patrolling. Many beaches in rural areas aren't patrolled at all. If you choose to swim, be aware of the risks, check conditions, stay within your depth, and don't swim alone.
Many beaches in Australia have a sudden drop off which can take non-swimmers by surprise. If in doubt, ask the locals.
Hard surfboards and other water craft such as surf skis, kayaks etc., are not permitted between the red and yellow flags. These craft must only be used outside of the blue 'surfcraft permitted' flags.
Australian ocean beaches can sometimes have strong rips that even the strongest swimmers cannot swim against. Rips are almost-invisible channels of water flowing away from the beach. Many locals can spot rips, so if in doubt, ask. These channels take out the water which the incoming surf waves bring into shore. Beach goers can mistakenly use these channels or areas since they can appear as calm water and look to be an easier area into which to swim. Problems arise when the swimmer tries to swim back into shore against the outgoing current or rip, tire quickly, and end up drowning. Rips can be recognised by one or more of these signs: a rippled appearance when the surrounding water is fairly calm; foam that extends beyond the break zone; brown, sandy coloured water; waves breaking further out on either side of the rip.
If you are caught in a rip at a patrolled beach, conserve your energy, float or tread water and raise one hand. The surf lifesavers will come out to you. Don't wait until you are so tired you can't swim any more. You will probably find that local swimmers or surfers will also quickly come to your aid. Usually the flags are positioned where there are no rips, but this isn't always the case as rips can move.
If you are caught in a rip at an unpatrolled beach stay calm to conserve energy and swim parallel to the beach (not against the pull of the current). Most rips are only a few metres wide, and once clear of the undertow, you will be able to swim or catch a wave to return to shore. Never swim alone. Don't think that the right technique will get you out of every situation. In the surf out the back of the beach, treading water can be hard with waves pounding you every few seconds. Unless you have seen it happen, it's hard to appreciate how quickly a rip can take you 50 m out to sea and into much larger wave breaks. If you are at an unpatrolled surf beach, proceed with great caution and never go out of your depth.
Beach signs often have a number or an alphanumeric code on them. This code can be given to emergency services if required so they can locate you quickly.
Crocodiles and Box Jellyfish are found on tropical beaches, depending on the time of year and area. Sharks occur on many of Australia's beaches. See the section below on dangerous creatures. Patrolled beaches will be monitoring the ocean for any shark activity. If you hear a continuous siren go off at the beach and a red and a red and white quartered flag is waved or held out of the tower, it indicates a shark sighting, so make your way to shore. Once it is clear, a short blast of the siren will be sounded, which usually means that it is safe to return to the water.
As a large country, Australia is affected by a range of natural disasters.
Tropical cyclones (hurricanes) occur in the tropics (the northern part) of Australia between November and April, and you should understand how a tropical cyclone may impact you during the tropical wet season. The impact of cyclones varies with their intensity and your proximity to them. Weak cyclones may just cost you a day or two of your holiday to rain and wind while you stay indoors in your hotel, and an hour's drive from the cyclone's centre can still have good weather. More severe tropical cyclones can be deadly to the unprepared, may force you to evacuate and can seriously disrupt your travel plans. Even low intensity cyclones or tropical depressions in more remote areas can close roads for days to weeks at a time.
On average, a town in the tropics experiences a tropical cyclone every 30 years or so. The sparseness of population in Australia's north and north-west (where cyclones are most prevalent) means that many cyclones pass the coast with little impact on towns.
Still, if you are planning to travel to the tropics during cyclone season, you should understand and review the Bureau of Meteorology's information page before you set out, and keep a general eye on the page while you travel for early alerts of any problems developing.
In the tropical north the Wet Season occurs over the summer months of December, January and February, bringing torrential rains and frequent floods to those regions. It is not unusual for some coastal areas to be cut off for a day or two while the water recedes. It can still be a good time to visit some of the well populated, tourist-oriented areas, and, except in unusually heavy flooding, you can still get to see the pounding waterfalls and other attractions that can make this an interesting time to visit.
Floods in outback and inland Australia are rare, occurring decades apart, so you would be unlucky to encounter them. However, if you are planning to visit the inland or the outback and the area is flooded, then you should reconsider. The land is flat, so the water can take weeks to move on, leaving the land boggy. Insects and mosquitoes go crazy with all the fresh water pooling around, and these things eat insect repellent for breakfast and are still hungry. Roads close, often adding many hours to driving times. Many attractions often lie on a short stretch of dirt road off the main highways, and these sections become impassable, even if the main road remains open. Plan to return in a few weeks, and the land will still be green, the lakes and rivers will still be flowing, and the bird life will still be around.
The wettest period for the south of the country is usually around the winter months of June, July, and August. There is rarely enough rain at one time to cause flooding. The capital cities are rarely, if ever, significantly affected by floods.
Flash flooding occurs in many eastern cities at least once a year, generally in summer, and is a nuisance. However, stay inside and follow the advice of SES and ABC local radio. Never attempt to drive in flood waters, dozens of cars are destroyed every year by the thought "it's not that deep". You don't want to be the person floating under that bridge waiting for the police to rescue you.
Flash flooding often brings large hail, which can damage cars. Seek undercover (not underground) car parking.
