United States of America

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United States of America


The United States of America spans a continent and numerous islands: its diverse geography comprises vast uninhabited areas of natural beauty punctuated by cities ringed by sprawling suburbs. Its wide array of tourist destinations includes the skyscrapers of Manhattan and Chicago, the natural wonders of Yellowstone and Alaska, the canyonlands of the Southwest, and the warm, sunny beaches of Florida, Hawaii, and Southern California.

Regarded as the world's most powerful and influential country, the U.S. plays a dominant role in the world's cultural landscape. Its landmarks and landscapes feature in countless books, movies and television programs viewed around the world. With a history of mass immigration dating from the 17th century, the U.S. is famous for being a "melting pot" of cultures from around the world.


Wikivoyage organizes the 50 states and the nation's capital city, Washington, D.C., into the following regions:

Map of the United States
  New England (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont)
Home to gabled churches, rustic antiques, and steeped in American history, New England offers beaches, spectacular seafood, rugged mountains, frequent winter snows, and some of the nation's oldest cities, in a territory small enough to tour (hastily) in a week.
  Mid-Atlantic (Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Washington, D.C.)
The Mid-Atlantic is home to some of the nation's most densely populated cities (notably New York City), its most historically significant sites, rolling mountains and seaside resorts.
  South (Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia)
The South is celebrated for its hospitality, down-home cooking, and its blues, jazz, rock 'n' roll, bluegrass and country music traditions. This lush, largely subtropical region includes cool, verdant mountains, plantations, and vast cypress swamps.
Northern Florida is similar to the rest of the South, but this is not so in the resorts of Orlando, tropical Caribbean-influenced Miami, the Everglades, and 1,200 mi (1,900 km) of sandy beaches.
  Midwest (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, Wisconsin)
A region of simple and hospitable people, farmland, forests, picturesque towns, industrial cities and the Great Lakes – the largest system of freshwater lakes in the world, which forms the North Coast of the U.S.
The second biggest state is like a separate country, with strong cultural influences from its Spanish and Mexican past. The terrain is quite varied, with swamplands in the southeast, flat land and cotton farms in the South Plains, sandy beaches in South Texas and mountains and deserts in far West Texas.
  Great Plains (North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma)
A former Wild West frontier land often described as "flatter than a pancake," the Great Plains region is full of large grassland, prairie, valleys, hills and small mountains. Farmland is a common site with towns, cities, and a few notable destinations.
  Rocky Mountains (Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming)
The spectacular snow-covered Rockies offer hiking, rafting, excellent skiing, deserts, and few cities.
  Southwest (Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah)
Heavily influenced by Spanish, Mexican and Native American cultures, this area is home to some of the nation's most spectacular natural attractions and flourishing artistic communities. Although mostly empty, the region's deserts contain some big cities.
Like the Southwest, California is heavily influenced by its former Spanish and Mexican rulers, and also by Asian culture and cuisine. California offers world-famous cities, deserts, rainforests, snowy mountains, and beautiful beaches.
  Pacific Northwest (Washington, Oregon)
The pleasantly mild Pacific Northwest offers outdoor pursuits and cosmopolitan cities. The terrain features spectacular rainforests, scenic mountains and volcanoes, beautiful coastlines and sage-covered steppes and deserts.
One fifth as large as the rest of the United States, Alaska reaches well into the Arctic, and features mountainous wilderness, including North America's tallest mountain, Denali, and Native Alaskan culture unseen elsewhere in the U.S.
A volcanic archipelago in the tropical Pacific, with influences from its indigenous Polynesian people and large Asian-American communities, laid-back Hawaii is a great place for a vacation.

The U.S. also administers a collection of non-state territories around the world, principally in the Caribbean (Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands) and Oceania (Guam, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, and various uninhabited islands and island groups). They are covered in separate articles.


The White House in Washington D.C., where the nation's President lives and works

The following is a list of nine of the most notable cities in the U.S. Other cities can be found in their corresponding regions.

