Spain (Spanish: España) is famous for its friendly inhabitants, relaxed lifestyle, its cuisine, vibrant nightlife, and world-famous folklore and festivities, and its history as the core of the vast Spanish Empire.
Spain is a diverse country with contrasting regions that have different languages and unique historical, political and cultural traditions. Because of this, Spain is divided into 17 autonomous communities (comunidades autónomas), plus two autonomous cities. As a result, some even describe Spain as a "federation without federalism". Some of the autonomous communities—notably the ones which have other official languages alongside Spanish—have been recognised as "historical nationalities" that have a unique historical identity. These include the Basque Country, Catalonia, Galicia, the Valencian region, Andalusia, the Balearic Islands, Aragon and the Canary Islands.
Spain's many regions can be grouped as follows:
|Green Spain (Galicia, Asturias, Cantabria)|
Mild climate, stark mountains, and ties to the sea.
|Northern Spain (Aragon, Basque Country, Navarre, La Rioja)|
Known for its cuisine and for landscapes ranging from the beaches of San Sebastián to the wineries of La Rioja.
|Eastern Spain (Catalonia, Valencia, Murcia)|
Impressive Roman ruins and popular Mediterranean beaches.
|Central Spain (Community of Madrid, Castile-La Mancha, Castile and Leon, Extremadura)|
With a more extreme climate than elsewhere in Spain, this region is dominated by the capital, Madrid.
Full of history, including Moorish architecture and Arab-influenced culture, as well as mountains and beaches.
|Balearic Islands (Mallorca, Menorca, Ibiza, Formentera)|
Super-popular Mediterranean beach destinations.
|Canary Islands (Tenerife, Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura, La Gomera, Lanzarote, La Palma, El Hierro)|
Volcanic islands off the coast of Africa, a popular escape from mainland Spain.
|Spanish North Africa (Ceuta, Melilla, Crag of Vélez de la Gomera, Crag of Alhucemas, Chafarinas Islands, Alboran Island)|
Spanish exclaves along the coast of Morocco.
Spain has hundreds of interesting cities. Here are nine of the most popular:
- 1 Madrid — the vibrant capital, with fantastic museums, interesting architecture, great food and nightlife
- 2 Barcelona — Spain's second city, full of modernist buildings, a vibrant cultural life, festivals, and beaches
- 3 Bilbao — former industrial city, home to the Guggenheim Museum and other cultural features; main Basque city
- 4 Córdoba — Also called Cordova, The Grand Mosque ('Mezquita') of Cordoba is one of the world's finest buildings
- 5 Granada — stunning city in the south, surrounded by snow capped mountains of the Sierra Nevada, home of La Alhambra
- 6 Málaga — the heart of flamenco with the beaches of the Costa del Sol
- 7 Seville (Spanish: Sevilla) — a beautiful, verdant city, and home to the world's third largest cathedral
- 8 Valencia — paella was invented here, has a very nice beach
- 9 Zaragoza — also called Saragossa. The fifth largest city of Spain that held the World Expo in 2008
- 1 Costa Blanca — 200 km of white coast with plenty of beaches and small villages
- 2 Costa Brava — the rugged coast with plenty of seaside resorts
- 3 Costa del Sol — the sunny coast in the south of the country
- 4 Gran Canaria — known as "a continent in miniature" due to its many different climates and landscapes
- 5 Ibiza — a Balearic island; one of the best places for clubbing, raving, and DJs in the entire world
- 6 Mallorca — the largest island of the Balears, full of amazing beaches and great nightlife
- 7 Sierra Nevada — the highest mountains on the Iberian Peninsula, great for walking and skiing
- 8 Tenerife — offers lush forests, exotic fauna and flora, deserts, mountains, volcanoes, beautiful coastlines and spectacular beaches
|Population||47.4 million (2021)|
|Electricity||230 volt / 50 hertz (Europlug, Schuko)|
|Time zone||UTC±00:00 to UTC+02:00 and Europe/Madrid|
|Emergencies||112, +34-061 (emergency medical services), +34-091 (police)|
|edit on Wikidata|
With great beaches, mountains, campsites, ski resorts, superb weather, varied and fun nightlife, many cultural regions and historic cities, it is no wonder that Spain is the most popular tourist destination in Europe for any kind of trip. A country of large geographic and cultural diversity, Spain may come as a surprise to those who only know of its reputation for great beach holidays and almost endless sunshine. There is everything from lush meadows and snowy mountains to huge marshes and deserts in the south east. While summer is the peak season, those who wish to avoid the crowds should consider visiting in the winter as not only is it normally mild and sunny, but attractions such as the Alhambra Palace in Granada and La Gran Mezquita in Cordoba will not be overcrowded. However the ski resorts of Sierra Nevada do get very crowded. The Mediterranean climate that predominates in Southern and Central Spain is noted for its dry summers and (somewhat) wet(ter) winters, so visiting in the winter or spring brings the added benefit of the vegetation looking much more healthy. Northern Spain (e.g. Asturias) on the other hand gets quite a bit of rain year round and is ripe with lush green vegetation even in August.
Some of the earliest known remains of Homo of any kind in Europe have been found in Spain. Spain is also thought to have been the last refuge of the Neanderthals, and one of the few places that were inhabitable and inhabited throughout the ice ages.
Early Spain and Roman Era
- See also: Roman Empire
The earliest inhabitants of the Iberian peninsula we have any profound knowledge of were Iberians, Celts (related to the Gaulish, Britannic and Central European Celts in language and culture) and Basques. As most of these groups had little to no written records we only know of them due to the descriptions of the Greek, Punic and later Roman settlers and conquerors, who colonised Spain from the South starting in the 3rd century BC. Roman culture lasted on the peninsula for roughly half a millennium, when in the age of migrations the Visigoths conquered the Roman province of Hispania.
- See also: Goths
Most inhabitants of the area kept speaking Latin or rather Latin-derived languages/dialects and only a handful of Germanic words entered the Spanish language ("ganso" being the most commonplace). Soon after their conquest, the Visigoths formed a number of rival "kingdoms" and petty noble states in almost constant conflict in ever-shifting shaky alliances with or against one another, giving rise to constant wars.
Muslim conquest and "al-Andalus"
In 711 one Visigoth ruler apparently called for the Umayyad Muslims to help in his fight against a rival. (Which one is unclear, as the historical records for this era in Spain are scarce and there are for example no contemporary Muslim sources whatsoever.) This proved more successful than he could have imagined, and by the end of the 8th century most of the peninsula was in Muslim hands. While the almost 800 years of divided rule by Christian and Muslim rulers on the Iberian peninsula was by no means peaceful, the modern narrative of a somehow concerted effort to "regain" the "lost lands" for Christendom was never the first, second or any priority for the majority of the Christian rulers. As a matter of fact, many times Christian rulers entered into alliances with Muslim rulers against other Christian rulers and vice versa. While the situation for Muslims in Christian lands and vice versa and Jews in either depended very much on the mood of the ruler and could lie anywhere on a range from benevolent ignorance to murder and expulsion, religious minorities had it a lot better in Spain than in most of the rest of Europe at that time. In fact the Sephardi Jews (named after the Hebrew word for Spain) were at that time not only one of the most important groups inside Spain in terms of science and education, but also dominant among the Jewish people, worldwide. During that time an estimated 90% of Jews were Sephardi. (In the 19th century, on the other hand, roughly 90% of Jews were Ashkenazim [German and Eastern European, and primarily Yiddish-speaking].)
However, this period ended when through conquest and marriage the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon as well as a couple of minor Christian lands were united and their rulers started a war of conquest against the Muslim rulers. The union of the numerous Christian kingdoms is commemorated in the modern Spanish coat of arms, which is an amalgamation of the coats of arms of the four main kingdoms prior to the union, namely the kingdoms of Castile, Aragon, León and Navarre. In the process of re-conquering Spain, many of the great mosques and synagogues were desecrated and converted into Christian churches.
Some of the most glorious historical attractions in Spain date from the period of Muslim rule, including The Mezquita, built as the Great Mosque of Córdoba and the Medina Azahara, also in Córdoba and now in ruins but still visitable as such and built as the Madinat al-Zahra, the Palace of al-Andalus; and the Alhambra in Granada, a splendid, intact palace. There are also two synagogues still standing that were built during the era of Muslim Spain: Santa María la Blanca in Toledo and the Synagogue of Córdoba, in the Old City.
Reconquista and Imperial era
This so called "reconquista" was completed in 1492 with the fall of Granada, and all Jews were forced to leave Spain or convert that year; by 1526, all Spanish Muslims had suffered the same fate. 1492 also marks the point when Spain started to become the world's strongest empire with territories in North, Central and South America, Africa, and the Philippines (named after Spanish king Felipe II). The "new Christians" as they were called were often not sincere in their largely forced conversions and to ensure religious "purity", the notorious Spanish inquisition was set up. Genetic studies made in modern times suggest that a large percentage of modern Spaniards have at least partial Jewish and/or Muslim ancestry, which might surprise some, as the concept of being a "true Christian" (rather than a "converso") soon began to get hereditary overtones, with the expulsion of all the descendants of forced converts from Islam in 1609.
Under the House of Habsburg, Spain became a personal union with the Austrian Empire, and reached its height of power in Europe during the 16th and early 17th centuries, controlling much of Benelux and Italy. Spain was weakened as the House of Habsburg lost the Thirty Years' War in 1648. Spain was further weakened by ineffective governance, religious intolerance that drove out the erstwhile prosperous and productive Jewish and Muslim minorities and hampered free inquiry and - paradoxically - Latin American gold and silver that devalued the currency and still couldn't cover war expenses. The Spanish Habsburgs - prone to marrying inside the family, thus accumulating inheritable diseases - died out when Charles II was unable to produce an heir, which like many of his other afflictions was likely a result of incest. Most powers of Europe fought for the possibility to put one of their own on the Spanish throne, with the House of Bourbon doing it. The Bourbons would attempt a reform of their many domains gaining some successes but enraging those who had held onto old privileges of local autonomy or feudal rights.
The colonisation of Central and South America and of Mexico was particularly profound, with the deaths of millions of native people through disease, war and outright murder as the Spanish sought riches in these 'undiscovered' lands. Today many of the countries in this area are defined by Hispanic language and culture (Spanish is today the world's second most spoken native language after Mandarin and before English, and Catholicism dominates throughout the former Spanish colonies).
Crises of the 19th century
With the death of Charles III in 1788, Spain lost its last monarch with will, energy and capability for a long time at a crucial juncture - the French Revolution would break out the next year. His successor Charles IV tried at first to maintain some of his father's policies but ultimately saw more fun in hunting than politics. Soon politics in Spain would come to be dominated by Prime Minister Manuel de Godoy who was rumored to have an affair with the queen. Meanwhile Charles' son, Ferdinand VII was chomping at the bit to replace his father as king, which earned him the contempt of the latter. In 1808 Ferdinand seemed to have briefly succeeded in replacing the hated Godoy and his father but Napoleon Bonaparte invited the two quarrelling kings to Bayonne under the pretext of mediating but forced both to abdicate in favor of his brother Joseph Bonaparte. Many among Spain's elites were having none of it and set up Juntas to maintain a government nominally loyal to Spanish monarchy. The liberal constitution of Cadiz 1812 was drafted in those years and as Ferdinand was willing to promise everyone everything to return to the throne, he came to be known as "the Desired One", with high hopes that he would rule as a liberal citizen-king under the constitution of Cadiz. Ferdinand never intended any such thing and his heavy-handed policies brought the wrath not only of his Spanish subjects but even of those Juntas in Latin America that had been set up without making up their mind whether to support a restoration of Bourbon rule or independence - only certain that they would oppose Napoleon and his regime. When Ferdinand died in 1833 he left a nominally absolute monarchy with an unhappy population which had lost most of its colonies to a not-yet three year old Isabella II. Immediately some hyper-conservative elements but also those in the Basque country who wanted back the old fuero autonomy refused to back Isabella's claim on account of her being female, giving birth to the "Carlist" movement. The 19th century saw independence movements fight back against the kingdom of Spain, with leaders such as Simón Bolívar and Augustín de Iturbide successfully creating new independent nations throughout Latin America. By 1898 Spain lost the majority of its remaining territories during the Spanish-American War: it lost Cuba and then sold Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam to the United States. The war of 1898 was a huge shock to Spanish culture and shattered Spain's self-image of a first-rate power, and it thus inspired a whole literary movement known as the generation of '98. For much of this time, Spain was not really one realm so much as several realms which shared a monarch. While the monarch had broad powers, there was no such thing as "absolute" monarchy in Spain and the various regions - notably the Basque country - had numerous special privileges and autonomies granted either to "the people", a local lord or "free men". This proved complicated to resolve when Spain became a Republic and it is still an issue with which Spain is grappling in the 21st century.