It is usually predictable. You'll generally hear grumblings about a storm coming from locals, and bom.gov.au will list a severe weather warning.
Australia is a very dry country with large areas of desert, and can also get very hot.
When travelling in remote areas, away from paved roads, where the potential to become stranded for up to a week without seeing another vehicle is very real, it is vital that you carry your own water supply (4 gal or 7 L per person per day). Do not be misled by entries on maps such as 'well' or 'spring' or 'tank' (or any entry suggesting that there is a body of water). Nearly all are dry, and most inland lakes are dry salt pans.
Many cities and towns have water restrictions, limiting use of water in activities like washing cars, watering gardens, or public showers. It is common to see signs in accommodation asking visitors to limit the length of their showers.
It is common for many regional towns public bathrooms water supply to be non-potable. Do not drink from a tap labeled "Do not drink" or "Non-potable", as this is generally just untreated groundwater.
Although Australia is not located on any plate boundaries, earthquakes occur from time to time. These are usually minor and very rarely cause major damage or fatalities.
Bushfires are a seasonal danger in many parts of Australia - and if you're venturing out into the bushland or rural areas it pays to check the fire danger and the status of any bushfire activity first. Although most fires are quickly controlled, on very hazardous fire days, bushfires can be life-threatening - especially if on foot, or not having the protection of a substantial building.
If you are caught in a bushfire, most fires will pass over quickly. You need to find shelter that will protect you from the smoke and radiant heat. A house is best, then a car, then a clearing, a cave, or on the beach is the best location. Wet everything that you can. Stay low and cover your mouth. Cover yourself with non-flammable (woollen) clothing or blankets, and reduce the skin directly exposed to the heat. If you have access to a tap gather water early; don't rely on water pressure as the fire front approaches.
The Fire Danger Rating (pictured to the right) tells you how dangerous a fire would be if one started. It is not a predictor of how likely a bushfire is to occur.
- Severe: Hot, dry and windy conditions. A fire that starts in these conditions may be uncontrollable. Only well prepared buildings that are actively defended can provide safety. Leave at the first sign of fire.
- Extreme: Hot dry and windy conditions. Any fires that start and take hold will be uncontrollable, unpredictable and fast moving. Only homes & buildings built to withstand bushfires that are well prepared and actively defended may provide safety. Avoid forested areas, thick bush or long, dry grass, It is recommended to leave such areas to ensure you are not caught up in a bushfire.
- Catastrophic/code red: These are the worst conditions possible for a bush or grass fire. Avoid forested areas, thick bush or long, dry grass. It is highly advisable to leave forested and bushy areas.
It is worth noting that many locals will leave their outback homes to seek refuge in large towns for the entire day, on the few days per year designated as "Catastrophic".
National parks and state forests
If the fire risk is extreme or higher, national parks may be closed, especially the backcountry areas, so you will need to have an alternative plan if you intend to camp or hike in parks during summer. If there is a fire in a park, it will usually be closed entirely.
If you are staying in a park or forest during an extreme fire danger period the safest option is to leave the night before or early in the day. If you learn of a fire, or see smoke, take action quickly.
Travelling during active fires or during the fire season
If you are driving outside of cities during bushfire season, tune in to local ABC radio. During a bushfire or any other ongoing emergency, every thirty minutes a warning siren will sound, followed by an update on the current bushfire situation in that area. You may receive evacuation warnings on your phone.
Emergency and bushfire management is a state responsibility in Australia - so find the website or app appropriate for the state you are in. Websites such as Emergency WA and VicEmergency list all current emergencies in their respective states and are often the most up-to-date method of getting information about a current emergency.
It is possible that you will get yourself into a situation where it becomes too late to leave.
During the bushfire season, have a plan consisting of two escape routes, and the ability to pack what you need quickly.
Shopping Centres or Main streets of built up towns are safe locations to be in during Extreme or Code Red days, unless you hear otherwise via radio.
Entire country towns can sometimes be evacuated when there is a bushfire threatening them. Often there can be no signs of the fire at evacuation time, but you should leave early, as evacuating through a fire front is dangerous. The best advice is just to move on, and not stay around to watch.
Make sure any fires you light are legal and kept under control. The fire service operates a total fire ban system during periods of extreme fire danger. When a total fire ban is in place all outdoor fires are forbidden. Most parks will advertise a ban, and it is your responsibility to check the local fire danger levels. Fines or even jail terms apply for lighting fires that get out of control, not to mention the feeling you may get at being responsible for the property, wildlife, and person damage that you may cause.
Venomous and dangerous creatures
- See also: Pests
Although Australia is home to many of the deadliest species of insects, reptiles and marine life on the planet, the traveller is unlikely to encounter any of these in an urban environment, and even in the bush these creatures try to avoid humans for the most part. The vast majority of deaths from bites and stings in Australia are due to allergic reactions to bees and wasps.
Some of the information spread about Australia's dangerous wildlife is blown out of proportion, often jokingly by Australians themselves. However, you should take warnings about jellyfish and crocodiles seriously in the tropics, and keep your distance from snakes in the national parks and bushland.
If travelling in rural areas it would be a good idea to carry basic first aid equipment including compression bandages and to learn what to do after a snake or spider bite.
