Nauru (Nauruan: Naoero) is a small island in the South Pacific Ocean south of the Marshall Islands and is the world's third-smallest country; only Monaco and the Vatican City are smaller. An off-the-beaten-track destination if there ever was one, Nauru is also one of the least visited countries in the world, with about only 200 tourists a year. The remoteness and that much of the island is a charmless open phosphate mine are two strong reasons for this.
|Currency||Australian dollar (AUD)|
|Population||13.6 thousand (2017)|
|Electricity||240 volt / 50 hertz (AS/NZS 3112)|
|Time zone||UTC+12:00, Pacific/Nauru|
|Emergencies||111 (emergency medical services), 110 (police), 112 (fire department)|
|edit on Wikidata|
In the local language the island is known as Naoero, though the name is of unknown origin. Nauru is a simplification of the name by British colonisers. The island has also been known by the names Pleasant Island, Nawodo, and Onawero.
Nauru was first settled around 3,000 years ago by twelve Micronesian and Polynesian peoples. Those twelve tribes divided the island into twelve parts; today this is symbolised by the twelve-pointed star in Nauru's national flag (the yellow line represents the Equator and the blue space the Pacific Ocean). The original inhabitants lived on fishing and even turned the lagoon in the middle of the island into a fish farm.
The first European to set foot on the island was the British commander John Fearn in 1798. The natives had a good relationship with the European ships whom they traded with. Occasionally, deserting sailors settled on Nauru. The island was devastated by a civil war between 1878 and 1888, after which it was annexed by the Germans. During the three-decade period as part of the German Pacific Territory, a king was appointed to rule the island, and the first missionaries arrived.
Mining of Nauru's phosphate deposits, which occupied about 90% of the island, began in the early 20th century under a German-British consortium. During World War I, the island was occupied by Australian forces and became a dependent territory. Briefly occupied by Japan during World War II, Nauru was recovered by Australia afterwards and achieved independence in 1968. In the 1980s, phosphate exports briefly gave Nauruans one of the highest per capita incomes in the World. As of 2008, most of Nauru's revenue came from the export of phosphate to Australia, South Korea and New Zealand as well as other countries. The industry is controlled by the Nauru Phosphate Corporation (NPC). It is anticipated that the phosphate reserves will be completely exhausted before 2050. The sale of fishing licences is the other major revenue earner. Another source of revenue has been Taiwanese Dollar diplomacy; the Republic of China (Taiwan) used to be quite active in convincing small sovereign states of recognising their claim to be the "One China" instead of the People's Republic of China's claim, but this has also diminished since the 2000s. Another major donor of foreign aid is Australia, which uses Nauru as a detention centre for asylum seekers. Despite this, the unemployment rate is 90%.
Nauru is being used as an "Off Shore Processing Centre" for asylum seekers heading to Australia, who are detained on the island until their refugee status is determined, although current policy is to not allow anyone to ever settle in Australia. Nauru receives badly needed economic aid for this, but human rights groups and other activists have frequently accused Australia of treating people in the detention centres badly and the so-called "Pacific solution" is also controversial in Australia.
Tourism could be an additional source of income for the Nauruans, although this would require better infrastructure and transportation links.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
A small, flat island almost on the Equator, Nauru is a textbook example of tropical climate. The temperature is constant around the year, with even the record lows and highs per month staying within a couple of degrees. The number of average rainy days varies from 16 in January to nine in May and June.
Nauru is best avoided during the rainy season, which is from November to February. Even though full-fledged cyclones are rare at Nauru's latitude, the sky is constantly cloudy and torrential rains and thunderstorms are frequent during this time of the year.
There are a few "sandy" beaches, but most of the shallow area around the island is coral reefs. Most of the interior of the island is worked-out mining land, which has yet to be rehabilitated. The only inland body of water is the lagoon.
The Australian offshore detention centre operating on the island means that there are always a lot of Australian government staff staying at the island's two small hotels and filling seats on the flights to and from Nauru (especially the direct flight to and from Brisbane). This, in combination with the visa requirement, means that you probably should plan and book your trip a few months ahead.