The 20th century
Spain experienced a devastating civil war between 1936 and 1939 that killed half a million Spaniards and ushered in more than 30 years of dictatorship under Generalissimo Francisco Franco. The civil war began from a mostly failed coup in Spanish North Africa (today part of Morocco) against Spain's left-wing republican government supported by the popular front (a popular front was in those days a regime including communist, socialist, liberal, Christian Democrat and even conservative parties and originated in France as a response to fascism, though the parties in power in July 1936 were Izquierda Republicana and Unión Republicana, two centre-left wing republican parties, supported by PSOE; the communist party had just 17 seats). The fascist side was led by a group of generals; however, some of them soon died in plane crashes or were pushed to the side by Franco. Although the League of Nations (a precursor of today's United Nations) attempted to make intervention impossible, Mussolini's Italy and Nazi Germany ignored this by aiding the nationalist (Franco) side, while the Soviet Union and to some extent Mexico provided aid to the Republican (popular front) side. The Republican side called for volunteers in the so-called "international brigades", and around 20,000 Brits, Americans, Frenchmen and even Germans joined the fight on their side. However, the Republican side was plagued by lack of weapons and ammunition (some of their rifles were produced in the 19th century), by infighting between communists and anarchists, and by Stalinist purges ordered by the super-paranoid supporters of Republican Spain in Moscow. As many people of that generation fought in the Spanish Civil War or covered it as – often blatantly biased – war correspondents (including George Orwell, Ernest Hemingway and later German chancellor Willy Brandt) there is a lot of well-written literature (and some films), which while not always historically accurate, manage to perfectly capture the spirit of vain idealism that made many of the interbrigadistas go to Spain in the first place. Just as the American Civil War gave a breakthrough for photojournalism, World War I for news radio and World War II for the newsreel, the Spanish Civil War made its mark on journalism, literature and arts. The Reina Sofia museum in Madrid has an exhibition for artistic expressions of the war, with Picasso's Guernica – produced for the republican Spanish pavilion at the 1937 world exhibition in Paris – as its centrepiece.
The war was won for Franco through superior fire-power and with military aid from the Nazis (including the war-crime of bombing Guernica). Franco managed to unify the not at all homogeneous nationalist forces behind his less-than-charismatic leadership and hold onto power through the Second World War (in which he stayed neutral) until his death. He was succeeded by King Juan Carlos. The Spanish Civil War is still in some sense an open wound as it was hardly ever talked about during the days of Franco's regime. To this day, conservatives and Catholics (the Republicans were pretty anti-clerical) are sometimes apologetic about Franco and the "necessity" of the war. Franco's legacy was that the historically important regional identities and languages (such as Catalan and Basque) were brutally suppressed and a policy of strong national identity under the Spanish/Castilian language was promoted. Many republican soldiers and supported continued fighting until the mid 50s in the so called maquis, in 1944 there was even an attempt to invade Spain from France through the Vall d'Aran in 1944 which was quickly suppressed by the Guardia Civil. Violent groups such as ETA (see below) started their activity in the 60s during Franco's time, there was also an increasing protest movement in the last years of franquism. Franco oversaw Spain's rapid economic expansion with its industrialisation in the 1960s. Spain's messy divorce from its African colonies in the last years and days of Franco's life is also one of the reasons for the conflict in Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony.
Franco named Juan Carlos as his successor in 1969, with Juan Carlos being crowned king shortly after Franco's death. Shortly after King Juan Carlos – to the surprise of many – insisted on the country becoming a parliamentary democracy with a figurehead king as nominal head of state, right-wing generals tried to overthrow the nascent democracy on 23 February 1981 in what is now known as 23F. One of the most striking images of the coup was the general Tejero storming into the Congress of Deputies at the head of 200 Guardia Civil members and interrupting the vote to replace centre-left Adolfo Suarez with centre-right Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo for Prime Minister. The coup failed mostly due to lack of popular support and because the king – in his capacity of commander-in-chief – appeared on television in full uniform to order the soldiers back into their barracks, thus throwing his lot in with democracy. This resulted in a lot of support for the king personally even among otherwise republican-inclined Spaniards for most of his reign. However, the monarchy is rather unpopular among the autonomist or independist movements of Catalonia or the Basque Country. Spain entered NATO (though not the EU or any of its predecessors) in 1981, which Calvo-Sotelo. The ruling centre-right party UCD under Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo badly misjudged the Andalusian desire for regional self-government and thus lost the 1982 election, in one of the biggest popular vote landslides in any modern democracy, to the leftist PSOE. This led to the formation of Partido Popular (PP) from the rubble left behind by the temporary collapse of the centre-right. PSOE was led at that time by the relatively youthful Andalusian Felipe González and enjoys a strong basis of support in Andalusia to this day.
With the peaceful transition to democracy after Franco's death, the restrictions on regional identity were lifted, with autonomy granted to several regions, and the regional languages gaining co-official status in their respective areas. The nature of the transition meant that there was little justice for those who had suffered under the Franco dictatorship and divisions still remain.
The Basque Country in Spain's north that had begun violent resistance in 1959 against Franco continued its campaign of bombings and assassinations into the democratic era with the terrorist ETA (Euskadi ta Askatasuna; Basque for Basque Country and Freedom) group, despite the region having been provided with a high degree of autonomy. The group declared a ceasefire in 2011 and the armed struggle appears over for the time being. Even in the "democratic" 1980s, (under longtime Prime minister Felipe González [PSOE 1982–1996]) the Spanish government responded with methods that are now known to have included "death squadrons" to combat terrorism.
Uncertain times in the third millennium
In the 2000s there was more economic expansion and a housing price boom that subsequently collapsed, leaving Spain with high unemployment and economic difficulties. The economically important Catalan region has become louder in its demands for independence. In 2017/18 this conflict erupted as the central government had worked to annul key aspects of a more extensive statute of autonomy while parts of the Catalan parliament held an independence referendum, deemed "illegal" by opponents of independence. The central government cracked down heavily on the independence movement and several people involved in the referendum were sentenced to lengthy prison terms.
Spain holds a historical attachment to its neighbours on the Iberian Peninsula, Andorra and Portugal, to its former colonies, to former citizens and their descendants, and to a special category of former citizens, namely Sephardic Jews.
The population of Spain is growing in large part due to migration by people from relatively poor or politically unstable areas of Latin America, such as Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador Nicaragua, Peru or Venezuela; other parts of Europe, especially Eastern Europe; and Africa and Asia, particularly areas that have a historical or linguistic attachment to Spain. There is also an important segment of immigration that consists mainly of retired people, and people running businesses for them and foreign tourists, coming from wealthier European countries such as the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Benelux and the Nordic countries, established all along the Mediterranean shore, especially in the Costa Blanca, Costa del Sol, the Canary Islands and the Balearic Islands, particularly in the summer months.
Internally there have always been migrations from poorer rural areas (such as Andalusia) to the cities and to jobs in construction and tourism. Due to the economic crisis of the 2000s and 2010s, youth unemployment has risen to unbearable levels in the 50% range and quite a number of young people have semi-permanently fled the country to other European Union countries such as Germany to study, work or do internships either until things get better in Spain or forever. In the latter half of the 2010s there were tentative signs of economic improvement with some economic emigrants returning to Spain.
- See also: Spanish phrasebook
I'm so pregnant
Many English words have their origins in Latin, which makes it easy for English speakers to guess the meanings of many Spanish words. However, Spanish and English also have a number of false friends that one needs to be aware of to avoid embarrassing mistakes.
The official and universal language used in Spain is Spanish (español) which is a member of the Romance family of languages (others include Portuguese, Italian, French, and Romanian). Many people, especially outside Castile, prefer to call it Castilian (castellano).
However there are a number of languages (Catalan, Basque, Galician, Asturian, etc.) spoken in various parts of Spain. Some of these languages are dominant and co-official in their respective regions, though most people will be bilingual in their local language and Spanish. Catalan, Basque and Galician are recognised as official languages according to the Spanish constitution. With the exception of Basque (whose origins are still debated), the languages of the Iberian Peninsula are part of the Romance family and are fairly easy to pick up if you know Castilian well.
- Catalan (Catalan: català, Castilian: catalán), a distinct language similar to Castilian but more closely related to the Oc branch of the Romance Languages and considered by many to be part of a dialect continuum spanning across Spain, France, and Italy and including the other langues d'oc such as Provençal, Beàrnais, Limousin, Auvernhat and Niçard. Various dialects are spoken in the northeastern region of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, and Valencia (where it is often referred to as Valencià), east of Aragon, as well as neighbouring Andorra and southern France. To a casual listener, Catalan superficially appears to be a cross of Castilian, French and Portuguese and though it does share features of all three, it is a separate language.
- Galician (Galician: galego, Castilian: gallego), very closely related to Portuguese, Galician is spoken in Galicia and the western portions of Asturias and León. Galician predates Portuguese and is deemed one of the four main dialects of the Galician-Portuguese language family group which includes Brazilian, Southern Portuguese, Central Portuguese, and Galician. While the Portuguese consider it a dialect of Portuguese, Galicians consider their language independent.
- Basque (Basque: euskara, Castilian: vasco), a language unrelated to Castilian (or any other known language in the world), is spoken in the three provinces of the Basque Country, on the two adjacent provinces on the French side of the Spain-French border, and in Navarre. Basque is considered a language isolate unrelated to any Romance or even Indo-European language.
- Asturiano (Asturiano: asturianu, Castilian: asturiano, also known as bable), spoken in the province of Asturias, where it enjoys semi-official protection. It was also spoken in rural parts of León, Zamora, Salamanca, in a few villages in Portugal (where it is called Mirandes) and in villages in the extreme north of Extremadura. While the constitution of Spain explicitly protects Basque, Balearic-Catalan-Valencian under the term Catalan, Galician, and Castilian, it does not explicitly protect Asturian. Still, the province of Asturias explicitly protects it, and Spain implicitly protects it by not objecting before the Supreme Court.
- Aragonese (Aragonese: aragonés, Castilian: aragonés, also known colloquially as fabla), spoken in the north of Aragon, and is not officially recognised. This language is close to Catalan (specially in Benasque) and to Castilian, with some Basque and Occitan (southern France) influences. Nowadays, only a few villages near the Pyrenees use the language vigorously, while most people mix it with Castilian in their daily speech.
- Aranese (Castilian: Aranés, Catalan/Aranese Occitan: Aranès), spoken in the Aran Valley and recognised as an official language of Catalonia (not of Spain), alongside Catalan and Castilian. This language is a variety of Gascon Occitan, and as such is very closely related to Provençal, Limousin, Languedoc, and Catalan.