  • 1 Washington, D.C. — the nation's capital, filled with major museums and monuments
  • 2 Boston — best known for its colonial history, its passion for sports, and its universities
  • 3 Chicago — "the heart of the Midwest", and transportation hub of the nation, with massive skyscrapers and other architectural gems
  • 4 Los Angeles — home of the film industry, musical artists and surfers, with beautiful mild weather, and great natural beauty from mountains to beaches
  • 5 Miami — this city with a vibrant Latin-influenced Caribbean culture attracts sun-seeking Northerners
  • 6 New Orleans — "the Big Easy", the birthplace of jazz, is known for its quaint French Quarter, distinctive cuisine and annual Mardi Gras celebration
  • 7 New York City — "The Big Apple" is the country's most populous city, home to world-class cuisine, arts, architecture, and shopping
  • 8 San Francisco — "the City by the Bay", featuring the Golden Gate Bridge, vibrant urban neighborhoods, and dramatic fog
  • 9 Seattle — rich museums, monuments, seafood, recreation and the Space Needle

Other destinations

The Grand Canyon in Arizona

These are some of the largest and most famous destinations outside of major cities.


Capital Washington, D.C.
Currency United States dollar (USD)
Population 332.2 million (2021)
Electricity 120±6 volt / 60 hertz (NEMA 1-15, NEMA 5-15)
Country code +1
Time zone UTC−12:00 to UTC+12:00 and Central Time Zone, Alaska Time Zone, Mountain Time Zone
Emergencies 911
Driving side right

The U.S. is large, complex, and diverse, with over 334 million people (2022) and distinct cultural and regional identities. Traveling the long distances between destinations can be time-consuming and expensive.


The Appalachian Mountains in Georgia

The contiguous United States or "Lower 48" refers to the territory excluding Alaska and Hawaii. Much of the population lives on the Atlantic, Pacific or Gulf of Mexico coasts or along the Great Lakes. Its only land borders, both quite long, are shared with Canada to the north and Mexico to the south. The continental United States are the 48 contiguous states, D.C. and Alaska, but exclude Hawaii.

Grand Tetons in Wyoming, part of the Rocky Mountains

The country has three major mountain ranges. The Appalachians extend from Canada to Alabama, a few hundred miles west of the Atlantic Ocean. They are the oldest of the three ranges and offer spectacular sightseeing and excellent camping spots. The Rockies are, on average, the highest in North America, extending from Alaska to New Mexico, with many areas designated as national parks that offer hiking, camping, skiing, and sightseeing opportunities. The combined Sierra Nevada and Cascade ranges are the youngest. The Sierras extend across the "backbone" of California, with sites such as Lake Tahoe and Yosemite National Park, then give way to the even younger volcanic Cascade range, with some of the highest points in the country.

In the center of the country is the Great Plains, which includes the entirety of Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, and portions of the surrounding states. This region is characterized by long stretches of flat land, and areas of gentle rolling hills. It consists largely of farmland and prairie.

The Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast of Texas, to the south of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida's Panhandle, and constitutes the West Coast of Florida.

The Great Lakes, on the border with Canada, are more freshwater inland seas than lakes. The five lakes span hundreds of miles, bordering the states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York, and their shores vary from pristine wilderness areas to industrial Rust Belt cities.


Although much of the U.S. has a temperate climate, there is also a wide variety from Arctic tundra in Alaska to the tropical weather in Hawaii and South Florida. The Great Plains are dry, flat and grassy, turning into desert in the Far West and Mediterranean along the California coast.

In the winter, major cities in the North and Midwest can see as much as 2 ft (60 cm) of snowfall in one day, with cold temperatures. Summers are humid, but mild. Temperatures over 100 °F (38 °C) sometimes invade the Midwest and Great Plains. Some areas in the northern plains can experience cold temperatures of −30 °F (−34 °C) during the winter. Temperatures below 0 °F (−18 °C) sometimes reach as far south as Oklahoma.

The climate of the South also varies. In the summer, it is hot and humid, but from October through April the weather can range from 60 °F (16 °C) to short cold spells of 20 °F (−7 °C) or so.

The Great Plains and Midwestern states also experience tornadoes from the late spring to early fall, earlier in the south and later in the north. States along the Atlantic coast and the Gulf of Mexico may experience hurricanes between June and November. These intense and dangerous storms frequently miss the U.S. mainland, but evacuations are often ordered and should be heeded.