All foreign visitors require a valid passport and proof of hotel booking or local sponsor in order to enter Nauru. A free visa on arrival is available to citizens of the Cook Islands, Fiji, Israel, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Russia, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Taiwan, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu. Citizens of other countries require an advance visa.
You can apply for a visa from:
- Nauruan visitors office, ☏ .
- The Nauruan Press Office at the United Nations, ☏ .
Alternatively you can send to [email protected] or [email protected]. It may take a long time for the visa application to be processed, so you should send your application well ahead of your intended trip. A tourist visa reportedly costs $100 (all prices in Australian dollars). If you are a journalist and intend to work on Nauru you will need a journalist visa, costing $200, although if you are going to report about the Australian detention centre on the island you might need to fork out $8000. Applications for journalist visas should be directed to: Joanna Olsson, Director of Government Information Office: [email protected].
You will be sent a card that you need to fill in and return together with a copy of your passport. The visa fee is paid upon arrival in Nauru. At this time you will have to hand in your passport to the officials to be registered. The passport will be returned to you the next day.
Passengers may bring in to Nauru:
- 400 cigarettes or 50 cigars or 450g of tobacco
- three bottles of spirits
- a small quantity of perfumes for personal use
- a small quantity of audiovisual products
Drugs, explosives, weapons and pornography may not be imported.
- 1 Nauru International Airport (INU IATA) (in the Yaren district in the southwest of the island). Virtually everyone arrives here and departs from here. As of 2016, the national carrier, Nauru Airlines (formerly known as Our Airline and Air Nauru), flies to Nauru from Brisbane, Nadi and Honiara. Flights are rather irregular, with each destination being served one to three times a week.
The hotel may or may not send a car to pick you up at the airport; in the worst case you'll have to walk.
Neither of the two ports in Aiwo and Anibare can accommodate passenger traffic or yachts; they are used for export of phosphate or by local fishermen. As the water is shallow near the coast, larger ships must anchor off shore.
Every year, there are on average 200 tourists in Nauru, so it has the honour of being the least touristed country in the world. Crowds aren't a problem at all. There's hardly any public transportation, so your best bet to get around would be in a rented vehicle; car, scooter or bike. Other alternatives are by foot (not very pleasant in the tropical heat and humidity) or hitchhiking, which is quite common on the island.
By public transport
There is a community or island bus which travels around the island every hour or so during the day. It costs 50 cents per trip around the island. Also, locals sometimes cling to the cars of the goods train between Aiwo and the inland mining area.
Nauru is so small that it takes less than one hour to drive right around it. The 19-km Island Ring Road circles the island and is paved — however this is not the case for most of the inland roads. The airport taxiway cuts across three of the twenty kilometres of road. The only traffic lights on the island are used to stop the traffic and allow the plane to cross the road to the terminal! This is a favourite souvenir snapshot taken by visitors.
Due to Australian legacy, traffic drives on the left and on right hand cars, and drivers should be on increased lookout for animals and pedestrians while driving on the beltway.
Cars or bicycles can sometimes be rented from Capelle and Partners, the largest local supermarket. Otherwise you can ask at your hotel or just ask a local. Foreigners need an international driver's licence to drive on Nauru. Fuel shortages are not unheard of.
The official languages are Nauruan, a distinct Pacific Island language, as well as English. However, just about half of the island's population is fluent in Nauruan, and English is widely understood, spoken, and used for most government and commercial purposes. A phrasebook of Dorerin Naoero can be found at Nauruan phrasebook.
The Nauru experience is pretty much the exact opposite of all the typical South Pacific island clichés. If you're looking for sandy beaches, cool ocean breezes, and pristine blue waters, you'll find precious little of the sort. In fact, if you're looking for pretty much anything that can be described as flashy or tourist-oriented, you're out of luck. But don't write Nauru off just yet: its subtle and offbeat charms are waiting for anyone who's willing to take the time to seek them out — and that goes double for World War II history buffs, urbexers, and anyone who's just looking for a slow-paced, low-key, off-the-beaten-path getaway.