In addition to the native languages, many languages such as English, French, and German are commonly studied in school. However, Spaniards are not known for their proficiency in foreign languages, and it is very rare to find locals conversant in foreign languages outside of tourist establishments or major international hotels. That being said, most establishments in Spain's important tourist industry usually have staff members who speak a decent level of English, particularly in popular beach resorts such as those in the Costa del Sol where you will find people who are fluent in several languages, the most common ones being German and French. As Portuguese and Italian are closely related to Spanish, if you speak either of these languages, locals would be able to puzzle you out with some difficulty. German is spoken in some areas frequented by German tourists, such as Mallorca. In general, people who speak two national languages (e.g. Basque and Castilian or Catalan and Castilian) are more likely to speak a foreign language than monolingual Spanish speakers.
Castilian Spanish differs from the Latin American Spanish varieties in pronunciation and grammar, although all Latin American varieties are easily understood by Spaniards and vice-versa. While the differences in spelling are virtually non-existent, the differences in words and pronunciation between "Spanish-Spanish" and "Latin-Spanish" are arguably bigger than those between "American" and "British" English.
French is the most widely understood foreign language in the northeast of Spain. The Basque region and northern Catalonia in particular have sizable populations that speak French.
Locals will appreciate any attempts you make to speak their language. For example, know at least the Castilian for "good morning" (buenos días) and "thank you" (gracias).
Minimum validity of travel documents
Spain is a member of the Schengen Agreement.
- There are normally no border controls between countries that have signed and implemented the treaty. This includes most of the European Union and a few other countries.
- There are usually identity checks before boarding international flights or boats. Sometimes there are temporary border controls at land borders.
- A visa granted for any Schengen member is valid in all other countries that have signed and implemented the treaty.
- Please see Travelling around the Schengen Area for more information on how the scheme works, which countries are members and what the requirements are for your nationality.
EU, EEA and Swiss nationals who enter Spain on a national identity card, who are under 18 years old and travelling without their parents are required to have written parental consent. For more information, visit this webpage of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of Spain[dead link].
Citizens of Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Mauritius, Saint Kitts and Nevis and Seychelles are permitted to work in Spain without the need to obtain a visa or any further authorisation for the period of their 90 day visa-free stay. However, this ability to work visa-free does not necessarily extend to other Schengen countries.
A stay of longer than 90 days for non-EEA or Swiss citizens almost invariably requires an advance visa. If one stays for longer than 6 months, a residence permit (Titulo de Residencia) must be obtained within the first 30 days of entering Spain.
There are a number of ways to get into Spain. From neighbouring European countries, a drive with the car or a train ride is feasible; from a number of Mediterranean countries more or less regular ferry connections are available; visitors from further away will probably be using air travel.
Spain's flag carrier is Iberia, and its two other main airlines are Vueling and Air Europa. There are many airlines connecting from most European countries, Africa, the Americas and Asia. Virtually all European low cost carriers provide frequent services to Spain including: TUI Airways, EasyJet, Ryanair, Wizz Air and Jet2.com.
For mainland Spain, Madrid Barajas (MAD IATA), Barcelona (BCN IATA) and Malaga (AGP IATA) are your most likely ports of entry, as they have by far the highest number of international flights. For the islands, you will most likely directly arrive at an airport on the island, without connecting through another Spanish airport. If your destination does not have a direct flight, you can make use of Iberia's rail air alliance with Renfe. Searching for your destination directly on the Iberia website will give you flights with a connecting train service automatically.
see also rail travel in Europe
The train system in Spain is modern and reliable, most of the trains are brand new and the punctuality rate is one of the highest in Europe, the only problem is that not all the populated areas have a train station; sometimes small towns don't have one, in those cases you need to take a bus. Another issue with the Spanish Rail network is that the lines are disposed in a radial way so almost all the lines head to Madrid. That's why sometimes travelling from one city to another geographically close to it might take longer by train than by bus if they are not on the same line. Always check whether the bus or the train is more convenient. The Spanish high speed rail system is, however, more reliable than that of - say - Germany, because the gauge of traditional and high speed trains is different and thus high speed lines are only used by high speed passenger trains meaning fewer delays due to congested lines or technical problems. All lines that cross the border into France have either a break of gauge (thus making changing train or a lengthy gauge change necessary) or are high speed, thus making the high speed trains the vastly preferable option to cross the border. Trains between Barcelona and France are operated jointly by SNCF and RENFE and both sell tickets for any international train on that route. Spain has numerous rail links with neighbouring Portugal, none of them high speed. There are only three rail links with France, one at Hendaye on a traditional line requiring a break of gauge, a connection used for local traffic near Latour de Carol (this is the closest rail line to Andorra) and one near Figueres for high speed trains. The former two see the occasional sleeper train while the latter sees the vast majority of passenger travel and all high speed trains. The former link through the Pyrenees near Canfranc has been abandoned but the former border station at Canfranc is still served from the Spanish site and worth a visit if you're a railway enthusiast or history buff.
Virtually all companies operating Intercity buses in France including Ouibus and even German player Flixbus offer buses to/from Spanish destinations. Spanish operators with international connections include Alsa and Linebus. Generally speaking the buses will be reasonably save and may even have WiFi or electric outlets at your seat, but if your main concern is anything but cost, opt for a train or plane instead as the former is both vastly more comfortable and faster and the latter is still a lot faster and can even be cheaper, if you manages to travel on carry-on only. Buses generally have greater luggage allowances than the airlines, but then again, you'd have the same advantage taking the train.
Spain is also well connected by ferry to Northern Africa (particularly Tunisia and Morocco) and the Canary Islands which are part of Spain. Routes are also naturally available to the Spanish Balearic islands of Mallorca, Minorca, Ibiza and Formentera.
- Renfe is the Spanish national rail carrier. Long-distance trains always run on time, but be aware that short-distance trains (called Cercanías) can bear long delays, from ten to twenty minutes, and especially in the Barcelona area, where delays up to 30 minutes are not uncommon. To be safe, always take the train before the one you need. It also manages FEVE narrow-gauge trains which mainly run near the northern Atlantic coast (from Ferrol to Bilbao). Buying tickets online with a foreign credit card may be difficult, however, those with a PayPal account may find it easier to pay using the website. Renfe also operates the AVE high speed trains, whose network radiates out of Madrid to the major cities along the coasts - Spain boasts the second-longest high speed network (behind China) and has constructed a lot of new lines until the economic downturn at the end of the 2000s. The AVE is easily the fastest option wherever it goes (faster even than flying in most cases) but can be on the expensive side. Intercity trains are slower but often substantially cheaper, and much more comfortable than the bus. Tickets don't go on sale until 30 days before departure, and few discount tickets are available.
- FGC operates several local routes near Barcelona. On these places where both Renfe and FGC operate, usually FGC provides more trains per hour, has better punctuality records and stations are closer to the city centres; on the other side, trains are slower and single fares are more expensive.
- FGV provides local services in Valencia area uncovered by Renfe and a tram service in Alicante.
- Euskotren operates affordable services from Bilbao to Gernika, Bermeo and San Sebastian plus a line connecting San Sebastian with Irun and Hendaye (France). The Bilbao - San Sebastian trip is about 2hr 40min while buses connect the cities in around just an hour, although bus tickets cost about twice as the train. All but the whole Bilbao - San Sebastian line run twice an hour with extra trains on peak hours.
The least expensive way to get around most parts of Spain is by bus. Most major routes are point to point, and very high frequency. There are many companies serving within certain autonomous communities or provinces of the country on multiple routes or on a single route going from a major city to several surrounding villages and towns. The following operators serve more than a single region:
- ALSA (formerly Continental Auto), ☏ . Largest bus company with point to point routes across the country and alliances with various other regional companies and/or subsidiary brands.
- Grupo Avanza, ☏ . Operates buses between Madrid and the surrounding autonomous communities of Extremadura, Castile-Leon, Valencia (via Castile-Leon). In some areas they operate through their subsidiary brands of Alosa, Tusza, Vitrasa, Suroeste and Auto Res.
- Socibus and Secorbus, ☏ . These companies jointly operate buses between Madrid and western Andalucia including Cadiz, Cordoba, Huelva and Seville.
At the bus station, each operator has its own ticket counter or window and usually a single operator from here to a particular destination. Therefore, the easiest is to ask the staff who will be happy to tell you who operates which route and point you to a specific desk or window. You can also see what is all available on Movelia.es or see "By bus" under "Getting in" or "Getting Around" in the article for a particular autonomous community region, province or locale. It is usually not necessary or more advantageous to book tickets in advance as one can show up and get on the next available bus. Most bus companies can be booked in advance online. however English translation on their websites is patchy at best.
Regular ferries travel from mainland Spain to the Balearic Islands (3-7h) and Canary Islands (36-40h). The major port serving Mallorca is Barcelona, while for Ibiza it is Denia. The Canaries are served from Huelva and Cadiz.
With a private yacht you can enjoy gorgeous scenery and distance yourself from the inevitable crowds of tourists that flock to these destinations. May is a particularly pleasant time to charter in the regions of Costa Brava, Costa Blanca and the Balearic Islands as the weather is good and the crowds have yet to descend. The summer months of July and August are the hottest and tend to have lighter winds. There is no low season for the Canary Islands, as the weather resembles springtime all year round.
If you would like to bareboat anywhere in Spain, including the Balearic or Canary Islands, a US Coast Guard License is the only acceptable certification needed by Americans to bareboat. For everyone else, a RYA Yacht Master Certification or International Certificate of Competence will normally do.
Although a skipper may be required, a hostess/chef may or may not be necessary. Dining out is strong part of Spanish custom and tradition. If you are planning on docking in a port and exploring fabulous bars and restaurants a hostess/cook may just be useful for serving drinks and making beds. Extra crew can take up valuable room on a tight ship.
- See also: Driving in Spain
In major cities like Madrid or Barcelona and in mid-sized ones like San Sebastian, moving around by car is expensive and nerve-wracking. Fines for improper parking are uncompromising (€85 and up). Access by car has been made more difficult by municipal policies in Barcelona and Madrid in the 2010s. The positive effects on the urban fabric of those policies have proven widely popular, so expect more of this.
Having a driving map is essential - many streets are one-way; left turns are more rare than rights (and are unpredictable).
Getting around by car makes sense if you plan to move from one city to another every other day, ideally if you don't plan to park overnight in large cities. It also doesn't hurt that the scenery is beautiful and well worth a drive. With a good public transport network that connects to (almost) all points of interest for travellers, you might ask yourself whether driving is really worth the cost and the hassle, as you are often much faster by train than by car.
There are two types of highway in Spain: autopistas, or motorways, and autovías, which are more akin to expressways. Most autopistas are toll roads while autovías are generally free of charge. In some autonomous communities whether a highway is tolled depends on whether the central or regional government built and operates them. To a foreigner the system can seem rather confusing. Tolls often work out to "odd" Euro amounts leading you with a lot of copper coins if you pay cash. Speed limits range from 50 km/h (30 mph) in towns to 90 km/h on rural roads, 100 km/h on roads and 120 km/h (75 mph) on autopistas and autovías. Starting from May 2021 all roads with only one lane per direction inside built up areas will have a blanket speed limit of 30 km/h (19 mph).
Spaniards are somewhat notorious for seeing traffic infractions such as speeding, second row parking or red light infractions as "minor", but the government is increasingly cracking down on this kind of behavior and police will have a field day writing a ticket to a foreigner who doesn't speak the language.
Gasoline/petrol costs in the range of €1.32/L in Jan 2020, and diesel costs €1.25/L. Filling procedure for gas stations varies from brand to brand. At Agip, you first fill the tank yourself, and then pay inside the shop.
Spain isn't a good country for hitchhiking. Sometimes you can wait many hours. Try to speak with people at gas stations, parking lots, etc. They are scared and suspicious, but when you make them feel that they don't need to be afraid, they gladly accept you and mostly also show their generosity.