The Rockies are cold and snowy. Some parts of the Rockies see over 500 inches (1,300 cm) of snow in a season. Even during the summer, temperatures are cool in the mountains, and snow can fall nearly year-round. It is dangerous to go up in the mountains unprepared in the winter and the roads through them can get very icy.

The deserts of the Southwest are hot and dry during the summer, with temperatures often exceeding 100 °F (38 °C). Thunderstorms can be expected in the southwest frequently from July through September. Winters are mild, and snow is unusual. Average annual precipitation is low, usually less than 10 in (250 mm). However, at higher elevations, winters are much more severe, with frequent snowfall.

Cool and damp weather is common much of the year in the coastal northwest (Oregon and Washington west of the Cascade Range, and the northern part of California west of the Coast Ranges/Cascades). Summers (July through September) are usually quite dry with low humidity, though, making it the ideal climate for outdoor activities. Rain is most frequent in winter, snow is rare, especially along the coast, and extreme temperatures are uncommon. Rain falls almost exclusively from late fall through early spring along the coast. East of the Cascades, the northwest is considerably drier. Much of the inland northwest is either semi-arid or desert, especially in Oregon.

Northeastern and Upper Southern cities are known for summers with temperatures reaching into the 90s °F (32 °C) or more, with extremely high humidity, usually over 80%. This can be a drastic change from the Southwest. High humidity means that the temperature can feel hotter than actual readings. The Northeast also experiences snow, and at least once every few years there will be a dumping of the white stuff in enormous quantities.


United States historical travel topics:
Indigenous nationsPre-Civil WarCivil WarOld WestIndustrializationPostwar
Independence Hall in Philadelphia, where the Declaration of Independence was unanimously adopted on July 4, 1776 and the U.S. Constitution ratified on December 12, 1787, creating the United States
Chapel of the Alamo Mission in San Antonio, Texas, known as the "Shrine of Texas Liberty", where the 1836 Battle of the Alamo, a crucial part of the Texas Revolution, was fought
The USS Arizona Memorial at Pearl Harbor

Native Americans, or American Indians, arrived 13,500 to 16,000 years ago from northeast Asia, crossing the Bering Strait into Alaska, and created a wide variety of sophisticated societies before the arrival of Europeans in the late 15th century. The Mississippian cultures built huge settlements across the Southeast, and the Anasazi built elaborate cliff-side towns in the Southwest. After contact with European colonizers, these societies were decimated by Old-World diseases such as smallpox, and were pushed west by warfare and encroaching settlers. Their diminished numbers led to further marginalization, although today their cultures endure and continue to contribute to the American experience.

European colonization began in the 16th and 17th centuries. England, Spain, and France gained large holdings; the Netherlands, Sweden, and Russia also established outposts. The first English colonies, founded in Jamestown, Virginia (1607) and Plymouth, Massachusetts (1620), formed the kernel of what is now known as the United States.

In the Northeast, Massachusetts was settled by Puritans, who fled religious persecution in Europe and later spread and founded most of the other New England colonies, creating a highly ascetic region. Other religious groups also founded colonies, including the Quakers in Pennsylvania and Roman Catholics in Maryland. The Middle Colonies of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania became the North's cosmopolitan center.

Longer growing seasons in the Southern colonies gave them richer agricultural prospects, especially for cotton and tobacco. As in Latin America and the Caribbean, indentured servants, convicts and later African slaves were imported and forced to cultivate large plantations. Slavery was practiced in both North and South, but its greater importance to the South's economy eventually caused tremendous upheaval.

By the early 18th century, Great Britain had colonized the Atlantic coast from Georgia north into what is now Canada. The last major British migration to the territory took place in middle decades of that century when the Appalachia region was settled. In 1763, British dominance in North America was established after the global Seven Years' War. In part to finance what was locally called the North American campaigns of the French and Indian War, Britain imposed unpopular taxes and regulations on its colonists. This precipitated revolution in 1775 and on 4 July 1776, colonists from 13 colonies declared independence. The Revolutionary War lasted until 1783, when the new United States of America gained sovereignty over all British land between the Atlantic and the Mississippi River. Those still loyal to the British mostly fled north to what is today Canada, which remained under British rule.