- 1 Anibare Bay, Anibare district (along the Ring Road). Anibare Bay is the sole exception to the rule cited above about the absence of the classic Polynesian "sandy beaches, cool ocean breezes, and pristine blue waters" experience on Nauru. Here you'll find a fine stretch of white sand surrounded by palm groves, deep and clean enough for proper swimming (among a fantasyland of beautiful coral pinnacles, no less). Anibare is also a great place for seeing the sunrise; at 166°E longitude, Nauru is among the first countries in the world to see a new day. The smaller of Nauru's two ports, 2 Anibare Harbour is at the southern end of the bay. Constructed in the early 2000s with Japanese capital, you can watch local fishermen bring their catch to land here.
- 3 Aiwo Harbour, Aiwo district (along the Ring Road). The larger port, used by major cargo ships for exporting phosphate and importing various goods including food and fuel. It was built in 1904 to accommodate the phosphate industry at the same time as the narrow-gauge railway that leads down to Aiwo from the mining area in the middle of the island. At the end of the railway and across the road from the harbour, there are plants for refining the phosphate before it's loaded onto ships along the two impressive conveyor belts on pylons jutting into the sea (as a curiosity, tubes along these structures are used to offload fuel from tankers). The place isn't as lively as in its 1970s-80s heyday, and much of it appears run-down. Still, phosphate mining has defined Nauru for more than a century and together with the mining landscape inland it's perhaps the main attraction of the whole island — especially if you're interested in industrial tourism.
- 4 Buada Lagoon, Buada district (Take the road opposite the Od-N-Aiwo hotel, follow it until it branches and then go left. The road will lead you straight there.). The only body of fresh water on the island, is a very picturesque spot in the lower middle of the island. The lagoon is surrounded on all sides by dense palm trees and other vegetation. The water is dirty and not suitable for swimming, it's still a nice photo opportunity, and you can walk all the way around the lagoon as the sealed road circles it.
- 5 Command Ridge (follow the road opposite the Od-N-Aiwo hotel for about 700 m, then when you reach the top of the ridge turn left and walk along the phosphate pinnacles to the far end of the clearing; the ruins are a short distance into the forest). During World War II, Nauru was occupied by the Japanese military from August 1942 until their surrender at the tail end of the war in the wake of three years of near-continuous Allied air raids. Today, rusting relics from this era are scattered throughout the island — disused Japanese pillboxes line the shore every couple of kilometres, and old cannons can be seen along roadsides barely hidden by forest or even in plain sight between homes. However, for those who want a firsthand look at Nauru's World War II history, Command Ridge (Nauruan: Janor) is the place to go. As the island's highest point, rising to an elevation of 63 m above sea level, it was a natural lookout point for the occupiers — and today you'll find there a bevy of old artillery emplacements (including a pair of six-barrel anti-aircraft guns still pointed skyward), the ruins of a prison complex used to hold interned Nauruan natives (who were treated brutally by the Japanese) as well as five members of the Australian military captured during the invasion, and — most impressive of all — the former communications centre, now open to visitors. The interior is not well lit, but bring in a lantern or torch and you'll still be able to make out faded Japanese writing on the walls. Even if you're not a World War II history buff, Command Ridge is one of the most easily accessed country high points in the world, lying a relatively easy 800-metre hike from the road.
- 6 Government buildings, Yaren district (on the strip between the runway and the coast). Typical of the very smallest countries in the world, Nauru has no "capital city". The government and the president are seated in the Yaren district, near the airport. The parliament house, while definitely not as pompous as many others around the world, is one of the island's major landmarks. You can also go and see a parliamentary meeting, as they are usually open to the public.
- 7 The interior of the island (Topside). The interior of the island is a "moon landscape" as a result of phosphate mining, locals reportedly call the area Topside. This was the source of the wealth of the island, but nowadays much of the phosphate has been dug up (though there is still mining, on a much smaller scale). The remaining limestone pinnacles have partially been covered with vegetation, creating an environment you maybe wouldn't expect of a South Sea island. Some find the landscape exotic and cool, while others think it's sad how the environment first has been ruined by mining, and then "decorated" with old vehicles and mining equipment lying around and rusting away. Finally, the interior of the island also includes the infamous Australian offshore dentention centre, which you may not photograph.
- 8 Nauru Museum. Museum to preserve Nauru's history and culture with WWII artefacts as well.