In the south of Spain, in and around the Alpujarras, hitchhiking is very common and it is also very easy to get a ride. As long as you can speak a bit of Spanish and don't look too dirty or frightening, you should be able to get a ride moderately easily.
Spain is a suitable country for cycling, and it is possible to see many cyclists in some of the cities. Cycling lanes are available in most mid-sized and large cities, although they are not comparable in number to what you can find in for example central Europe.
Depending on where you are in Spain, you could face a very mountainous area. Much of central Spain is very flat, though elevated, but towards the coast the landscape is often very hilly, especially in the north. Consider using an E-bike if your visit involves going by hilltops and you aren't used to that kind of biking or don't like the effort needed.
There are several options for touring in Spain by bicycle: guided or supported tours, rent bicycles in Spain or bring your own bike, or any combination. Supported tours are ubiquitous on the web. For unsupported tours a little Spanish helps a lot. Shoulder seasons avoid extremes of temperature and ensure hotel availability in non-tourist areas. Good hotels are €35–45 in the interior, breakfast usually included. Menú del día meals are €8–10 eating where the locals eat. Secondary roads are usually well paved and have good shoulders, and as a rule Spanish drivers are careful and courteous around touring cyclists. Road signs are usually very good and easy to follow.
Most municipalities in Spain, towns and cities are modernising their streets to introduce special lanes for bicycles. Bike share systems with usually quite reasonable prices are also being installed in cities throughout the country.
All the major cities in Spain are served by taxis, which are a convenient, if somewhat expensive way to get around. That being said, taxis in Spain are more reasonably priced than those in say, the United Kingdom or Japan. Most taxi drivers do not speak English or any other foreign languages, so it would be necessary to have the names and/or addresses of your destinations written in Spanish to show your taxi driver. Likewise, get your hotel's business card to show your taxi driver in case you get lost.
The most popular beaches are the ones along the Mediterranean coast, in the Balearic Islands and in the Canary Islands. Meanwhile, for hiking, the mountains of Sierra Nevada in the south, the Central Cordillera and the northern Pyrenees are the best places.
Historically, Spain has been an important crossroads: between the Mediterranean and the Atlantic, between North Africa and Europe, and as Europe began colonising the New World, between Europe and the Americas. The country thus is blessed with a fantastic collection of historical landmarks — in fact, it has the second largest number of UNESCO Heritage Sites and the largest number of World Heritage Cities of any nation in the world.
In the south of Spain, Andalusia holds many reminders of old Spain. Cadiz is regarded as one of the oldest continuously-inhabited cities in western Europe, with remnants of the Roman settlement that once stood here. Nearby, Ronda is a beautiful town atop steep cliffs and noted for its gorge-spanning bridge and the oldest bullring in Spain. Cordoba and Granada hold the most spectacular reminders of the nation's Muslim past, with the red-and-white striped arches of the Mezquita in Cordoba and the stunning Alhambra palace perched on a hill above Granada. Seville, the cultural centre of Andalusia, has a dazzling collection of sights built when the city was the main port for goods from the Americas, the grandest of which being the city's cathedral, the largest in the country.
Moving north across the plains of La Mancha into Central Spain, picturesque Toledo stands as perhaps the historical centre of the nation, a beautiful medieval city sitting atop a hill that once served as the capital of Spain before Madrid was built. North of Madrid and an easy day-trip from the capital city is El Escorial, once the centre of the Spanish empire during the time of the Inquisition, and Segovia, noted for its spectacular Roman aqueduct which spans one of the city's squares.
Further north in Castile-Leon is Salamanca, known for its famous university and abundance of historic architecture. Galicia in northwestern Spain is home to Santiago de Compostela, the end point of the old Way of St. James (Camino de Santiago) pilgrimage route and the supposed burial place of St. James, with perhaps the most beautiful cathedral in all of Spain at the heart of its lovely old town. Northeastern Spain has a couple of historical centres to note: Zaragoza, with Roman, Muslim, medieval and Renaissance buildings from throughout its two thousand years of history, and Barcelona with its pseudo-medieval Barri Gòtic neighbourhood.
Be prepared to have your luggage scanned airport style at the entrance of most museums. There's usually a locker where you can (or must) leave your bags.
Spain has played a key role in Western art, heavily influenced by French and Italian artists but very distinct in its own regard, owing to the nation's history of Muslim influence, Counter-Reformation climate and, later, the hardships from the decline of the Spanish empire, giving rise to such noted artists like El Greco, Diego Velázquez and Francisco Goya. In the last century, Spain's unique position in Europe brought forth some of the leading artists of the Modernist and Surrealist movements, most notably the famed Pablo Picasso and Salvador Dalí.
Today, Spain's two largest cities hold the lion's share of Spain's most famous artworks. Madrid's Museum Triangle is home to the Museo del Prado, the largest art museum in Spain with many of the most famous works by El Greco, Velázquez, and Goya as well as some notable works by Italian, Flemish, Dutch and German masters. Nearby sits the Reina Sofía, most notable for holding Picasso's Guernica but also containing a number of works by Dalí and other Modernist, Surrealist and abstract painters. The Prado goes back to the former royal collection and the Reina Sofia Museum is named for King Juan Carlos' wife, in practice the dividing line between the two is largely one of era, with anything made roughly after the birth of Picasso found in the Reina Sofia and everything else in the Prado.
Barcelona is renowned for its stunning collection of modern and contemporary art and architecture. This is where you will find the Picasso Museum, which covers the artist's early career quite well, and the architectural wonders of Antoni Gaudi, with their twisting organic forms that are a delight to look at.
Outside of Madrid and Barcelona, the art museums quickly dwindle in size and importance, although there are a couple of worthy mentions that should not be overlooked. Many of El Greco's most famous works lie in Toledo, an easy day trip from Madrid. The Disrobing of Christ, perhaps El Greco's most famous work, sits in the Cathedral, but you can also find work by him in one of the small art museums around town. Bilbao in the Basque Country of northern Spain is home to a spectacular Guggenheim Museum designed by Frank Gehry that has put the city on the map. A day trip from Barcelona is the town of Figueres, noted for the Salvador Dalí Museum, designed by the Surrealist himself. Málaga in the south is Picasso's city of birth, and is also home to two museums dedicated to his life and works.
- Ampurias, excavations of a Greek and Roman town, Roman basilica, temples of Asclepios and Serapis, (between Gerona and Figueras, Catalonia)
- Antequetera, La Menga and Viera dolmens,
- Calatrava la Nueva, well preserved medieval castle,
- Calatrava la Vieja, remains of the Arab town, castle of the order of Calatrava,
- Clunia, Roman town with forum, shops, temple, public bath houses and Roman villa,
- Fraga, Roman villa, Bronze Age settlements,
- Gormaz, Arab castle,
- Italica, Roman town with amphitheatre, city walls, House of the Exedra, House of the Peacocks, Baths of the Moorish Queen, House of the Hylas, temple complex (near Sevilla),
- Merida, Roman city, Roman bridge, Amphitheatre, Hippodrome, House of the Amphitheatre, House of the Mithraeum with mosaics, aquaeducts, museum
- San Juan de los Banos, Visigoth church (between Burgos and Valladolid),
- San Pedro de la Nave, Visigoth church (near Zamora),
- Santa Maria de Melque, Visigoth church,
- Segobriga (Cabeza del Griego), Roman town, Visigoth church, museum (between Madrid and Albacete)
- Tarragona, Roman town with “Cyclopean wall”, amphitheatre, hippodrome, form and triumphal arch,
- See also: Association football in Europe
Spain's La Liga is one of the strongest association football leagues in the world, boasting world-class teams like Real Madrid and FC Barcelona that play to sold-out crowds on a weekly basis. The rivalry between the two aforementioned clubs, known as El Clásico, is undoubtedly one of the most intense in the world as a result of the long history of political conflict behind it. Other noteworthy clubs include Atlético Madrid, Valencia, Athletic Bilbao, and Sevilla. The Spanish national team is also one of the strongest in the world, being able to draw the best players from its league. It long had a reputation of always failing to win big games, but this reputation has been pretty much shattered by its wins in the 2008 and 2012 European Championships as well as the 2010 World Cup.
Spain also has a strong basketball tradition, with Spanish clubs generally doing well in European competition, and the Spanish national team also being one of the best in Europe. Many of the top football clubs in Spain also have basketball teams, and as with their football counterparts, both Real Madrid Baloncesto and FC Barcelona Bàsquet are among Europe's most successful basketball teams.
- See also: Handball in Europe
Spain is among the most successful Handball nations on earth, although it may not always reach the level of play of some Nordic or ex-Yugoslavian countries or Germany. The Liga Asobal, Spain's national handball league is among the toughest in the world.
Spain is home to one of the three grand tours on the international cycling calendar, the Vuelta a España.
Spain has a lot of local festivals that are worth going to.
- Semana Santa (Holy week). The week between Palm Sunday and Easter Sunday. Visit Spain when many processions take place in cities and Christians march through the streets in the evening with replicas of Jesus on their shoulders and play music. Make sure to book ahead since accommodations fill up quickly during that time and often nothing is left shortly before the celebrations. Notorious cities to see the best processions are Málaga, Girona, Cádiz, Seville and the rest of Andalusia; but it's also interesting in Valladolid (silent processions) and Zaragoza (where hundreds of drums are played in processions).
- Córdoba en Mayo (Cordoba in May) - great month to visit the Southern city
- Las Cruces (1st week in May) - big flower-made crosses embellishing public squares in the city centre, where you will also find at night music and drinking and lot of people having fun!
- Festival de Patios - one of the most interesting cultural exhibitions, 2 weeks when some people open doors of their houses to show their old Patios full of flowers
- Cata del Vino Montilla-Moriles - great wine tasting in a big tent in the city centre during one week in May
- Dia de Sant Jordi - The Catalan must. On 23 April Barcelona is embellished with roses everywhere and book-selling stands can be found in the Rambla. There are also book signings, concerts and diverse animations.
- Fallas - Valencia's festival in March - burning the "fallas" is a must
- Málaga's August Fair - flamenco dancing, drinking sherry, bullfights
- San Fermines - July in Pamplona, Navarra.
- Fiesta de San Isidro - 15 May in Madrid - a celebration of Madrid's patron saint.
- Carnival - best in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Cádiz
- Cabalgata de los Reyes Magos (Three wise men parade) - on the eve of Epiphany, 5 January, the night before Spanish kids get their Christmas presents, it rains sweets and toys in every single town and city
- San Sebastian International Film Festival - held annually in San Sebastian, a gorgeous city in the Basque Country, towards the end of September
- La Tomatina - a giant tomato fight in Buñol
- Moros y Cristianos (Moors and Christians, mostly found in Southeastern Spain during spring time) - parades and "battles" remembering the fights of medieval ages
- In Galicia 85 festivals take place throughout the year from wine to wild horses.
New Year eve: "Nochevieja" in Spanish. There's a tradition in Spain to eat grapes as the clock counts down the New Year, one grape for each of the last 12 seconds before midnight. For this, even small packs of grapes (exactly 12 grapes per pack) are sold in supermarkets before New Year.
La Puerta del Sol, is the venue for the New Year's party in Spain. At 23:59 sound "los cuartos (In Spanish)" some bells announcing that it will begin to sound the 12 chimes (campanadas in Spanish). While sounding "los cuartos", moves down from the top chime of the clock, with the same purpose as "los cuartos" sound will indicate that "las campanadas". That will sound at 24:00 and that indicate the start of a new year. During each chime must eat a grape, according to tradition. Between each chime, there is a time span of three seconds.
"Las Campanadas", are broadcast live on the main national TV channels, as in the rest of Spain, people are still taking grapes from home or on giant screens installed in major cities, following the chimes from the Puerta del Sol in Madrid.