It's not common to encounter snakes in urbanised areas in Australia, but they are common in grassland, national parks and other bushland. Snakes will generally try to put as much distance between themselves and you as possible, so if you see a snake while out walking, simply go around it or walk the other way. Walking blindly into dense bush and grassy areas is not advisable, as snakes may be hiding there. For the most part, snakes fear humans and will be long gone before you ever get the chance to see them.
Never try to pick up any snake, even if you believe it to be a non-venomous species. Most people bitten by snakes were trying to pick up the snake or kill the creature, or inadvertently step on one while out walking.
Australia has some snakes that are deadly. So treat all snakes with respect, and seek medical treatment urgently for any snake bite. Take a first-aid kit suitable for snake-bites if you are going off the beaten track. If bitten you should immobilise the wound by wrapping the affected area tightly with strips of clothing or bandages and seek immediate medical help. Do not clean the wound as venom residues can be tested to determine the anti-venom to use. If you are in an isolated area send someone else for help. The venom of some snakes (the taipan in particular) can take effect within fifteen minutes, but if the wound is immediately immobilised and you rest it is possible to delay the onset of the venom spreading by one to a few hours. Polyvalent anti-venoms are available in most hospitals that contain anti-venom for all dangerous Australian snakes.
Although famous for its arachnids, fatalities from spiders in Australia are extremely rare. It is common to see spiders in Australia, and most will do you no harm. Wear gloves while gardening or handling leaf litter. Check or shake out clothing, shoes, etc. that have been left outside before putting them on. Don't put your fingers under rocks or into tree holes, where spiders might be. Some spiders are commonly found inside buildings and homes, including the large and hairy Huntsman spiders, that are generally harmless, and reduce insect pests like cockroaches. The large spider webs strung between trees occupied by garden or orb weaving spiders are more an annoyance than a danger.
However, some spiders are also very dangerous. The world's most venomous spider is the Sydney Funnel-Web spider, found in and around Sydney and eastern New South Wales - usually under rocks and leaf litter. The spider is anywhere up to 5 cm large, and is usually black. If you are in an area that is known for having Funnel-Web spiders and you are bitten by a spider that you believe could be a Funnel-Web it is important you get to hospital as quickly as possible. The Funnel-Web spends most of its time underground (it can typically live for only 30 minutes outside a humid hole) and therefore you are very unlikely to encounter one walking around. The last confirmed fatality was in 1979.
The Red Back spider (usually easily identified by a red mark on its abdomen) is common and after a bite it is important to seek medical attention, although it is not as urgent as with a Funnel-Web. Red Backs typically hide in dark places and corners. It is highly unusual to see them indoors; however, they can hide in sheds, around outdoor tables and chairs and under rocks or other objects sitting on the ground.
First aid treatment for spider bites may vary in Australia compared to other areas of the world. Always seek medical advice after a bite has occurred. If possible, you should attempt to identify the creature that bit you. Take a photo or trap it so that the appropriate anti-venom can be administered swiftly. But don't risk getting bitten again.
Travellers in northern Queensland, the Northern Territory, or northern Western Australia should be aware of the risk of fatal stings from the Box Jellyfish if swimming in the ocean between October and May. They are very hard to detect and can be found in very shallow water. Stings from these jellyfish are 'excruciating' and often fatal. Vinegar applied immediately to adhering tentacles will lessen the amount of venom injected, but immediate medical assistance will be required. The danger season varies by location. In general the jellyfish are found close to shore, as they reproduce in the estuaries. They are not generally found out on the Great Barrier Reef, and many people swim on the reef without taking any precautions. Seek out reliable local information. Some locals at the beach can be cavalier to the risks.
Irukandji are another species of tiny (fingernail sized) jellyfish that inhabit the waters off Northern Australia and the surrounding Indo-Pacific islands. They are also very hard to see, and can be dangerous, although stings are rare. Unlike the box jellyfish they are found out on the reef. The initial sting can go unnoticed. There is debate as to whether they can be fatal, but they certainly can place a victim in hospital, and cause extreme pain lasting days. If you have nausea or shooting pains shortly after emerging from the water seek medical treatment.
A "stinger-suit" that is resistant to jellyfish stings costs around $100 or can be hired for around $20 a week.
Blue ring octopus
Found in rock pools around the coasts of Australia is the tiny Blue Ring Octopus. Usually a dull sandy-beige colour, the creature has bright blue circles on its skin if threatened. The Blue Ring Octopus is rare and shy. Avoid placing your hand under rocks or in crevaces in rock pools or near the shore as this is where they tend to hide. Most locals do the same. It has a powerful paralysing toxin which can cause death unless artificial respiration is provided. In the history of Australia there are only two confirmed deaths by Blue Ring Octopus.
Travellers in northern Queensland, the Northern Territory or north Western Australia should be aware of the risk of fatal attacks by saltwater crocodiles in and adjacent to northern waters (ocean, estuarine and fresh water locations) between King Sound, Western Australia, and Rockhampton, Queensland. Saltwater crocodiles in these areas can reach 25 feet in length and can attack in water without warning. Despite what their name implies, they can be found in both salt and fresh water. On land, crocodiles usually lie motionless, but they have the ability to move with extraordinary speed in short bursts. There are relatively few attacks causing injury – most attacks are fatal. Dangerous swimming areas will usually have prominent warning signs. In these regions only swim in inland waters if you are specifically advised that they are safe. Since 1970 there has been about one crocodile attack on a human each year.