Wrangling over the formation of a national government lasted until 1787 when a constitution was agreed upon. Its Enlightenment-era ideas about individual liberty have since inspired the founding decrees of many states. George Washington, the general-in-chief of the revolutionary army, was elected the first president. By the turn of the 19th century, the newly-built Washington, D.C. was established as the national capital.

New states were created as white settlers moved west beyond the Appalachian Mountains. The Native American populations were displaced and further harrowed by war and disease. The 1803 Louisiana Purchase of French lands to the west of the Mississippi (charted by the Lewis and Clark expedition) effectively doubled the size of the nation, and provided "Indian Territory" in what is now Oklahoma for the many Native American tribes from the east that were forcibly relocated during the Trail of Tears of the 1830s.

Further disagreements with British commerce policies led to the War of 1812. The two years of fighting on land and sea included an invasion of Canada and the burning of the White House and public buildings in Washington, D.C. Virtually no changes of territory resulted from the war, but it galvanized separate American and Canadian identities. The national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner", was conceived during this war. Western Native American tribes that had sided with the British suffered greatly as their territory was given to white settlers.

After the war, industry and infrastructure were expanded greatly, particularly in the Northeast (see American Industry Tour). Roads and canals came first and helped people spread inland. By the late 1860s, railroads and telegraph lines connected the east and west coasts via the industrial hub of Chicago in the Midwest. In the early 19th century, a series of religious revivals, the Second Great Awakening, led to various reform movements that strove for goals such as temperance, the abolition of slavery, and women's suffrage.

U.S. expansion south and west chipped away at Spanish and Mexican territory. Spain sold Florida in 1813 after American military intervention, and an 1836 rebellion by American settlers in Mexican Texas founded an independent republic which was absorbed into the Union ten years later. This sparked the Mexican–American War in which Mexico lost what is now California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico, and the contiguous United States essentially assumed its modern outline. Native Americans were relegated to reservations and continued to be purged by treaty, military force, and disease from settlers on the Oregon Trail and other westward routes. (See also: Old West.)

Federal governance was light and the states were highly autonomous. By the 1850s, there was irreconcilable disparity between the industrialized and more urban Northern states, which had all outlawed slavery within three decades of the revolution, and the plantation-dependent rural South. Many in the North wanted to impose a national ban on the expansion of slavery, while the Southern states sought to expand slavery into new territories. Abolitionists operated an Underground Railroad leading fugitive slaves in the northern states to freedom in Canada. In 1861, eleven Southern states, fearful of marginalization and the avowedly anti-slavery President Abraham Lincoln, broke from the Union and formed an independent Confederate States of America. The ensuing American Civil War remains the bloodiest conflict on American soil and killed hundreds of thousands of people. In 1865, Union forces prevailed, firmly cementing the federal government's authority over the states. Slavery was abolished nationwide and the Confederate states were re-admitted into the Union during a period of Reconstruction. The former slaves and their descendants were to remain an economic and social underclass, particularly in the South.

Russia sold its tenuously held Alaskan territory in 1867, and independent Hawaii was annexed in 1898. The United States' decisive victory over Spain in the 1898 Spanish–American War gained it overseas colonies, of which Puerto Rico and Guam remain American dependencies. Alaska and Hawaii were the last U.S. territories to be granted statehood to date, in 1959.

In the late 19th and into the 20th century, Southern and Eastern Europeans, Ashkenazi Jews and Irish bolstered the continuing industrialization of the eastern cities by providing cheap labor. Many Southern African-Americans fled rural poverty and racism for industrial jobs in the North. Other immigrants, including many Scandinavians and Germans, moved to newly opened territories in the West and Midwest, where land was given to anyone who would develop it.

The United States' entrance into World War I in 1917 marked the start of an era in which it would become a world power. Real wealth grew rapidly and in the Roaring 20s stock speculation created an immense financial "bubble". It burst in 1929, leading to the global economic havoc of the Great Depression. The resulting privation fostered a culture of sacrifice and hard work that would serve the country well in the coming conflict. It also ushered in President Franklin D. Roosevelt. His "New Deal" was a series of government programs that constructed thousands of buildings and bridges across the country while creating the basis of the American welfare state.