After ringing "las campanadas", starts a fireworks extravaganza. This is a famous party in Spain and is a great time to enjoy because show is secured in the centre of the capital of Spain.
- Canyoning: see Spain section in the Canyoning article
- Climbing in: Los Mallos (Aragon) and Siurana (near Barcelona)
- Football (soccer): The most popular sport in Spain, with both the Spanish league and national team being among the strongest in the world.
- Whitewater sports in: Campo, Murillo de Gallego (Aragon)
- Hiking in Galicia
- Downhill skiing: There are a lot of downhill skiing resorts in Spain.
Skiing in the northern region of Spain
For a treat, try Costa Brava and the world renowned Canary Islands.
If you are a citizen of a country that is a part of the European Union or the EFTA, or of Switzerland, you may work in Spain without any restrictions whatsoever. Everyone else, including citizens of the United Kingdom, requires a work permit to work in Spain.
Employment matters are highly sensitive in Spain, especially for Spanish citizens. The country has a high level of unemployment (13.5% as of March 2022) and for a developed country, Spain's economy is notoriously fragile. The country has long suffered from high levels of unemployment and many Spaniards have emigrated to other countries in search of better opportunities.
Tourism is the country's most important economic sector, and foreigners may be able to find jobs there, but it was badly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.
Spain has a sunny climate and is one of Europe's largest agricultural exporters. Farmers are often looking for temporary workers, but this means really hard work and miserable pay.
Exchange rates for euros
As of January 2023:
Exchange rates fluctuate. Current rates for these and other currencies are available from XE.com
Spain uses the euro, like several other European countries. One euro is divided into 100 cents. The official symbol for the euro is €, and its ISO code is EUR. There is no official symbol for the cent.
All banknotes and coins of this common currency are legal tender within all the countries, except that low-denomination coins (one and two cent) are phased out in some of them. The banknotes look the same across countries, while coins have a standard common design on the reverse, expressing the value, and a national country-specific design on the obverse. The obverse is also used for different designs of commemorative coins. The design of the obverse does not affect the coin's acceptability .
€500 banknotes are not accepted in many stores—always have alternative banknotes.
Do not expect anybody to accept other types of currency, or to be willing to exchange currency. Exceptions are shops and restaurants at airports. These will generally accept at least U.S. dollars at a bad exchange rate.
Banks are the main places to exchange money. However, some banks may only exchange money for those with an account there.
Currency exchanges, once a common sight, have all but disappeared since the introduction of the euro. Again, international airports are an exception to this rule; other exception is tourist districts in the large cities (Barcelona, Madrid).
Credit cards are accepted everywhere.
Most Spanish stores will ask for ID before accepting your credit card. Some stores may not accept a foreign driving licence or ID card, and you will need to show your passport. This measure is designed to help avoid credit card fraud.
Most ATMs will allow you to withdraw money with your credit card. There is a fee in addition to what your bank charges you of about €2, except with Unicaja Banco machines.
Tipping, or "propina" in Spanish, is not mandatory or considered customary in Spain unless there was something absolutely exceptional about the service. As a result, you may find that waiters are not as attentive or courteous as you may be used to since they don't work for tips. If you choose to tip, the tip amount in restaurants depends on your economic status, the locale and type of establishment. If you feel that you have experienced good service then leave some loose change on the table - possibly €1 or €2 . If you don't, it is no big deal.
Bars expect only tourists, particularly American tourists, to leave a tip. They are aware that it is customary in the United States to leave a tip for every drink or meal. It is rare to see anyone other than Americans tipping in Spain. In major resorts tipping may be common; look around at other diners to assess if tipping is appropriate.
Outside the restaurant business, some service providers, such as taxi drivers, hairdressers and hotel personnel may expect a tip in an upscale setting.
Most businesses (including most shops, but not restaurants) close in the afternoons around 13:30/14:00 and reopen for the evening around 16:30/17:00. Exceptions are large malls or major chain stores.
For most Spaniards, lunch is the main meal of the day and you will find bars and restaurants open during this time. On Saturdays, businesses often do not reopen in the evening and almost everywhere is closed on Sundays. The exception is the month of December, where most shops in Madrid and Barcelona will be open as per on weekdays on Sundays to cash in on the festive season. Also, many public offices and banks do not reopen in the evenings even on weekdays, so if you have any important business to take care of, be sure to check hours of operation.
If you plan to spend whole day shopping in small shops, the following rule of thumb can work: a closed shop should remind it's also time for your own lunch. And when you finish your lunch, some shops will be likely open again.
Besides well-known mass brands which are known around the world (Zara, Mango, Bershka, Camper, Desigual), Spain has many designer brands which are more hard to find outside Spain--and may be worth looking for if you shop for designer wear while travelling. Some of these brands include:
- [dead link] Custo Barcelona. Headquartered in Barcelona, has stores in Bilbao, Ibiza, La Coruna, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, León, Madrid, Marbella, Palma de Mallorca, Salamanca, Tenerife.
- [formerly dead link] Kowalski, head office: Ctra. del Leon, km, 2; 03293 Elche, ☏ . Designer shoes and sneakers (trademark Herman Monster and others) for women, men and unisex.
- El Corte Ingles. Major national chain that can be found in nearly every city. In most cities, enjoys central location but resides in functional, uninspiring buildings. Has department for everything--but is not good enough for most purposes, except maybe for buying gourmet food and local food specialties. Tax refund for purchases at El Corte Ingles, unlike most other stores in Spain, can be returned only to a debit/credit card, even if you originally paid in cash.
- Casas. A chain of footwear stores that selects most popular (?) models from a dozen+ of mid-range brands.
- Camper. Camper shoes can be seen in most cities in the country. While it may seem that they are sold everywhere, finding right model and size may be a trouble--so if you find what you need, don't postpone your purchase. Campers are sold both in standalone branded shops, and as a part of a mix with other brands in local shoe stores. Standalones generally provide wider choice of models and sizes; local stores can help if you need to hunt for a specific model and size.
- For. Private national fashion chain featuring many premium brands. Main location is Bilbao; some stores in San Sebastian and Zaragoza.
- See also: Spanish cuisine
The Spanish are very passionate about their food and wine and Spanish cuisine. Spanish food can be described as quite light with a lot of vegetables and a huge variety of meat and fish. Perhaps owing to the inquisition trying to "find out" lapsed conversos pork (religiously prohibited in both Judaism and Islam) is easily the most consumed meat and features prominently in many dishes. Spanish cuisine does not use many spices; it relies only on the use of high quality ingredients to give a good taste. As such, you may find Spanish food bland at times but there are usually a variety of restaurants in most cities (Italian, Chinese, American fast food) if you would like to experience a variety of flavors. If you are familiar with Latin American cuisines, keep in mind that many Spanish dishes may have the same name as several Latin American dishes, but actually refer to completely different dishes (e.g. tortilla, horchata and mazapán refer to completely different things in Spain and Mexico).
Like much of Europe, Spain's top tourism destinations are full of tourist-trap restaurants that serve overpriced and mediocre food. If you want a good and reasonably-priced meal, it's generally best to go to restaurants with a primarily local clientele. However, as it is rare to find English-speaking waiters in such establishments, be prepared to have to speak some Spanish.
Breakfast, lunch and dinner times
Spaniards have a different eating timetable than many people are used to.
The key thing to remember for a traveller is:
- breakfast (desayuno) for most Spaniards is light and consists of just coffee and perhaps a galleta (like a graham cracker) or magdalena (sweet muffin-like bread). Later, some will go to a cafe for a pastry midmorning, but not too close to lunchtime.
- "el aperitivo" is a light snack eaten around 12:00. However, this could include a couple of glasses of beer and a large filled baguette or a "pincho de tortilla".
- lunch (comida) starts at 13:30-14:30 (though often not until 15:00) and was once typically followed by a short siesta, usually at summer when temperatures can be quite hot in the afternoon. This is the main meal of the day with two courses (el primer plato and el segundo plato followed by dessert. La comida and siesta are usually over by 16:00 at the latest. However, since life has become busier, there is no opportunity for a siesta.
- dinner (cena) starts at 20:30 or 21:00, with most clientèle coming after 21:00. It is a lighter meal than lunch. In Madrid restaurants rarely open before 21:00 and most customers do not appear before 23:00.
- there is also an afternoon snack that some take between la comida and la cena called merienda. It is similar to a tea time in England and is taken around 18:00 or so.
- between the lunch and dinner times, most restaurants and cafes are closed, and it takes extra effort to find a place to eat if you missed lunch time. Despite this, you can always look for a bar and ask for a bocadillo, a baguette sandwich. There are bocadillos fríos, cold sandwiches, which can be filled with ham, cheese or any kind of embutido, and bocadillos calientes, hot sandwiches, filled with pork loin, tortilla, bacon, sausage and similar options with cheese. This can be a really cheap and tasty option if you find a good place.
Normally, restaurants in big cities don't close until midnight during the week and 02:00-03:00 during the weekend.
Breakfast is eaten by most Spaniards. Traditional Spanish breakfast includes coffee or orange juice, and pastries or a small sandwich. In Madrid, it is also common to have hot chocolate with "churros" or "porras". In cafes, you can expect varieties of tortilla de patatas (see the Spanish dishes section), sometimes tapas (either breakfast variety or same kind as served in the evenings with alcohol).
The entry level to Spanish food is found in bars as tapas, which are a bit like "starters" or "appetisers", but are instead considered side orders to accompany your drink; in some parts of Spain, a drink is still accompanied automatically by a free tapa, but in places where it's not, ask for tapa y caña to order a beer and a tapa. Some bars will offer a wide variety of different tapas; others specialise on a specific kind (like seafood-based). A Spanish custom is to have one tapa and one small drink at a bar, then go to the next bar and do the same. A group of two or more individuals may order two or more tapas or order raciones instead, which are a bit larger in order to share.
Types of dishes
Seafood (mariscos): on the coast, fresh seafood is widely available and quite affordable. In the inner regions, frozen (and poor quality) seafood can be frequently encountered outside few highly reputed (and expensive) restaurants. In coastal areas seafood deserves some attention, especially on the north Atlantic coast.
Quality seafood in Spain comes from Spain's northwestern region of Galicia. So restaurants with the words Gallego (Galician) will generally specialise in seafood. If you are feeling adventurous, you might want to try the Galician regional specialty Pulpo a la Gallega, which is boiled octopus served with paprika, rock salt and olive oil. Another adventurous option is Sepia which is cuttlefish, a relative of squid, or the various forms of Calamares (squid) that you can find in most seafood restaurants. If that isn't your style you can always order Gambas Ajillo (garlic shrimp), Pescado Frito (fried fish), Buñuelos de Bacalao (breaded and deep fried cod) or the ever-present Paella dishes.
Meat products are usually of very good quality, because Spain has maintained quite a high percentage of free range animals.
Ordering beef steaks is highly recommended, since most come from free range cows from the mountains.
Pork cuts which are also highly coveted are those known as presa ibérica and secreto ibérico, an absolute must if found in the menu of any restaurant.
Soups: the choice of soups beyond gazpacho is very limited in Spanish restaurants.
Water (agua) is frequently served without a specific request, and is normally charged for, unless it's included in your menu del dia. If you would like free tap water instead of bottled water, ask for agua del grifo. However, not all restaurants will offer this and you may be forced to order bottled water.
Appetisers such as bread (pan), cheese (queso), and other items may be brought to your table even if you didn't order them. You may still be charged for them. If you do not want these appetisers, politely inform the waiter that you do not want them.
World-famous restaurants: There are several restaurants in Spain which are destinations in themselves, becoming a sole reason to travel to a specific city. One of them is El Bulli in Roses.
