The Solomon Islands are a South Pacific archipelago east of Papua New Guinea. They occupy a strategic location on sea routes between the South Pacific Ocean, the Solomon Sea, and the Coral Sea.
the northernmost area; includes the Treasury Islands and Shortland Islands as well as Choiseul itself
|Florida and Russell Islands (Yandina)|
|Guadalcanal (Honiara, Aola Bay)|
the major island with the capital city and main airport
|New Georgia Islands (Noro)|
New Georgia itself plus myriad tiny islands and atolls. Viru Harbor
|Rennell and Bellona |
this island was previously known as San Cristóbal
|Santa Cruz Islands |
tiny remote islands in the south east, closer to Vanuatu than to anywhere else in the Solomons
|Santa Isabel |
where the first European contact was made with the Solomon Islands
|Currency||Solomon Islands dollar (SBD)|
|Population||611.3 thousand (2017)|
|Electricity||220 volt / 50 hertz (AS/NZS 3112, BS 1363)|
|Time zone||UTC+11:00, Pacific/Guadalcanal|
|Emergencies||911 (emergency medical services), +677-988 (fire department), 999 (police)|
|edit on Wikidata|
The Solomon Islands are believed to have been inhabited by Melanesian people for thousands of years. It is believed that Papuan-speaking settlers began to arrive around 30,000 BC. Austronesian speakers arrived circa 4,000 BC, bringing cultural elements such as the outrigger canoe. It is between 1,200 and 800 BC that the ancestors of the Polynesians, the Lapita people, arrived from the Bismarck Archipelago with their characteristic ceramics.
The first European to visit the islands was the Spanish navigator Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira, coming from Peru in 1568. The people of Solomon Islands were notorious for headhunting and cannibalism before the arrival of the Europeans. Missionaries began visiting the Solomons in the mid-19th century. They made little progress at first, because "blackbirding" (the recruitment of laborers through coercion, deception, or kidnapping for plantations in Queensland or Fiji, where they were paid poorly, if at all) led to a series of reprisals and massacres. The evils of the labor trade prompted the United Kingdom to declare a protectorate over the southern Solomons in June 1893.
In the Second World War, there was fierce fighting between the Americans and the Japanese in the Solomon Islands campaign of 1942–45, including the Battle of Guadalcanal. Self-government was achieved in 1976 and independence two years later. The Solomon Islands is a constitutional monarchy with the British monarch, Charles III, as the head of state, and a governor-general representing the King in his absence.
In 1998, ethnic violence, government misconduct, and crime undermined stability and society. In June 2003, an Australian-led multinational force, the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands (RAMSI), arrived and restored peace, disarmed ethnic militias and improved civil governance. It also led to the development of facilities catering to the expatriate workers.
The bulk of the population depends on agriculture, fishing, and forestry for at least part of their livelihood. Most manufactured goods and petroleum products must be imported. The islands are rich in undeveloped mineral resources such as lead, zinc, nickel, and gold. However, severe ethnic violence, the closing of key business enterprises, and an empty government treasury have led to serious economic disarray, indeed near collapse. Tanker deliveries of crucial fuel supplies (including those for electrical generation) have become sporadic due to the government's inability to pay and attacks against ships. Telecommunications are threatened by the nonpayment of bills and by the lack of technical and maintenance staff, many of whom have left the country.
In 2019, the Solomon Islands severed diplomatic relations with Taiwan and recognised China instead. This has re-ignited inter-island tensions, with the strongly pro-Taiwan province of Malaita declaring their intention to secede. Things came to a head in 2021 when pro-Taiwan protesters from Malaita rioted and burnt down Honiara's Chinatown, with the Australian military having to be called in to restore order. In 2022, in a move strongly opposed by the United States and Australia, the Solomon Islands signed a security agreement with China that allowed China to deploy their military at the request of the Solomon Islands government to perform policing duties.
The Solomon Islands is a wide nation: distance between the westernmost and easternmost islands is about 1,500 km (930 mi). The Santa Cruz Islands (of which Tikopia is part), are situated north of Vanuatu and are especially isolated at more than 200 km (120 mi) from the other islands. Bougainville is geographically part of the Solomon Islands, but of Papua New Guinea for now, although it is set to become independent by 2025.