In 1941, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, an American naval base in Hawaii, plunging the United States into World War II on the side of the Allied Powers. (See World War II in Europe and the Pacific War.) The U.S. developed atomic bombs and dropped them twice on Japan in 1945, abruptly ending the war. By the end of the war, the U.S. had firmly established itself as the world's dominant economic power, responsible for nearly half of global industrial production. During the ensuing Cold War, the U.S. and the Soviet Union jostled for power. Although war between the two superpowers never occurred, both sides were indirectly involved in covert operations and military endeavors through various proxy states that continue to (often negatively) affect the view people have of the U.S. and its role in global politics.

For the century after the Civil War, black people, though ostensibly equal citizens under the post-Civil War amendments to the U.S. Constitution, suffered through strong social, economic, and political discrimination and state-sanctioned segregation, especially in the South. A movement fighting for full civil rights for black Americans gained strength following World War II, when returning black veterans who fought against racism abroad came home to find they were still heavily discriminated against. The civil rights movement vehemently, but largely peacefully, vied for equal rights, with Martin Luther King, Jr., a charismatic preacher, as its most visible leader. The landmark Civil Rights Act that was passed in 1964 outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin, although such discrimination still exists, mostly in less blatant forms. In 2008, the country elected its first African-American president. A revived women's movement in the 1960s also led to wide-ranging changes in American society.

Postwar America was characterized by affluence and industrialization. People left agriculture and moved to the cities to become part of an increasingly technology-based economy. American car culture emerged in the 1950s and was supported by the construction of a comprehensive Interstate Highway System. These trends also led to the rise of suburbia and a decline in public transportation and rail travel, making touring the United States without a car difficult to this day. White flight to the suburbs in many American cities left many black people behind in blighted inner city neighborhoods. The American consumer culture, Hollywood movies, and many forms of popular music established the U.S. as the cultural superpower of the world. The U.S. grew into one of the world's major centers of higher education, and is now home to many of the world's most prestigious universities, attracting more international students than any other country.

In 2001, terrorist attacks claimed the lives of nearly 3000 people across three states, thrusting national security into the forefront of public attention. The 2020s dawned amidst a wave of social unrest brought on by the global COVID-19 pandemic and an intensifying public discourse on issues of social injustice.

Government and politics

The United States is a federal republic. Its major constituents are the 50 states and the District of Columbia (Washington D.C.); it also has various island territories in the Caribbean and Pacific that are not fully integrated into the union.

The Constitution sets out the separation of jurisdiction between the federal and state governments. Each state maintains its own constitution, government and laws, and retains considerable autonomy within the federation.

The President is elected every four years and is the head of the federal government and head of state. The President and their administration form the executive branch. The bicameral Congress (comprising the lower House of Representatives and the upper Senate) is also popularly elected, and constitutes the legislative branch. The Supreme Court tops the judicial branch. State governments are organized similarly, with governors, legislatures, and judiciaries.

Two major political parties have dominated at state and federal levels since the end of the Civil War: the Republican Party (often referred to as the GOP, short for "Grand Old Party") and the Democratic Party. Since the 1960s the Republican Party has become generally the more right-wing or "conservative" party whereas the Democratic Party is usually the more left-wing or "liberal" of the two parties. While smaller political parties exist, the winner-take-all electoral system means that they rarely succeed at any level.


The South's famous Bourbon Street, New Orleans, Louisiana

The United States is made up of many diverse ethnic groups and the culture varies greatly across the vast area of the country and even within cities — a city like New York will have dozens, if not hundreds, of different ethnicities represented within a neighborhood. Despite this difference, there exists a strong sense of national identity and certain predominant cultural traits. Generally, Americans tend to believe strongly in personal freedom and responsibility, and that an individual determines their own success or failure, but there are many exceptions. You will find Mississippi in the South to be very different culturally from Massachusetts in the North.

Although constitutionally a secular state, the United States is in practice more religious than other Western countries with 80% of people identifying with having a religious affiliation. However, this trend varies greatly by region, with the West Coast and Northeast being largely secular and the American South being heavily Evangelical Christian. Current estimates are that 49% of Americans belong to a Protestant church and another 23% are Roman Catholic. 5% of Americans belong to non-Christian religions such as Judaism, Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism. Many businesses and institutions are closed on Sundays, and a number of areas in the South and Midwest forbid certain activities to take place on Sundays, while some Jewish businesses close on Friday nights and Saturdays for the Sabbath.