Fast food has not yet established a strong grip on the Spaniards and you will find McDonalds and Burger King only in bigger towns in the usual places. That said, Madrid and other large Spanish cities are often the first place for north American chains to dip their toe into the European market and you'll find Taco Bell, TGI Friday's or Five Guys there but not or only rarely in central European cities. The menu can be a surprise since it has been customised to appeal to the locals and beer, salads, yogurt (primarily Danone), and wine are prominent. Pizza is increasingly popular and you will find some outlets in bigger towns but it can be their own homegrown franchises, such as TelePizza. In spite of beer and wine on the menu, fast food is often seen as "kiddie food." American franchises generally charge higher prices than in the United States, and fast food is not necessarily the cheapest alternative for eating out.
Service charges and VAT
No service charges are included in the bill. A little extra tip is common and you are free to increase that if you are very pleased. Obviously you don’t have to tip a lousy waiter. You would typically leave the small change after paying with a note.
Menú del día
Many restaurants offer a complete lunch meal for a fixed price – menú del día – and this often works out as a bargain. Water or wine (vino) is commonly included in the price.
Things like schnitzel, full English breakfast, pizza, döner, and frozen fish are largely available in tourist destinations. In most cities you can also find international cuisine such as Italian, Chinese, French, Thai, Japanese, Middle Eastern, Vietnamese, and Argentinian. The bigger the city, the more variety you can find.
Unlike some northern European countries, Spain received very little immigration until after the death of Franco and the 1980s economic boom and as such there may be less variety of immigrant-owned restaurants in small- and medium-sized towns, but this is of course changing with particularly Latin American and Middle Eastern immigration to Spain leaving their mark on the restaurant scene.
- See also: Spanish cuisine#Beverages
Tea and coffee
Spanish people are very passionate about the quality, intensity and taste of their coffee and good freshly brewed coffee is available almost everywhere.
The usual choices are solo, the milk-less espresso version; cortado, solo with a dash of milk; con leche, solo with milk added; and manchado, coffee with lots of milk (sort of like the French cafe au lait). Asking for caffee latte will likely result in less milk than you are used to--it's always OK to ask for extra milk.
Regional variants can be found, such as bombón in Eastern Spain, solo with condensed milk.
Starbucks is the only national chain operating in Spain. Locals argue that it cannot compete with small local cafes in quality of coffee and visited only by tourists. It is not present in smaller cities.
If you eat for €20 per dinner, you will never be served a good tea; expect Pompadour or Lipton. It takes some effort to find a good tea if you spend most time of the day in touristy places.
Horchata is a milky non-alcoholic drink made of tiger nuts and sugar, and very different from drinks of the same name found in Latin America. Alboraia, a small town close to Valencia, is regarded as a best place where horchata is produced.
The drinking age in Spain is 18. People under this age are forbidden to drink and buy alcoholic drinks, although enforcement in tourist and clubbing areas is lax. Drinking in the streets has been banned (although it is still a common practice in most nightlife areas). A "dry law" bans supermarkets from selling alcohol after 22:00.
Try an absinthe cocktail (the fabled liquor was never outlawed here, but it is not a popular drink in Spain).
Probably one of the best places to meet people in Spain is in bars. Everyone visits them and they are always busy and sometimes bursting with people. There is no age restriction imposed to enter these premises, but children and teenagers often will not be served alcoholic drinks. Age restrictions for the consumption of alcohol are clearly posted at bars but are enforced only intermittently. It is common to see an entire family at a bar.
It's important to know the difference between a pub (which closes at 3-03:30) and a club (which opens until 06:00-08:00 but is usually deserted early in the night).
On weekends, the time to go out for copas (drinks) usually starts at about 23:00-01:00 which is somewhat later than in North and Central Europe. Before that, people usually do any number of things, have some tapas (raciones, algo para picar), eat a "real" dinner in a restaurant, stay at home with family, or go to cultural events. If you want to go dancing, you will find that most of the clubs in Madrid are relatively empty before midnight (some do not even open until 01:00) and most won't get crowded until 03:00. People usually go to pubs, then go to the clubs until 06:00-08:00.
For a true Spanish experience, after a night of dancing and drinking it is common to have a breakfast of chocolate con churros with your friends before going home. (CcC is a small cup of thick, melted chocolate served with freshly fried sweet fritters used for dipping in the chocolate and should be tried, if only for the great taste.)
Bars are mainly to have drink and a small tapa while socialising and decompressing from work or studies. Usually Spaniards can control their alcohol consumption better than their northern European neighbours and drunken people are rarely seen at bars or on the streets. A drink, if ordered without an accompanying tapa, is often served with a "minor" or inexpensive tapa as a courtesy.
Size and price of tapas changes a lot throughout Spain. For instance, it's almost impossible to get free tapas in big cities like Valencia or Barcelona, excluding Madrid where there are several Tapa Bars although some are a bit expensive. You can eat for free (just paying for the drinks), with huge tapas and cheap prices at cities like Granada, Badajoz or Salamanca.
The tapa, and the related pincho, trace their existence in Spain to both acting as a cover ("Tapa") on top of a cup of wine to prevent flies from accessing it, and as a requirement of law when serving wine at an establishment during the Middle Ages.
The Spanish beer is well worth a try. Most popular local brands include San Miguel, Cruzcampo, Mahou, Ámbar, Estrella Galicia, Keller and many others, including local brands at most cities; import beers are also available. Spaniards often add lemon juice (Fanta limón, or lemon Fanta) to their beer. Particularly on hot summer days people will drink a refreshing "clara" which is a light beer mixed with lemon/lemonade.
Cava is Spanish sparkling wine and the name went from Spanish Champagne to Cava was after a long lasting dispute with the French. The Spanish called it for a long time champan, but the French argued that champagne can be made only from grapes grown in the Champagne region in France. Nevertheless, Cava is a quite successful sparkling wine and 99% of the production comes from the area around Barcelona. Cider (Sidra) can be found in the Galicia, Asturias, Cantabria and País Vasco.
Spain is a country with great wine-making and drinking traditions: 22% of Europe's wine growing area is in Spain, however the production is about half of what the French produce. For red wine in a bar, ask "un tinto por favor", for white wine "un blanco por favor", for rose: "un rosado por favor". Wine bars proper are more and more popular. In short, a wine bar is a sophisticated tapas bar where you can order wine by the glass. You will immediately see a blackboard with the wines that are available and the price per glass.
Sangria is drink made of wine and fruits and usually is made from simple wines. You will find sangria in areas frequented by tourists. Spanish prepare sangria for fiestas and hot summer, and not every day as seen in tourist regions like Mallorca. Sangria in restaurants aimed for foreigners are best avoided, but it is a very good drink to try if a Spaniard prepares it for a fiesta!
The pale sherry wine around Jerez called "fino" is fortified with alcohol to 15 percent. If you would like to have one in a bar you have to order a fino. Manzanilla is bit salty, good as an aperitivo. Amontillado and Oloroso are a different types of sherry where the oxidative aging process has taken the lead.
What's the difference?
There are three names for hotel-like accommodation in large cities in Spain: hotel, hostal and pension. It is important not to confuse a hostel with a hostal; a hostel offers backpacker-type accommodation with shared rooms, whereas a hostal is very similar to a guest house and is generally cheaper than a hotel.
There are many types of tourist accommodation, ranging from hotels, pensions and rented villas, to camping and even monasteries.
"7% VAT is not included" is a common trick for mid-range guesthouses and hotels: always check the small print when you choose your place to stay. VAT is IVA in Spanish.
Besides the coasts, Spain is rich in small tourist-friendly inland villages, like Alquezar: with narrow medieval streets, charming silence and isolation, still good selection of affordable restaurants and accommodation.
Casa rural, the bed and breakfast of Spain
For a more homely sort of accommodation consider the casa rural. A casa rural is the rough equivalent to a bed and breakfast or a gîte. Not all houses are situated in the countryside, as the name implies. Some are situated in the smaller towns, and they are in virtually every province.
Casas rurales vary in quality and price throughout Spain. In some regions, like Galicia, they are strictly controlled and inspected. Other regions are not so thorough in applying their regulations.
Many foreign visitors stay in hotels that have been organised by tour operators who offer package holidays to the popular resorts on the costas and islands. However, for the independent traveller, there are hotels all over the country in all categories and to suit every budget. In fact, due to the well developed internal and foreign tourism markets Spain may well be one of the best served European countries in terms of numbers and quality of hotels.
A parador is a state-owned hotel in Spain (rating from 3 to 5 stars). This chain of inns was founded in 1928 by the Spanish King Alfonso XIII. The unique aspects of paradores are their location and their history. Found mostly in historical buildings, such as convents, Moorish castles (like La Alhambra), or haciendas, paradores are the exact opposite of the uncontrolled development found in coastal regions like the Costa del Sol. Hospitality has been harmoniously integrated with the restoration of castles, palaces and convents, rescuing from ruin and abandonment monuments representative of Spain's historical and cultural heritage.
For example the parador in Santiago de Compostela is located next to the Cathedral in a former royal hospital built in the year 1499. Rooms are decorated in an old-fashioned way, but nevertheless have modern facilities. Other notable paradores are in Arcos de la Frontera, Ronda, Santillana del Mar (Altamira cave) as well as more than one hundred other destination all over Spain.
Paradores serve breakfast (about €10) and often have very good local cuisine typical of their region (about €25).
Accommodation prices are good value, when you consider that the hotels are often found in the heart of scenic areas, varying from €85 for a double room to €245 for a twin room (like in Granada). Two of the most beautiful paradors are in Léon and Santiago de Compostela.
There are some promotions available:
- Over 60 year-olds can enjoy a discount.
- Youngsters under 30 can visit the paradors at a fixed rate of €35 per person.
- Two nights half board have a discount of 20%.
- A dreamweek of 6 nights is cheaper.
- 5 nights at €42 per person.
The promotions do not always apply, especially in August they are not valid, and may require advance bookings.
There are plenty of hostels. Prices vary from €15 to €25 per night. Spanish "hostales" are not really hostels, but more like unclassified small hotels (with generally no more than a dozen rooms). They can vary in quality from very rudimentary to reasonably smart.
- Independent-hotels.info Spain. includes a fair number of good value independent hostales among the hotel listings.
- Xanascat. The Regional Network of Youth Hostels of Catalonia if you are visiting Barcelona, Girona, Taragona or other locations in the region.
Short-term, self-catering apartment rental is an option for travellers who want to stay in one place for a week or more. Accommodations range from small apartments to villas.
The number of holiday rentals available depends on the area of Spain you are planning to visit. Although they are common in coastal areas, big capitals and other popular tourist cities, if you plan to visit small inland towns, you will find casas rurales more easily.
Camping is the least expensive lodging option.
As per rest of the European Union, all emergencies can be reported to the toll-free number 112.
There are four kinds of police in Spain:
- Policía Municipal or Local (municipal/local police), In Barcelona: Guardia Urbana. Uniforms change from town to town, but they usually wear black or blue clothes with pale blue shirt and a blue cap (or white helmet) with a checkered white-and-blue strip. Local police keeps order and rules the traffic inside cities, and they can help in case you are lost and need some directions. Although you can't directly report crimes to them, they will escort you to the local Policia Nacional headquarters if required, and they will escort the suspects to be arrested also, if needed.
- Policía Nacional (National Police) wear dark blue clothes and blue cap (sometimes replaced by a baseball-like cap), unlike Policía Municipal, they do not have a checkered flag around their cap/helmet. Inside cities, all offenses/crimes should be reported to them, although the other police forces would help anyone who needs to report an offense.
- Guardia Civil (Civil Guard) keeps the order outside cities, in the country, and regulates traffic in the roads between cities. You would probably see them guarding official buildings, or patrolling the roads. They wear plain green military-like uniform; for ceremonial duties, officers wear a black hat (tricornio) resembling a toreador cap, a tradition dated back to the 19th Century, but most of them use green caps or white motorcycle helmets. The Guardia Civil likes to project a "tough guy" image and they are sometimes accused of excessive use of force.