The smaller freshwater crocodile is, unlike the saltwater, timid and will avoid humans if possible. The freshwater may attack to defend itself or its eggs or if startled. They can inflict a nasty bite but due to their small jaws and teeth this will rarely cause death in humans.
The Gympie bush (Dendrocnide moroides), also known as the stinging tree, is a stinging plant, whose microscopic stinging hairs on leaves and branches can cause severe pain for up to several weeks. They are mostly found in northeast Queensland, especially in rain forest clearings. However, the Gympie bush and other closely related species (there are about five) of stinging tree can be found in southeast Queensland, and further south in eastern Australia. People bushwalking in such areas are advised not to touch the plant for any reason.
Crime rates in Australia are roughly comparable with other developed countries: few travellers will be victims of crime. You should take normal precautions against bag snatching, pick pocketing and the like. Some cities and towns have areas that can be dangerous at night, but these are generally off the tourist trail and highly unlikely for you to wander into by accident.
Australian police are approachable and trustworthy, and you should report assaults, theft or other crime to the police as soon as possible.
There are two types of police in Australia; the state/territorial police and the Australian Federal Police (AFP). Typically you will only interact with the state police, with the AFP being largely dedicated to very specific government-related roles, the exception being the Australian Capital Territory where the AFP is the main police force, operating under the name of ACT Policing.
Under no circumstances should you offer an Australian police officer (or for that matter, any other government official such as a customs officer) a bribe or gratuity, as this is a crime and they will enforce the laws against it.
When leaving your car alone, make sure it is locked, that the windows are rolled up, and that there are no obvious targets for theft in the vehicle, as thieves will often smash windows to get at a phone, GPS or bag that is visible in the car.
Australia is outwardly a multicultural and racially tolerant society and there are strong laws that prohibit hate speech and other forms of discrimination on grounds of race. Nevertheless, racism is still a sensitive subject for a nation still not fully reconciled to its history of colonial occupation. Forced appropriation of Aboriginal lands along with formal discrimination, state-sanctioned racism and even forced separation of Aboriginal children (known as the Stolen Generations) from their families extended well into the 20th century. Gradual change throughout the last century saw the abandonment of the white-only immigration policy, citizenship for the Aboriginal people, and the establishment of large communities of Asian, Middle Eastern and African origin. However, to this day, Aboriginal people are still discriminated against, and while on paper, they have equal rights, they are often charged for things that a white person would usually not.
Visitors to Australia are fortunately unlikely to encounter random incidents of racial abuse. If it does happen then you can report it to the police and expect action to be taken. Violent incidents are even rarer.
Words referring to racial background can be used between friends of different ethnic groups, but it is strongly advised not to try them out yourself. You may well hear Pom (British), Yank (American), Paki (Indian sub-continent), Wog (of southern European or middle-eastern) and Curry Muncher (South Indian) being used. In particular British people would regard some of these terms as particularly racist, but they are used far more casually in Australia. Never refer to Aboriginal people as "Abo's", "native tribes" or "Noogas" - as it is regarded as a highly racist term.
There are anti-immigration and anti-multicultural groups that operate in Australian society, for the most part agitating against the immigration of people from Muslim and African countries. As a visitor you would be unlikely to come into contact with them, although if it's late at night in a pub, and you start prodding people for their racial views, then all bets are off - be prepared for anything. The western suburbs of Melbourne has experienced some violent crime involving youths of African descent, which in turn has been greatly exaggerated by much of the local media and many politicians, fuelling racist sentiments.
It is not offensive to use Aussie (Ozzie) to describe Australian people, but it isn't a term Australians generally use to self-identify. They are more likely to apply it to things (Aussie Rules, etc.) than to themselves. When the chant of Aussie, Aussie, Aussie - Oi Oi Oi goes up at an international sporting event, some Australians will cringe, and others will join in. Often this depends on their own perceived social standing, or their state of inebriation, or both.
And while Australia may seem multicultural in major cities such as Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Gold Coast, Newcastle, Hobart or Canberra; rural areas are usually less so and stick to their Anglo-Celtic roots. People who do not look Aussie on the outside are often subject to racism, though this is usually targeted at immigrants (often those of Vietnamese, Middle Eastern or Somali descent) rather than tourists.
Attempts to scam tourists are not prevalent in Australia; take normal precautions such as finding out a little bit about your destination. There have been rare instances of criminals tampering with ATMs so that cash is trapped inside them, or so that they record card details for thieves. You should check your transaction records for odd transactions after using an ATMs and immediately contact the bank controlling the ATM if a transaction seems to be successful but the machine doesn't give you any cash. Always cover the keypad with your hand when entering your PIN to prevent any skimming devices which have cameras recording your PIN.
ATM Skimming is rare and easily avoided by using ATMs from trusted banks (ANZ, Commonwealth, Westpac, Nab), or ATMs located inside a bank "gallery" which are generally open 24/7 but are more secure than an outdoor ATM.