Nauru is one of the few countries in the world you can walk around the whole perimeter of in a reasonable time. A sealed road goes all the way around the island and driving takes about 25 minutes non-stop. A bicycle ride takes 2-3 hours, and a walk maybe 6 hours. There is lots of nice scenery if not much to do and, going from either hotel, Chappelle & Partner department store at the top of the island in Ewa district makes for a welcome break at halfway around.
In the sea
Many beaches on Nauru are shallow, rocky and not very suitable for swimming. Your best bet would be Anibare Bay (listed in #See above) which also is a great place for seeing the fishermen bringing in the day's catch to Anibare Harbour. If you want to try some fishing yourself, there's one company you can consult:
- Equatorial Gamefishing Charters, ☏ , [email protected]. Boat charter for big game fishing trips. The company has two boats, equipped with fishing equipment and accommodating five persons each. You can catch fish such as yellow fin tuna, marlin, wahoo and sail fish.
These are the most important festivities during the year:
- Independence Day (31 Jan)
- Easter (late March or early April)
- Constitution Day (17 May)
- Angam, the Day of the Return Home (26 Oct)
- Christmas (25 Dec)
Exchange rates for Australian dollars
As of 16 November 2022:
Exchange rates fluctuate. Current rates for these and other currencies are available from XE.com
Nauru uses the Australian dollar, denoted by the symbol "$" (ISO code: AUD) as its national currency. Cash transactions are the norm; credit cards are rarely accepted. There are no exchange offices in Nauru and the single bank office, Bank of Nauru is usually closed. The island's ATM can be found at the Capelle & Partner store. You should probably still bring enough Australian dollars in cash for your stay.
Bargaining or tipping are not done on Nauru like with the rest of Australia.
- 1 Capelle & Partner, Ewa district, ☏ . The only department store and largest business on Nauru. This is the place to go to for Nauru souvenirs, things you forgot to bring and food, drinks and snacks.
Most food is imported from Australia and arrives by ship or air, usually once every six to eight weeks. You can find western and Asian (primarily Chinese) food. Because of the tropical climate dishes might not be as heavy and hearty as the original versions. As not all ingredients may be available, dishes are often rather simple.
Since Nauru is an island nation, seafood is very popular in its restaurants. Cooked and smoked hams are also very popular, as meat is one of their main dishes.
- 1 Fast food kiosk. At Capelle's supermarket, in the north of the island. Serves western fast food.
- 2 Kasuo. Chinese restaurant near the Aiwo hotel. Serves mostly fish and fried rice and noodles.
In addition to these, you'll also find some small inexpensive "eating places", selling Chinese food.
- 3 Anibare (at Menen Hotel). Seafood and international.
- 4 The Bay Restaurant (Anibare Bay). Specialising in fish dishes, but has pizza and Indian food. Actually located in Anibare, where the local fishing boats arrive. Popular with visitors and locals, review sites rank this as the best restaurant on the island.
- 5 Oriental (at Menen Hotel). Different Asian food (Thai, Indian, Chinese).
- 6 Reynaldo's (next to the airport terminal). Reynaldo's is a popular name in the list of restaurants and bars in Nauru. It is a local restaurant that offers authentic Chinese cuisines. Also one of the few places on Nauru that serves alcohol.
- 7 Antinas, Yaren district (near the southern end of the runway). Somewhat upscale seafood restaurant, also serving alcohol.
- 1 Reef Bar (at the Menen Hotel). The only public bar in Nauru. If you're staying at the other hotel on the island, Od-N-Aiwo, it's about 5.5 km away along the ring road. It serves Australian beers and international spirits. The barroom has a couple of pool tables, satellite TV and recorded music. It's lively at the weekends, as Nauruans are paid on Fridays, and quiet on weeknights. New faces will be enthusiastically welcomed by the locals and the expats will usually have a chat. No flip flops/thongs (enclosed sandals are OK) and men must wear a shirt with a collar.
Other than that, restaurants and shops offer soft drinks and some also have alcoholic beverages.
There are two hotels, the more expensive Menen on the east of the island and the budget Od'n Aiwo to the west. In addition to these, the supermarket has guest rooms in the north of the island.