American culture is often described as "polarized" in the media, irreconcilably divided into the rural and the urban, the politically "red" versus the politically "blue". Indeed, 21st-century voting patterns bear this out, with many Americans themselves acknowledging a significant cultural rift. However, the American political system tends to amplify differences among its constituents while downplaying their similarities. Studies reveal that despite surface divisions, Americans largely agree on fundamental cultural values. Even on political matters, Americans are less divided than commonly believed, with differences often exaggerated by a few contentious issues while they maintain considerable consensus on the more mundane matters of governance.


Main article: Holidays of the United States

Always gotta be different

Whereas most countries celebrate Labor Day on May 1 to commemorate the Haymarket affair of 1886, the U.S. chose to celebrate it in September, due to fear that a May celebration would encourage similar Haymarket-style protests and energize the radical left.

November 11, which is Remembrance Day in most Commonwealth countries, has been expanded to celebrate all veterans of the U.S. armed forces; Memorial Day serves the purpose of recognizing war dead.

All federal government offices, post offices and banks close on federal holidays, but private businesses may choose whether or not to observe them. Nearly all states and localities observe the federal holidays, and many also observe additional holidays. If a federal holiday falls on a weekend, the observance is shifted to the nearest weekday (either Friday or Monday), though festivities are held and most store closures occur on the annual date, even if it's during the weekend.

The time between Thanksgiving (the fourth Thursday in November) and January 1 is called the "holiday season." Many people take vacations during this period, so airports, interstate highways, bus stations, and train stations are very crowded near the major holidays. Malls and department stores are also crowded. Make sure you allow extra time, and be patient.

The federal holidays are as follows:

  • New Year's Day (1 January) – most non-retail businesses closed
  • Martin Luther King Jr. Day (third Monday in January) – many government offices and banks closed
  • Presidents' Day (third Monday in February), officially called Washington's Birthday – many government offices and banks closed; some non-retail businesses closed
  • Memorial Day (last Monday in May) – most non-retail businesses closed
  • Juneteenth (19 June) – most government offices and some non-retail businesses closed
    Fourth of July fireworks in Washington D.C.
  • Independence Day (4 July), known colloquially as the Fourth of July – most non-retail businesses closed
  • Labor Day (first Monday in September) – most non-retail businesses closed
  • Columbus Day (second Monday in October), alternatively celebrated as Indigenous People's Day or Italian Heritage Day – many government offices and banks closed
  • Veterans Day (11 November) – government offices and banks closed
  • Thanksgiving Day (fourth Thursday in November) – airports are extremely crowded on the Wednesday before and Sunday after Thanksgiving; most businesses closed, including grocery stores and many restaurants
  • Christmas (25 December) – almost all businesses, grocery stores, and many restaurants closed the evening before and all day; however, many Chinese and Jewish businesses remain open

Other holidays that may have business closures include Good Friday (the Friday before Easter), Easter (a Sunday in March or April) and Halloween (31 October). All U.S. embassies are closed on the federal holidays in addition to the holidays of the host country.

Units of measure

See also: Metric and Imperial equivalents

The U.S. generally uses "customary units" (feet, miles, gallons, pounds, etc.), rather than metric units. Road distances are given in miles and speed limits in miles per hour (mph). 1 mile is 1.61 km, or 1 km is 0.62 miles. One of the more confusing things is that an "ounce" can be either a measure of weight or (as a "fluid ounce") a measure of volume. The U.S. fluid ounce is also slightly larger than its imperial counterpart, while U.S. gallons, quarts and pints are smaller than their counterparts. Gasoline and other liquids are usually sold per gallon, quart, or fluid ounce (a U.S. gallon is 3.78 liters, so a U.S. quart is slightly less than a liter). Beverages such as soda are sometimes sold by the liter and other times sold by the fluid ounce, with just under 34 ounces to a liter. Temperatures are usually reported in Fahrenheit, in which 32° is the freezing point of water. Many cars' speedometers show both mph and km/h, and almost all packaged foods and other products are labeled in both systems. There is little day-to-day use of the metric system, so Americans will assume you understand the U.S. customary measures.