- Given that Spain has a high grade of political autonomy granted to its regional governments, four of them have created regional law forces: the Policía Foral in Navarre, the Ertzaintza in the Basque Country, the Policía Canaria on the Canary Islands or the Mossos d'Esquadra in Catalonia. These forces have the almost the same competences as the Policía Nacional in their respective territories. Additionally there is BESCAM (Brigadas Especiales de Seguridad de la Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid) in the Madrid region which sit somewhere between local police and a fully autonomous police of an autonomous region but carry their own uniforms and livery on vehicles.
All kinds of police also wear high-visibility clothing ("reflective" jackets) while directing traffic, or in the road.
Some thieves have been known to pose as police officers, asking to see wallets for identification purposes. If approached by someone claiming to be a police officer only show only your ID after the person has presented theirs; do not show your wallet or other valuables.
If you are a victim of crime call 112. You can ask for a copy of the “denuncia” (police report) if you need it for insurance purposes, or to apply for replacement documents. Make sure that it is a “una denuncia” not a sworn declaration (una declaración judicial), as the latter may not be accepted as evidence of the crime for insurance purposes, or when applying for your new passport.
Making a police report
You can make a police report in three different ways:
1. In person. A list of police stations in the different regions of Spain is available here. English language interpreters are not always available at short notice: it may be advisable to bring a Spanish-speaking person with you.
2. By telephone: You can make a police report by phone in English ☏. The English language service is available 09:00-21:00, seven days a week. Once you have made your report, you will be instructed to pick up a signed copy of the report at your nearest police station. However, some crimes, particularly more serious crimes or those involving violence, can only be reported in person.
3. Online: You can also make a police report online, but in Spanish only. Some crimes, especially more serious crimes involving physical violence, must be reported in person.
You can read further advice from the Spanish police on this webpage.
Permissions and documentation
Spanish law strictly requires foreigners who are in Spanish territory to have documentation proving their identity and the fact of being legally in Spain. You must have that with you all the time because you may be asked by the Police to show those at any moment. If you don't carry it with you, you may be escorted to the nearest police station for identification.
Spain is a safe country, but you should take some basic precautions encouraged in the entire world:
- Thieves may work in teams and a person may attempt to distract you in order that an accomplice can rob you more easily. Theft, including violent theft, occurs at all times of day and night and to people of all ages.
- Thieves prefer stealth to direct confrontation so it is unlikely that you will be hurt in the process, but exercise caution all the same.
- There have been instances where thieves on motorbikes drive by women and grab their purses, so keep a tight hold on yours even if you don't see anyone around.
- Try not to show the money you have in your wallet or purse.
- Always watch your bag or purse in tourist places, buses, trains and meetings. A voice message reminding that is played in most of the bus/train stations and airports.
- Large cities like Alicante, Barcelona, Madrid, and Sevilla, in particular, report many incidents of pick-pocketing, mugging, and violent attacks, some of which require the victim to seek medical attention. Although crimes occur at all times of day and night and to people of all ages, older and Asian tourists seem to be particularly at risk.
- Do not carry large amounts of money with you, unless needed. Use your credit card (Spain is the first country in number of cash points and most shops/restaurants accept it). Of course, use it with caution.
- Beware of pickpockets when visiting areas with large numbers of people, like crowded buses or the Puerta del Sol(in Madrid). In metro stations, avoid boarding the train near the exit/entrance to the platform, as this is often where pickpockets position themselves.
- In Madrid and also in Barcelona, criminals target particularly people from the East Asia (especially China, S. Korea, Japan, and Taiwan ), thinking they carry money and are easy prey.
- In Madrid, known high-risk locations for thieves are the Puerta del Sol area and surrounding streets, Gran Vìa, Plaza Mayor, near the Prado Museum, the Atocha train station, Retiro Park and on the subway. In Barcelona, thefts occur most frequently at the airport and on the airport shuttle bus (Aerobus), on Las Ramblas (often in Internet cafés), in Plaza Real and surrounding streets of the old city, on the subway, Barceloneta beach, Sagrada Familia church, and at the Sants train and bus station.
- Theft from rental vehicles is high. Be vigilant in service areas on the highways along the coast. Avoid leaving any luggage or valuables in the vehicle and use secure parking facilities.
- Don't hesitate to report crimes to local police, though the processing time is usually long.
- In general, you must bear in mind that those areas with a larger number of foreign visitors, like some crowded vacation resorts in the East Coast, are much more likely to attract thieves than places which are not so popular among tourists.
- Avoid women offering rosemary, refuse it always; they will read your future, ask for some money, and your pocket will probably be picked. Some women will also approach you on the street repeating "Buena suerte" ("good luck") as a distraction for another woman to try to pickpocket you.
- A great tourist attraction is the Flea Market (el Rastro) in Madrid on the weekends. However, as it is nearly standing room only - it is also an attraction for pickpockets. They operate in groups... be extremely cautious in these tight market type environments as it is very common to be targeted... especially if you stand out as a tourist or someone with money. Try to blend in and not stand out and you will likely not be at as much risk.
- Women who carry purses should always put the straps across their bodies. Always hold on to the purse itself and keep it in front of your body. Keep one hand on the bottom, as pickpockets can otherwise slit the bottom without you ever knowing.
- Never place anything on the back of a chair or on the floor next to you, keep it on your person always.
- If you must use an ATM, do not flash the money you have just picked up.
- More foreign passports are stolen each year in Spain than anywhere else in the world, especially in Barcelona. Ensure that your passport is protected at all times.
- In the event of a road-related incident, be extremely cautious about accepting help from anyone other than a uniformed Spanish police officer or Civil Guard. Thieves have been known to fake or provoke a flat tire, and when a motorist stops to help, the thieves steal the motorist’s car or belongings. The reverse scenario has also occurred, whereby a fake Good Samaritan stops to help a motorist in distress, only to steal the motorist’s car or belongings.
- Incidents of drink spiking, followed by theft and sexual assault, have been reported.
- Be alert to the possible use of ‘date rape’ and other drugs including ‘GHB’ and liquid ecstasy. Buy your own drinks and keep sight of them at all times to make sure they are not spiked; female travellers should be particularly watchful. Alcohol and drugs can make you less vigilant, less in control and less aware of your environment. If you drink, know your limit - remember that drinks served in bars are often stronger. Avoid splitting up from your friends, and don't go off with people you don't know.
see also common scams
Some people could try to take advantage of your ignorance of local customs.
- In Spanish cities, all taxis should have a visible fare table. Do not agree a fixed price to go from an airport to a city: in most cases, the taxi driver will be earning more money than without a preagreed tariff. Many taxi drivers will also demand a tip from foreign customers or even from national ones on the way to and from the airport. You might round up to the nearest euro when paying though.
- In many places of Madrid, especially near Atocha station, and also in the Ramblas of Barcelona, there are people ('trileros') who play the "shell game". They will "fish" you if you play, and they will most likely pick your pocket if you stop to see other people play.
- Before paying the bill in bars and restaurants, always check the bill and carefully scrutinise it. Some staff will often attempt to squeeze a few extra euros out of unsuspecting tourists by charging for things they did not eat or drink, or simply overcharging. This is true in both touristy and non-touristy areas. If you feel overcharged, bring it to their attention and/or ask to see a menu. It is also sometimes written (in English only) at the bottom of a bill that a tip is not included: remember that tipping is optional in Spain and Spanish people commonly leave loose change only and no more than a 5%-8% of the price of what they have consumed (not an American-style 15-20%), so avoid being fooled into leaving more than you have to.
- Many tourists have reported lottery scams whereby they are contacted via the Internet or fax and informed that they have won a substantial prize in the Spanish lottery (El Gordo), when in fact they have never participated in the lottery. They are asked to deposit an amount of money in a bank account to pay taxes and other fees before collecting the prize or coming to Spain to close the transaction.
- There have also been reports of a scam whereby a person is informed that he or she is the recipient of a large inheritance, and that funds must be deposited into a Spanish bank account so the inheritance can be processed.
- In another common scam, some tourists have received a bogus email purportedly sent from an individual well known to them and claiming that he or she is in trouble and needs funds.
Other things you should know
- Spanish cities can be loud at night, especially on weekends, but the streets are generally safe even for women.
- All businesses should have an official complaint form, in case you need it. It is illegal for a business to deny you this form.
- In some cases, police in Spain may target people belonging to ethnic minorities for identity checks. People who are not "European-looking" can be stopped several times a day to have their papers checked on the pretext of "migration control".
- The Spanish Government’s threat alert level indicates a ‘probable risk’ of terrorist attack. Potential targets include places frequented by expatriates and tourists and public transport facilities. A serious attack happened in 2004, bombs exploded on commuter trains in Madrid in March 2004, killing 192 people. This attack was attributed to Al Qaeda terrorist network. In 2007, a Spanish court found 21 people guilty of involvement in the bombings. Even though the chance of being in a terrorist attack is extremely low anywhere, you should only watch out in Madrid or Barcelona.
- There has been an increase in political action and public demonstrations on a rolling basis throughout Spain. Demonstrations occur and have sometimes turned violent, mostly to police officers. Avoid all demonstrations and large gatherings, follow the advice of local authorities and monitor local media. Strikes may occasionally lead to disruptions to traffic and public transportation. When a demonstration is planned or in progress you should seek advice on and avoid the routes marchers plan to take. You should also ensure to check for travel updates or transport delays before and during your trip to Spain.
- Driving in Spain can be dangerous due to traffic congestion in urban areas, although driving is not particularly aggressive with the exception of common speeding. Be cautious when driving in Spain. Night driving can be particularly dangerous. The use of a mobile phone without a hands-free device can result in a fine and you being banned from driving in Spain. All drivers are required to carry, in the vehicle, a reflective vest and to use a reflective triangle warning sign if they need to stop at the roadside.
- Be cautious when approached by someone who claims to be a police officer. On the road, you will always be stopped by an officer in a uniform. Unmarked vehicles will have a flashing electronic sign on the rear window which reads Policía or Guardia Civil, or Ertzaintza in the Basque Country, Mossos d'Esquadra in Catalonia, or Foruzaingoa/Policía Foral in Navarre. Most times they will have blue flashing lights incorporated into the headlights. In non-traffic-related matters police officers may be in casual clothes. Police officers do not have to directly identify themselves unless you ask them to. Should they request identification, they should be shown photographic ID. Your passport or your driver's licence will do, or your national ID card if you are from the European Union, though a passport is always preferred. You can get in trouble or be fined for not having any identification on you. If in any doubt, drivers should converse through the car window and contact the Guardia Civil on 062 or the Spanish National Police on 112 and ask them to confirm that the registration number of the vehicle corresponds to an official police vehicle.
You can smell marijuana smoke at many street corners in major cities with police apparently unperturbed by it. Still, if you don't know local customs, it is quite possible that the police make a show of enforcing the law on you. Drug possession is also a perennial favorite of charging an arrestee with something when nothing else can be proven.
In Spain, those who carry out acts of cultivation, processing or trafficking, or otherwise promote, favor or facilitate the illegal consumption of toxic drugs, narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances, or possess them for those purposes is a crime punished by the Penal Code. It does not matter if you're a foreign person, you'll be prosecuted. Prison sentences or heavy fines are issues for these offences, with the possibility of being also ordered to leave the country and the prohibition to come back for up to 10 years.
As stated in the Protection of the Citizens' Safety Act, the consumption of illegal drugs on public places is also prohibited. The illicit consumption or possession of toxic drugs, narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances, even if they were not destined for traffic, in places, roads, public establishments or public transport, as well as the abandonment of the instruments or other effects used in said places will be fined from €601 up to €30,000.