Additionally, the ATO will never try and ask you to pay off your debts with Spotify or iTunes gift cards, and this ongoing scams have been targeting especially the elderly and those who are unaware of it. If you go to a Coles, Woolies, Myer, Target, Big W, Kmart etc. there will be warning notices at all checkouts, and it can never hurt to read it.
Opium, heroin, amphetamines (speed), cocaine, LSD and ecstasy are all illegal to possess and to sell in all jurisdictions of Australia. Trafficking offences carry a long jail term, and in serious cases can even lead to life imprisonment. Australia shares information on drug trafficking with other countries, even those with the death penalty.
Medical use of cannabis is legal on a federal level, although obtaining a prescription is generally a time-consuming ordeal not feasible for a visitor. As of 2022, the Australian Capital Territory (Canberra) remains the first and only state to legalize personal use. In South Australia and Northern Territory, possession of personal use quantities is decriminalized, although on-the-spot fines still apply. In all other states possession remains a criminal offense, and foreigners should not expect more lenient treatment than locals from Australian police for drug offences. Driving while under the influence of drugs is a serious offence, and doing so will invariably lead to arrest and prosecution, and in serious cases even a jail sentence.
Do not under any circumstances attempt to bring illicit drugs into Australia, including marijuana; this is strictly illegal and punishable with long jail terms of up to life in prison, and customs officers often employ dogs to sniff drugs out of arriving passengers' luggage. Dogs can even tell that you smoked marijuana from the day before you flew to Australia, so you may be held back for some long questioning.
Australia's proximity to Asia means that heroin is a far more commonly used illicit drug than cocaine or crack cocaine. In some areas of large cities you will need to be careful of discarded needles: however these will generally be found in back streets rather than in popular tourist spots.
Firearm ownership is rare in Australia, with strict licensing requirements resulting in gun ownership being typically limited to hunters and farmers in rural areas, as well as sport shooters. Criminal gangs sometimes carry illegal firearms in urban areas, although it is unlikely that travellers will run into them.
It is very difficult to bring firearms into Australia, with a police permit required for each federal state to be visited before arrival.
Gay and lesbian travellers
- See also: LGBT travel
Australia has an equal age of consent set at 16 for all states except Tasmania and South Australia where the age is 17. Same sex marriage is legal in Australia, having been passed into law in December 2017 after the nation strongly voted for it (with 61% choosing change) in a national postal survey.
Attitudes to homosexuality are similar to those found in most Western countries. Although inner Sydney is one of the most gay-friendly cities in the world, caution is still advisable in conservative rural areas, including rural parts of Queensland and the Northern Territory. Australia has outlawed discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, and legal recourse may be available should you experience discrimination. Police assistance may be difficult to obtain in remote and rural areas for discrimination.
Sydney is Australia's gay capital, and hosts one of the world's most famous gay pride festivals - the Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras - annually during February and March. The festival culminates in a huge parade through central Sydney which attracts hundreds of thousands of spectators. Alice Springs celebrates the "Alice Is Wonderland Festival", a gay and lesbian pride festival in late April/early May. Melbourne has a "Pride March" every year on the first Sunday of February.
Exposure to the sun at Australian latitudes frequently results in sunburn, and Australia has one of the highest skin cancer rates in the world. Getting sunburnt can make you feel feverish and unwell and may take a few days or weeks to heal depending on the severity. It means you can't go back out into the sun until the sunburn fades, so getting sunburnt on the first day of your beach holiday can seriously reduce the fun of your trip. It can take as little as 15 minutes to burn in Australia on a fine summer's day, even in shaded outdoor areas. You should wear sunscreen (SPF 50+), clothing, and a hat to shade the sun.
Re-apply sunscreen every 2–3 hours throughout the day as it wears off quickly if you are sweating or swimming. Make sure to cover all parts of your body. UV radiation in the middle of the day can be double what it is in the early morning or later afternoon, so if possible avoid the sun during the hottest part of the day. Daily UV forecasts are issued by the Bureau of Meteorology online.
Spray On Sunscreen from an aerosol bottle is popular because of its ease of use, however it is far less effective than tradition sunscreen.
If you are heading to the beach, consider buying a sun-tent (less than $20 from discount and hardware stores). You generally can't hire beach umbrellas at Australian beaches, and they are very exposed.
Australia has high hygiene standards, with restaurants required to observe strict food preparation standards. Food poisoning rates are comparable to other first world nations.
The tap water in urban Australia is always safe to drink. Occasionally you may encounter recycled water taps which are for watering plants and not drinking; these should be coloured purple. Public drinking fountains and bottle refill stations are common in cities and at tourist attractions. The taste and hardness of the tap water will vary considerably across the country. Some cities such as Adelaide rely on ground water supplies that have an unpleasant taste, but are perfectly safe. Many households use water purifier jugs. Bottled water is also widely available. Carrying water on hot days is a good idea in urban areas, and it is a necessity if hiking or driving out of town. Remoter areas in the outback may not have treated drinking water on tap. At sites where tap water is untreated, water sterilization tablets may be used as an alternative to boiling. If driving long distances on infrequently trafficked roads it is essential to carry drinking water. This is absolutely necessary in hotter areas and on dirt roads or tracks. It is rare that someone does not die of thirst in outback Australia in any year. It is recommended that in event of a breakdown you stay with the car for shade and to increase your chances of being found. Before long-distance touring seek specific advice on calculating how much water to carry for the proposed journey and allowing for breakdowns.