- 1 Capelle & Partner Ewa Lodge (Capelle & Partner), ☏ , [email protected]. In Ewa, northwestern Nauru. The supermarket complex offers accommodation seven self-catering apartments and five rooms. $95.
- 2 Menen Hotel, Anibare District (on the coastal belt road, to the east side of the island and south of Anibare Bay), ☏ , [email protected]. The Menen is Nauru's largest hotel, boasting 119 rooms and conference facilities for up to 200. It has two restaurants and the island's only bar. $95-160, suites $255-500.
- 3 Od'n Aiwo Hotel, Aiwo District (on the coastal belt road, to the west side of the island, directly opposite the road inland to Buada), [email protected]. The less expensive of the two hotels on Nauru. Popular with backpackers, it has fewer rooms than Menen but is still the tallest building on the island. The hotel has two restaurants. US$40-80.
Nauru is a peaceful island and all kinds of crime are very rare. In emergency situations you can call either the emergency number (117 or 118) or go to the police station, which is near the airport.
While earthquakes are not a risk on Nauru itself, it can potentially be struck by tsunamis resulting from earthquakes along the Ring of Fire, which surrounds the Pacific Ocean.
There are no records of a cyclone ever hitting Nauru, and right at the Equator they are rare. Nevertheless, if you visit during height of the wet season, be prepared for heavy rain and thunderstorms.
Swimming and surfing
Like many other Pacific islands, Nauru is surrounded by a shallow reef with cut-outs through the reef providing access for boats and harbours, and there can be strong currents across the shallow water, moving boats in the harbours, and dangerous marine animals on the reef floor. Ask for advice before venturing into the water.
Water supply in Nauru is dependent on rainwater collected into tanks from the roofs of houses and from an aging reverse osmosis desalination plant. You should avoid tap water.
- Emergency: 118 or 117
- Nauru General Hospital, ☏ .
Considering its size and remoteness, Nauru has a decent healthcare system. Aside from the rampant problem of obesity among the population, the infant mortality and life expectation numbers are on par with industrialised nations. There are two hospitals on the island, Nauru General Hospital and RON Hospital, both in the Denigomodu district in the west of the island. However, if you have contracted anything more serious you may have to get transferred to Australia, so make sure you have good travel insurance when visiting Nauru!
The tropical diseases usually encountered in equatorial countries are less of a risk in Nauru, although it's recommended to get a hepatitis B shot. There is a risk of dengue fever, though, so you should protect yourself from mosquito bites.
If you come from a country where yellow fever is endemic or you've visited such a country in the last six days, you need to have proof of yellow fever vaccination.
Nauru is a predominantly Christian country, and Christian values and rules of conduct apply.
- It is illegal to import pornographic material, and the government also blocks access to Internet porn.
- Open displays of affection between same-sex partners may offend some in Nauru.
- The trafficking of drugs and narcotics of any kind will be punished severely.
- The one place on the island that you may not take photographs is the Australian processing centre for asylum seekers.
There are three newspapers in both Nauruan and English; Nasero Bulletin, Central Star News and Nauru Chronicle. Foreign newspapers are non-existent and information from the rest of the world comes from the Internet and satellite television and radio — in fact there's no local broadcasting.
The mains voltage is 240 V/50 Hz, and the plugs are Australian style. Brownouts are quite frequent.
There are a couple of post offices on the island from where you can send post.
- Australian High Commission, MQ45 & MQ43 - NPC OE - Aiwo District, ☏ , fax: .
- Embassy of the Republic of China (Taiwan), Civic Center, Aiwo District (1st floor), ☏ , [email protected]. M-F 9AM-1PM, 2-6PM.
There are public phones and a mobile phone network. You may need to buy a SIM card from the local operator Digicel if your home operator doesn't have a roaming contract with Nauru.
CenpacNet inc. is the only Internet provider, and it also owns the national domain .nr. It operates the only Internet café on Nauru:
- 1 Cenpac's internet café, Civic Centre, Aiwo district (along the Ring Road).
Other than that, hotels offer computers to get online.
Virtually everyone comes and goes by the local airline and thus your next destination will be Australia or one of the few small Oceanian islands (Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia and the Solomon Islands) the local airline flies to. When leaving Nauru, locally produced goods may be subjected to export duties.