The Solomon Islands archipelago is part of two distinct terrestrial ecoregions. Most of the islands are part of the Solomon Islands rain forests ecoregion. These forests have come under great pressure from forestry activities. The Santa Cruz Islands are part of the Vanuatu rain forests ecoregion, together with the neighboring archipelago of Vanuatu. More than 230 varieties of orchids and other tropical flowers brighten the landscape. The islands contain several active and dormant volcanoes with Tinakula and Kavachi being the most active. The highest point is Mount Makarakomburu, at 2,447 meters. Many low lying coral atolls dot the region.
The islands' ocean-equatorial climate is extremely humid throughout the year, with a mean temperature of 27 °C (80 °F) and few extremes of temperature or weather. June through August is the cooler period. Though seasons are not pronounced, the northwesterly winds of November through April bring more frequent rainfall and occasional squalls or cyclones. The annual rainfall is about 3050 mm (120 in).
The islands are home to more than 70 indigenous Melanesian languages, with most citizens speaking Pijin as a lingua franca. English is the official language, but spoken by only 1 or 2% of the population.
Everyone needs a passport, onward ticket, and sufficient funds to cover their stay in the Solomon Islands. Since October 2016, EU citizens do not require a visa.
Citizens of the following nationalities can get visitor's visas on arrival: American Samoa, Andorra, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bonaire, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Canada, Cayman Islands, Chile, Cook Islands, Curaçao, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Fiji, French Polynesia, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guyana, Iceland, Israel, Japan, South Korea, Kuwait, Liechtenstein, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Martinique, Federated States of Micronesia, Monaco, Montserrat, Nauru, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Norway, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Pitcairn Islands, Puerto Rico, Saba, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Singapore, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna.
Citizens of other countries except Belarus, Burundi, Ethiopia, Ghana, Montenegro, Palestinian Territories, Serbia, South Africa, South Sudan, Timor-Leste, Vatican, Zimbabwe can obtain a visa on arrival if they have a confirmation that a visa has been approved before departure.
If you have a visitor's permit, you are not allowed to engage in work, business, religious vocations, or professional research. If you wish to do any of those things, you must get a business permit.
The International Airport, Henderson, is 11 km (7 miles) east of the capital, Honiara. Scheduled flights depart from Brisbane, Australia most days. There are also flights between Port Vila, Nadi, Port Moresby, and Sydney.
Cruise ships occasionally visit Honiara.
It is also possible to travel from southern Bougainville in Papua New Guinea by boat into the Solomon Islands western province, as locals routinely travel between the Solomons' Shortland Islands and Bougainville.
This runs most days from Honiara Wharf to Auki on the island of Malaita across the Slot from Honiara. In 2012 the fare as SI$300 one way or SI$580 return. The ferry travels through the Florida Islands channel which is worth seeing and there's a high chance you'll see plenty of flying fish if you look off the front or sides of the boat. The catamaran ferry is a former Auckland Harbour ferry so is not designed to be ocean-going. This means that when it's rough, it's rough so be prepared. The ferry has plenty of comfortable seating, air conditioning and a big flat screen which shows films during the journey. You can buy drinks and snacks on the ferry although it's best to buy this on the way out from Honiara as supplies run low once the boat is heading back. There is a toilet.
Boarding is at 07:30 for an 08:00 departure. Buy your ticket from a vehicle parked outside the jetty gate in the wharf car park. It'll be the one swamped with people getting tickets at 07:30. Boat stops in Tulagi (09:30) in Florida Islands and leaves ten minutes later for Boromole (arr. 10:30) which has a beautiful beach and water. It reaches Auki at 12:30 and leaves to return to Honiara via the same route at 14:00 (boarding from 13:30). Return to Boromole is 15:30 and Tulagi at 04:30 before arrival in Honiara at sunset or around 18:00.
Solomon Airlines offers numerous flights around the islands.
The Solomons have all the great attractions of Melanesia on offer. Idyllic island scenery with perfect sandy beaches and splendid nature in the form of rainforest, lagoons and waterfalls. For those who like to dive, under water life is as stunning as that above. There's an abundance of wild life to discover and amazing, colourful cultural traditions to see. Highlights include the lovely and huge Lake Te'Nggano, dramatically surrounded by high cliffs, once the reefs around this old lagoon.