Australia does not have endemic communicable diseases that will require non-standard vaccinations. Like many other countries, it will require evidence of yellow fever vaccinations on entry if you will have been in a country with a risk of infection within 6 days before your arrival in Australia.
Mosquitoes are present all year round in the tropics, and during the summer in southern areas. Screens on windows and doors are common, and repellent is readily available. Ross River Virus is spread by mosquitoes in the tropics, and can make you sick for a few weeks. There have been cases of dengue fever, for which no specific treatment exists. Malaria is not present in mainland Australia.
As described above, 000 is the Australian emergency services number and in any medical emergency you should call this number and ask for an ambulance and other emergency services as necessary, to attend.
Australia has first world medical standards. In particular, it is safe to receive blood transfusions in Australia, as donors are screened for HIV, hepatitis and many other blood borne illnesses.
Australia's population density is low; parts of Australia are a long way from medical facilities of any kind. Many of these areas are served by the Royal Flying Doctor Service. Small towns with populations of 5,000 or more will have a small hospital capable of giving emergency treatment. Larger towns will have a base hospital capable of routine and some kinds of emergency surgery. In some cases you may need to be evacuated to one of the capital cities for specialist treatment.
Capital cities will have medical centres where you can drop in, often open on weekends or until late. In country towns you may have to make an appointment and may have no alternative other than the closest hospital after hours and weekends. You can also expect to wait a few hours if your condition isn't urgent.
- Poisons Information Hotline, ☏ 13 11 26 (in country only). Give free advice if any medication or poisons are taken inadvertently. They will also give advice on what treatment is necessary for things like a spider bite. However, if you think you are in any immediate danger, call '000' for an ambulance.
Medical costs and travel insurance
Australian citizens and permanent residents who live in Australia can receive health care through the taxpayer funded Medicare. Foreigners working or studying in Australia and without a reciprocal agreement are generally required to take up private health insurance as part of their visa conditions. Foreigners on a short visit will want to make sure their travel insurance is in order, as medical costs can be expensive for those not entitled to Medicare benefits. Medicare does not cover private hospitals or dental care, so you will need to obtain private health insurance to pay for these.
Travellers from Belgium, Finland, Ireland, Italy, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Slovenia, Sweden and the United Kingdom are entitled to free reciprocal Medicare treatment for medical problems that occur during their visit. It is advisable to familiarise yourself with the conditions of the reciprocal arrangement with your country. For example, Irish people and New Zealanders are only entitled to free treatment at a hospital, whereas the other reciprocal nationalities are entitled to subsidised treatment at general practitioners as well. No reciprocal programs cover private hospitals, and the full cost will have to be met by yourself or with travel insurance.
If you are not a citizen or permanent resident of a reciprocal agreement country then travel insurance is highly recommended. You can expect to pay around $80 to see a general practitioner, plus any additional costs for any pathology or radiology required. The charge to visit a local hospital can be much more expensive, private hospitals even more so. You can pay up to $500 even if you are not admitted, and possibly several thousand dollars if you are. Rescue and Royal Flying Doctor Services are provided for free, but evacuation or ambulance services can cost many thousands of dollars from a country town to a capital city, or from an island to the mainland.
Even if you are an Australian citizen, ambulance and evacuation services are not provided free of charge. If an air-ambulance is required this can still cost thousands of dollars. Most health-insurance companies sell ambulance only cover valid Australia-wide. Ambulance membership programs may only cover you in your own state - check before travelling interstate. Domestic travel insurance does not usually cover medical or ambulance expenses. Medicare cover does not include ambulance costs (at least several hundred dollars) in the event of an emergency; only private insurance with ambulance cover will pay for this.
Snake and spider bite anti-venom is very expensive. The cost can be well over $10,000 even if you don't need a stay in hospital.
Australia offers many Internet access options for travellers:
Internet cafes are available in most tourist areas and normally cost $4–5 per hour. However, many internet cafes have 12-20 computers sharing a single broadband connection, sometimes making the internet painfully slow. If possible, ask if you can check the speed of a cafe's connection before forking out $4–5 for an hour.
Public libraries usually offer some form of Internet access to travellers, either free or for a small fee. Some prohibit access to email, promoting research use of their facilities. Others offer Wi-Fi and terminals, with Wi-Fi usually being free of restrictions.
Major hotels offer Internet access, usually for an exorbitant fee. Most youth hostels and backpacker accommodation have at least an Internet terminal at reception. Some other accommodation providers offer Wi-Fi to their guests, almost always with a charge. It is still common to find motels and other smaller hotels without any Internet offering to customers.
- Many coffee shops offer Wi-Fi free to their customers.
- McDonald's has free Wi-Fi in just about all their stores.
- Internode has free Wi-Fi hotspots, including much of Adelaide city centre.