Police are allowed by law to conduct body searches in case they suspect you're carrying drugs according to said laws.
Likewise the consumption of alcoholic beverages in the street, or in places, roads, establishments or public transport when it seriously disrupts public tranquillity is fined up to €600.
These rules are actively enforced.
- Pharmaceuticals are not sold at supermarkets, only at farmacias (pharmacies/chemists), identified with a green cross or a Hygeia's cup. Nearly every city and town has at least one 24-hour pharmacy; for those that close at night, the law requires a poster with the address of the nearest pharmacy, possibly in one of the nearby streets or towns.
- People from the European Union and a few more European countries can freely use the public health system, if they have the appropriate European Health Insurance Card. The card does not cover treatment in private hospitals. Agreements are established to treat people from a few American countries.
- Do not hesitate to go to any healthcare facility should you be injured or seriously ill, as it would be illegal for them not to treat you, even if you are uninsured. You (or your country if Spain has a treaty on the matter) will pay for the service later.
- Although many visitors travel to Spain for the warm climate, it can be cold in winter, especially in the Central Region and in the North, and in some places it is also rainy in summer. Remember to travel with adequate clothes.
- In summer, avoid direct exposure to sunlight for long periods of time to prevent sunburn and heatstroke. Drink water, walk on the shady side of street and keep a container of sun cream (suntan lotion) handy.
The tap water in Spain is safe and of a drinkable quality. The water in some southern regions of the country, however, is sometimes sourced from salt water which can have a high mineral content. This can cause upset stomachs in those not used to this. While high mineral content water is safe to drink regardless, locals in these areas will often drink bottled water instead as it tastes better. Bottled water is readily available to buy in most areas and in a variety of brands.
Smoking is banned in all enclosed public spaces and places of work, in public transportation, and in outdoor public places near hospitals and in playgrounds. Smoking is also banned in outdoor sections of bars and restaurants. Smoking is banned in television broadcasts as well.
Generally speaking, Spaniards are widely regarded as welcoming and friendly.
Culture and identity
Spaniards are generally neutral communicators. They're comfortable with expressing their opinions and emotions on something, and they expect the same from you. While this may give you the impression that Spanish people are confident and sociable, you should make every effort to be tactful with your words as they are sensitive to being beckoned directly.
In conversational settings, it is common for people to interrupt or talk over one another. Shouting to make oneself heard is common, as is the use of swear words. You may also find that it is common for people to give you advice on all kinds of things. For instance, you can expect people to tell you what to see and where to go. At first, this may come across as annoying, but the information that Spaniards provide is meant to help you in a good way, not lay traps for you.
Family values are important to many Spaniards. Passing unwarranted comments and/or criticisms about someone's family members is considered rude.
Spaniards, especially the young, generally feel a linguistic and cultural connection to Latin America. However, most will be quick to point out that Spain is a European nation, not a Latin American one and that all Spanish-speaking countries are different and have particularities of their own.
Spaniards are not as religious as the media sometimes presents them, and modern Spanish society is for the most part rather secular, but they are and always were a mostly Catholic country (73% officially, although only 10% admit practising and only 20% admit being believers); respect this and avoid making any comments that could offend. In particular, religious festivals, Holy Week (Easter), and Christmas are very important to Spaniards. Tolerance of all religions should be observed, especially in large urban areas like Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Seville or Malaga (where people and temples of all beliefs can be found) or different regions in southern Spain, which may have a sizable Muslim population (which accounts for almost 4% of the country's population).
Despite being a Catholic majority country, homosexuality is quite tolerated in Spain and public display of same-sex affection would not likely stir hostility. A 2013 Pew survey of various countries in the Americas, Europe, Africa and the Middle East found that Spain had the highest percentage of people who believed homosexuality should be accepted by society, at 88%. Same-sex marriage has been legal since 2005 and the government provides legal benefits to same-sex couples. However, this does not always necessarily mean that all Spaniards are friendly to gays; while homophobic aggressions are rare, they still happen. Cities are more tolerant of homosexuality than rural areas, Madrid, Catalonia and the Basque Country are much more tolerant but overall Spain is gay-friendly. As in any other place, elderly people do usually have far more conservative points of view. The Madrid pride parade is one of the largest in the world. Overall, Spain is one of the safest countries for LGBT tourists.
Avoid talking about the former colonial past and especially about the "Black Legend." Regardless of what you may have heard Spain had several ministers and military leaders of mixed race serving in the military during the colonial era and even a Prime Minister born in the Philippines (Marcelo Azcarraga Palmero). Many Spaniards take pride in their history and former imperial glories. People from Spain's former colonies (Latin America, Equatorial Guinea, the Philippines, Western Sahara and Northern Morocco) make up a majority of foreign immigrants in Spain (58%) along with the Chinese, Africans and Eastern Europeans. Equally, Spain is one of the main investors and economic and humanitarian aid donors to Latin America and Africa.
Bullfighting (Spanish: Tauromaquia) is seen by many Spaniards as a cultural heritage icon, but the disaffection with bullfighting is increasing in all big cities and obviously among animal activist groups within the country. Many urban Spaniards would consider bullfighting a show aimed at foreign tourists and elderly people from the countryside, and some young Spaniards will feel offended if their country is associated with it. To illustrate how divided the country is, many Spaniards point to the royal family: former king Juan Carlos and his daughter are avid fans, while his wife and son King Felipe VI do not care for the sport. Bullfights and related events, such as the annual San Fermin Pamplona bull-runs, make up a multi-million euro industry and draw many tourists, both foreign and Spanish. In addition, bullfighting has been banned in the northeastern region of Catalonia as well as in several towns and counties all over the country.
Take care when mentioning the fascist dictatorship of Francisco Franco, who ruled Spain from 1939 to 1975 as well as the Civil War of 1936-1939. This was a painful past as Franco ruled Spain with an iron fist, executing many Spaniards who violated the anti-democratic laws of the regime. It was also a notable period of economic growth in the final years of Franco's regime, and some older Spaniards may have supportive views of him. The Republican flag (red, yellow, purple, either with or without a coat of arms) can be seen hanging from balconies and bought at some souvenir shops. However, it is not an uncontroversial symbol and associated with leftism, often showing up at leftist demonstrations. No symbols from the Franco era are officially forbidden, but using or displaying them is associated with far right extremists.
The possibilities of Catalan independence, Basque independence, and Galician independence are extremely sensitive issues among many in Spain. You should avoid discussing them where possible. If anything surrounding these subjects is brought up by someone, it's best to stay neutral.
Virtually everyone in Spain, regardless of region, is able to speak Castilian Spanish, albeit not always as a mother tongue. In Catalonia, some Catalans prefer to not speak Spanish at all, and will reply to Spanish-speaking interlocutors in Catalan; this is usually a political statement, rather than a lack of Castilian language ability. Foreigners are given a bit more leeway, but there are still some Catalans who'd rather have a conversation in English than Spanish if those are the only options for communication.
The political status of Gibraltar is a particularly sensitive issue. Most Spaniards consider Gibraltar to be Spanish sovereign territory that is illegally occupied by Britain. Most Gibraltarians on the other hand are both proud Brits and proud Europeans - a situation made infinitely more awkward by Brexit which passed against near unanimous Gibraltarian opposition.
Avoid discussing the Spanish monarchy. Many are generally opposed to the Spanish royal family, although there are some who are staunchly monarchist. Due to the Bourbon dynasty's identification with centralism, supporters of Catalan and Basque independence often don't have a good word to say about them.
It is customary to kiss friends, family, and acquaintances on both cheeks upon seeing each other and saying goodbye. Male-to-male kisses of this sort are limited to family members or to very close friends; otherwise a firm handshake is expected instead (same as in France or Italy).
Spaniards are keen to maintain physical contact while talking, such as putting a hand on your shoulder, patting your back, etc. These should be taken as signs of friendship done among relatives, close friends and colleagues.
Spaniards will probably feel comfortable around you more quickly than other Europeans and you may even be receive an offensive comment or even an insult (cabrón) for a greeting shortly after meeting someone in an informal environment, especially if it is a young person or a male. You should not feel offended by this, as it is interpreted as proof that you have such a close relationship that you can mess with each other without repercussions.
You should reply with a similar comment (never anything serious or something that will genuinely hurt the person) or just greet them. Do not go around insulting people, though, as you will also find people who do not like it. It is recommended that you never do this first as a foreigner and just wait until you get it. Generally, your instinct will be able to distinguish between a joke and a genuine aggression.
When in a car, the elderly and pregnant always ride in the passenger's seat, unless they request not to.
Spaniards are not as punctual as Northern Europeans, but generally you are expected to arrive no more than ten minutes late, and being punctual will always be received positively. It is especially important to be punctual the first time you meet with someone. As a rule of thumb, you should expect people to be more punctual as you go north and less punctual as you go south.
If you are staying at a Spaniard's home, bring shoes to wear inside such as slippers. Walking around barefoot in the house is viewed as unsanitary. Walking in socks may be acceptable in a close friend's house, but you should always ask first.
It is acceptable for women to sunbathe topless in beaches, but full nudity is only practised in "clothing-optional" or nudist beaches.
Eating and drinking
During lunch or dinner, Spaniards do not begin eating until everyone is seated and ready to eat. Likewise, they do not leave the table until everyone is finished eating. Table manners are otherwise standard and informal, although this also depends on the place you are eating. When the bill comes, it is common to pay equally, regardless of the amount or price each has consumed (pagar a escote).
When Spaniards receive a gift or are offered a drink or a meal, they usually refuse for a while, so as not to seem greedy. This sometimes sparks arguments among especially reluctant people, but it is seen as polite. Remember to offer more than once (on the third try, it must be fairly clear if they will accept it or not). On the other hand, if you are interested in the offer, politely smile and decline it, saying that you don't want to be a nuisance, etc., but relent and accept when they insist.
Spaniards rarely drink or eat in the street. Bars will rarely offer the option of food to take away but "tapas" are easily available. Taking leftovers home from a restaurant is uncommon but has somewhat less of a stigma than it used to. One asks for "un taper" (derived from "Tupperware") or "una caja." Older Spaniards are still likely to frown on this. Appearing drunk in public is generally frowned upon.
Among Spaniards, lunch time is usually between 13:00 and 14:30 (it could be as late as 15:15) while dinner time is between 20:30 and 21:30. However, in special celebrations, dinner can be as late as 22:00. Lunch is considered the biggest and most important meal of the day, instead of dinner. Almost all small businesses close between 14:30 and 17:00, so plan your shopping and sight-seeing accordingly. Shopping malls and supermarkets, however, are usually open from 09:30 to 21:00 or 22:00, and in the larger cities several shops are open 24 hr daily, usually owned by Chinese immigrants.
Spanish cities can be noisy in some areas; you might want to check before booking a room.
Wi-Fi points in bars and cafeterias are available to customers, and most hotels offer Wi-Fi connection in common areas for their guests.
Be conscious of security when using a laptop in an outdoor location.
Mobile phones and SIM cards
Cheap mobile phones (less than €50) with some pre-paid minutes are sold at any phone operator's shop and can be purchased without many formalities (ID is usually required). Topping-up is then done by buying scratch cards from the small stores "Frutos Secos," supermarkets, vending points (often found in tobacco shops) or kiosks -- recharging using the Web or an ATM does not work with foreign credit cards.
"Locutorios" (call shops) are widely spread in bigger cities and touristy locations. In Madrid or Toledo it's very easy to find one. Making calls from "Locutorios" tend to be much cheaper, especially international calls (usually made through VoIP). They are usually a good pick for calling home. Prepaid calling cards for cheap international calls are widely available in newsagents or grocery stores around the city. Ask for a "tarjeta telefonica".