Even more famous is Langa Langa Lagoon at Auki. While its waters are brown rather than bright blue, life here is slow and peaceful, with locals working on their traditional handicrafts and classic canoes making their silent way through the water. It's also one of the places where you can see the artificial islands this country is known for. Some date back to the 16th century, but new are created even now, using stones and coral materials.
Follow the slightly challenging but beautiful path to the bubbling mud of the Reoka hot springs or - for serious hikers - consider a 2-day hike to the top of the volcano Kolombangara. Easier but beautiful is the path to the Mataniko Falls, with underlying caves that served as a hide-out for soldiers in World War II, and the Tenaru Falls. They are close to Honiara, the country's capital, which is also home to the National Museum and Culture Center.
East Rennell in the Rennell and Bellona district is the largest raised coral atoll in the world and a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The tiny islet of Skull Island, accessible from Lola Island, is one of the most sacred areas in the Solomon Islands. It is visited by tourists, and offers an insight to the history of headhunting. It also has a shrine which houses the skulls of vanquished Rendovan chiefs.
The Solomon Islands were used as a battleground between Japanese and American forces during the Pacific War. Most of its war relics can still be seen on land and under water, including tanks, plane wrecks, shipwrecks and guns.
- Ontong Java Atoll.
Exchange rates for Solomon Islands dollar
As of January 2023:
Exchange rates fluctuate. Current rates for these and other currencies are available from XE.com
The currency of the country is the Solomon Islands dollar, denoted by the symbol "SI$" (ISO currency code: SBD). The currency is divided into 100 cents. Banknotes are issued in denominations of $5, $10, $20, $50, $100, and coins in denominations of 10, 20, 50 cents, $1, $2 with only the 5 cent coin being absent.
ATMs are available in Honiara. Australian dollars are accepted at some hotels and resorts, and in some cases, preferred as it was once the official currency before 1977.
Allow SI$35 for a meal in the basic restaurant. Tips are not customary.
The archipelago's food differs little from that of other South Pacific islands. There's poi, fermented taro and the usual tropical fruit mix. An important source of starch is cassava. The tuna caught here, also an important export product, is often served with chillies and pasta or rice. Especially in the shops in the country you often only find canned spam or tuna.
The local brewery is Solbrew, which is made near the capital.
The Solomon Islands are located along the Pacific "Rim of Fire" and prone to earthquakes—including some rather large quakes! An 8.1 magnitude quake in 2007 off Ghizo Island (in the New Georgia Islands) resulted in a tsunami up to 12 m, killing 52. An 8.0 magnitude quake in 2013 near the Santa Cruz Islands resulted in a 1 m tsunami (fortunately, the epicenter was deep enough underground that a large tsunami wasn't generated) that killed fewer than 10 people. In addition to these two, quakes above magnitude 7.0 occur rather frequently (every year or two). Should you experience an earthquake, immediately seek higher ground!
While not as bad as neighbouring Papua New Guinea, crime rates in the Solomon Islands are high. Travel after dark is dangerous, especially in Honiara, and muggers have been known to target tourists at the Japanese War Memorial on Mt Austin even in broad daylight.
Ethnic tension between Guales (residents of Guadalcanals) and Malaitans, as well as between everybody and the Chinese, continues to simmer. Australian troops have been in place since 2003 to keep things in check, but this did not prevent violent rioting in Honiara in 2006 from destroying large parts of the city.
Malaria is the biggest health issue in the Solomon Islands. Travellers to the area should take anti-malarial pills before, during and after their stay.
Saltwater Crocodiles are relatively common (in comparison to other islands in the South Pacific) in the Solomon Islands and great care should be taken while in or near any body of water. Knowledge is the best defense for yourself and for the protection of the crocs themselves. While by no means anywhere even close to crocodile levels in Northern Australia and New Guinea, the population is still considered relatively healthy on the Solomons in comparison to much of the species' Southeast Asian range. This is especially true of the islands closest to New Guinea, which hold the highest populations in the Solomons.
Visitors are advised not to drink the water straight from the tap. Boil it first or drink bottled water.
There are 2 cellular providers on the island Our Telekom and Bmobile. More info here. Since its an island all internet is routed through satellite so connections are slow. There is wifi at some hotels and restaurants.