- Telstra has partnered with Fon to create an extensive network of WiFi hotspots around Australia that utilise Telstra telephone boxes and Telstra broadband customers to create hotspots that go by the name Telstra Air with the slogan 'Australia's largest WiFi Network'. Look for a distinctive white WiFi logo on solid pink and the words 'Telstra Air' to indicate major hotspots. The networks appear in WiFi lists as 'Telstra Air' or 'Fon WiFi'. Expect good coverage in city centre areas although it may require some searching to locate a hot spot outside of CBD areas. Hot spot maps are available on the Telstra and Fon websites.
- Access can be purchased for $6.60 for 1 hour, $10 for 1 day or $23 for 5 days.
In major urban centres, you'll find free Wi-Fi in shopping malls and other large shops and increasingly on public transport: Sydney's ferries offer free Wi-Fi as do Adelaide's trams.
There are three mobile networks in Australia. All of them provide 3G/UMTS, 4G/LTE, and 5G mobile data services.
As the data is carried over the mobile network, the advice about frequencies, obtaining SIMs and using a foreign device in the Mobile Cellular Phones section applies.
If you intend to use your phone with your home carrier, check with them for data roaming fees (likely quite expensive). If your handset isn't locked, it may be much cheaper to buy a local SIM.
Several carriers offer prepaid mobile data access with no contract from around $20-30 per month with various bundles and inclusions. For around $50 you can get a USB modem or Wi-Fi dongle. There are thousands of plans available through hundreds of resellers. Using an internet comparison site will direct you to the best deals.
Radio and television
Australia has 2 national public broadcasters, the ABC and SBS. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (or ABC) broadcasts Local Radio, Triple J (Youth/Indie music) and ABC Classic on AM/FM Radio as well as 5 TV channels. The Special Broadcasting Service (or SBS) broadcasts more ethnic, bilingual and cultural content on 6 TV channels and 2 analog radio stations. Both broadcasters are available in most populous areas but the ABC has a greater radio coverage.
There are 3 free-to-air commercial TV networks, namely Seven, Nine and Ten; all or most are available in a majority of areas. In regional areas, affiliates such as WIN, Imparja, and Prime will carry feeds from major networks along with some local programming.
You should expect to be able to receive and watch all these channels in almost all accommodation in towns and cities across Australia.
On Pay TV operator is also available called Foxtel - transmitted by Cable, Satellite, and Internet. Some hotels will advertise free Foxtel, which means you should also be able to view the main international news channels and lots of light entertainment reruns. hey may also subscribe to a range of sports and movies, but you should check first.
The bigger the city, the more radio stations you'll find. Country towns will often just have one commercial radio station and the ABC. If you're driving the distances between country towns, you can often lose all radio coverage. Download some music or podcasts for the trip before you leave. It's advisable to stay tuned to the ABC if travelling during emergencies or high bushfire risk periods.
DAB+ Digital Radio is available in capital cities, but receivers aren't installed in cars or most accommodation. If you have a digital radio, you'll get a handful of extra music channels.
The main national broadsheet newspaper is The Australian, with The Australian Financial Review focussing on financial and business news. There are also other newspapers that are published locally within their respective states, the most notable ones being The Sydney Morning Herald and The Daily Telegraph, both based in Sydney, and The Age and Herald Sun, both based in Melbourne.
Calling overseas from Australia
The main international access code or prefix is 0011 (when using a mobile phone the plus symbol "+" can be used instead of the 0011 prefix).
The country code for international calls to Australia is +61. When dialling from overseas, omit any leading '0' in the area code. The area code is optional when calling from the same area code area.
Norfolk Island and Australian-Antarctic bases use the +672 code, not Australia's country code. See the specific articles.
The "+" stands for the international dialling prefix, 0011 if calling overseas from Australia, 00 in most of Europe, 011 in the USA and Canada, substituted automatically on mobile phones and most other smart dialling devices.
Australian area code list:
- 02 = Central East (New South Wales, Australian Capital Territory and north-eastern fringe of Victoria)
- 03 = South East (Southern NSW, Victoria and Tasmania)
- 04 = Mobile phones Australia-wide (higher call charges apply)
- 07 = North East (Queensland and parts of Northern NSW)
- 08 = Central & West (Western Australia, South Australia, the Northern Territory and Western New South Wales)
There is also the "05" calling code which is for mobile numbers, but to this date, none have ever been implemented to this day.
Local calls are free of charge.
- If calling an Australian number from outside Australia, use the format +61880803300 (no "0" area code prefix; substitute the relevant international dialling prefix for the "+" if needed).
- If making an international call from within Australia dial the international dialling prefix or "+", followed by the country code, followed by destination area code, followed by the local number at the destination. For most countries you need to omit the area code prefix (usually "0" as in Australia).
For example, the local number for the Moree tourist information is 6757-3350. The area code is 02 as Moree is in the Central East area code region. To dial the number from Sydney or anywhere else inside the same area code, just dial 6757-3350. To dial the number from Brisbane or anywhere in Australia outside the area code region, you will need to dial 02 6757-3350. If you don't know your area code region, you can include the area code, and it will work regardless of from where you are calling. To dial the number from overseas you will need to dial +61 2 6757-3350.
- Numbers commencing with 13 are charged at a local call rate, and what they connect you to can vary according to your location. They can be 10 or 6 digit numbers. For example, 1300 796 222, will connect you with the Albury tourist information, no matter where you are in Australia. However, 131 008 will connect you with a different local taxi service depending on where you are. 13 22 32 will connect you to New South Wales Railways in Sydney or Victorian Railways in Melbourne. Calling these numbers internationally can be problematic.
- Numbers commencing with 18 are free when dialled from a payphone or fixed phone, and commonly used for hotel reservation numbers, or tourist information numbers.
- Numbers commencing with 19 are premium numbers, often with very hefty call charges (make sure you check before dialling).
- Numbers commencing with 12 are carrier services, and are dependent on what network you are connected to. For example, 12 456 is a general information number for Telstra. Vodafone offer a similar services on 123. These numbers can be premium services as well.
Calling special numbers internationally can often work - just try dialling the number prefixed with the +61 country code. Many locations will give an alternative direct number for use in international dialling.
Making reverse charge (collect) calls is very expensive and can be problematic. You can use 12550 from a Telstra public phone, or 1800 NO CASH from any phone. But you have to be calling a number that will accept the charges (usually a landline or mobile on a mainstream telco).
Mobile cellular phones
Australia has cellular networks operated by Telstra, Optus and Vodafone, and each of the networks have several resellers with different price plans. All three operate UMTS/HSPA (3G), LTE (4G), and 5G networks.
There are no restrictions on overseas residents obtaining Australian prepaid SIM cards, although you may require some form of photo ID such as your passport for identification.
2G-only and CDMA phones (phones without a SIM card) will not work in Australia. All 2G networks in Australia have been shut down.
Telstra and Vodafone have 3G HSPA+ services on 850/2100 MHz, and Optus on 900/2100 MHz. These are still the greatest geographical range of service. 4G LTE is widely available most centres on all carriers. Support for 4G band 28 (700 MHz) on newer phones is necessary to get good 4G coverage outside of major centres and better coverage in them. On 5G Networks, all of Australia's networks run on the n78 frequencies with Optus running on n40 mid-band, n257 for high-band, and n1 for low-band; Telstra at n258 and n5, and Vodafone at n28.
With foreign SIM cards, international roaming is generally seamless onto Australia's 3G (UMTS/W-CDMA) and 4G networks, depending on agreements between operators. 5G networks are different with frequencies and can vary with the compatibility of your phone. Check with your home operator before you leave.
All major cities and their suburbs have decent coverage on all three networks, as do most significant country towns and inter-capital links. Telstra's 850 MHz 3G network provides the best rural coverage (though it is also the most expensive), but unpopulated or sparsely populated areas away from major roads are unlikely to have service at all. If you are heading way out into the bush then a satellite phone may be your only option. Remember all mobile phones can be used for emergency calls on all networks, even if they don't have a local SIM or aren't roaming. This applies to satellite phones too.
A cheap prepaid mobile phone with a SIM retails for around $40 in most Australian retail outlets, supermarkets, and post offices; a SIM alone for an existing phone is around $2–3. Prepaid credit is added using recharge cards available at all supermarkets, newsagents, some ATMs, and other outlets.
You can buy a seemly infinite variety of packages, SIM cards, and phone bundles, with varied combinations of data, SMS and call time. Some carriers make calculating included calls difficult, by giving you a dollar "value" that is included in your package, and you then need to find the call, sms and data rates to calculate what is included. These rates can differ from plan to plan. Make sure the plan you choose includes what you need, because using data or making calls outside of the package allowance is often orders of magnitude more expensive.
If you need comprehensive coverage in rural and remote areas, you can use a satellite phone. Iridium, Globalstar and Thuraya satellite services are available in Australia. Expect to pay around $120 per week to hire a satellite phone, plus call costs. Satellite messaging units, which send your location and a help SMS or email, can be hired for around $80 per week.
These units are only available from specialist dealers, often only in major cities (away from the remote areas you may be visiting). You should be able to acquire or hire these units in your home country before departure if you wish.
Satellite phones can be used to make emergency calls without a SIM card or subscription plan. The cheapest cost around $300, or just a little more than a PLB.
Most towns and suburbs have at least one public phone. Most railway stations will have a public phone. All public phones in Australia are free for local calls to landlines and mobiles. International calls may be made using Telstra or third-party calling cards available from newsagents. Free text messages can be sent from any Telstra public phone, using the keypad in much the same way as an old-style mobile phone. Follow the instructions on the phone display.
Australia Post runs Australia's postal service. Letters can be posted in any red Australia Post posting box, which are found at all post offices and many other locations. All stamps can be purchased from post offices, and some stamps can be purchased from newsagents and hotels. Posting a standard letter or postcard costs $1.10 within Australia (up to 250g), and between $2.50 and $3.70 internationally (up to 20g). Sending international letters up to 50g is cheaper in November & December, at $2.40, but the letter must have "card only" written on the front. 'Domestic' and 'international' stamps are different, as international is tax free, therefore, so make sure you use the right stamp. Parcels, express post and other services are also available.
Addresses in Australia are generally formatted in the following way, which is similar to addresses in the United States and Canada
Name of recipient
(If needed) Unit number or building name
House number and street name
City or town, two or three-letter state abbreviation, postcode
You can receive mail via Poste Restante in any city or town. Mail should be addressed to your full name c/o Post Restante. ID is needed to pick up your mail.