Time zones

Time zones of the U.S. as of 2007; nowadays, some Indiana counties have moved to Eastern time

Including the territories in the Pacific Ocean, the U.S. spans eleven time zones. Just four time zones are used in the contiguous 48 states, with an additional two covering Alaska and Hawaii. Time zone borders do not always correspond to state borders, as shown in the map.

  • Eastern Time (UTC-5)
  • Central Time (UTC-6)
  • Mountain Time (UTC-7)
  • Pacific Time (UTC-8)
  • Alaska Time (UTC-9)
  • Hawaii and Aleutian Time (UTC-10)

Most parts of the U.S. observe daylight saving time from mid-March to early November, during which the clocks are set one hour ahead. Hawaii and Arizona (except the Navajo Nation) do not.

Visitor information


"Two countries divided by a common language"

     For more words that differ across the two varieties, see English language varieties

Speakers of British English will find many terms which differ in American English. Here are a few:
  • chips – crisps
  • diaper – nappy
  • elevator – lift
  • freeway – motorway
  • flashlight – torch
  • fries – chips
  • cookies – biscuits
  • biscuits – scones
  • gas, gasoline – petrol
  • subway – underground
  • line – queue
  • apartment, apartment building – flat
  • liquor store, package store – off licence, off sales
  • restroom, bathroom – toilet, loo
  • round-trip ticket – return ticket
  • sidewalk – footpath or pavement
  • to-go (in ordering food) – take-away

Almost all Americans speak English, and visitors are generally expected to speak and understand English. Popular tourist sites often have signs and information available in other languages. Americans have a long history of immigration and are very accommodating towards foreign accents. Major cities often have groups of foreign language learners who meet up regularly to practice their language skills, and these can be a good way to meet locals if you speak the language in question. Meetup.com is the most popular web-site listing many of these groups, though other less well-known web-sites also exist.

The differences between American English and the English spoken in other parts of the world are mostly minor, and primarily around minor spelling and pronunciation differences. One important difference, though, is that dates are often written MM/DD/YYYY or MM/DD. See the article on English language varieties for a detailed discussion. American accents most likely to be heard as distinctive by foreign visitors include those commonly spoken in the South and Texas, the Boston area, the New York City area, the upper Midwest and Hawaii.

Many African-Americans and some other Americans also speak African-American Vernacular English (AAVE), which has somewhat different grammar and vocabulary from other styles of American English. Nearly all African-Americans can switch back and forth between AAVE and standard American English effortlessly. If you are not African-American, do not try to speak AAVE, even if it's spoken to you, as it would be considered odd and even offensive.

Spanish is the first language of Puerto Rico and a large minority of residents on the mainland. The Spanish spoken is almost invariably a Latin American dialect. Spanish is the primary second language in many parts of the United States such as California, the Southwest, Texas, Florida, and the metropolitan areas of Chicago and New York City. Many of these areas have Spanish-language radio and television stations, with local, national and Mexican programs. Most publications from the federal government, and those of some state and municipal governments are available in Spanish. It is possible with some difficulty to get by in the major cities and main tourist attractions speaking only Spanish. Spanglish, a mixture of Spanish and English, is frequently heard in areas with large Hispanic populations.

You may encounter other languages in some regions, like Hawaiian, French, Native American languages (Navajo being the most commonly spoken one), Yiddish, and Pennsylvania Dutch. These are covered in regional articles.

American Sign Language (ASL) is the dominant sign language in the United States. When events are interpreted, they will be interpreted in ASL. Users of French Sign Language and other related languages may find ASL intelligible, as they share much vocabulary, but users of Japanese Sign Language, British Sign Language, or Auslan will not. Closed-captioning on television is widespread, but far from ubiquitous. Many theaters offer FM loops or other assistive listening devices, but captioning and interpreters are rarer.

For the blind, many signs and displays include Braille transcriptions of the printed English. Larger restaurant chains, museums, and parks may offer Braille menus and guidebooks, but you'll likely have to ask for them.

Get in

The United States has a strict and notoriously perplexing visa policy; nearly everyone needs a visa to visit the country, and obtaining an American visa of any kind can be a complicated and cumbersome affair.

Read up carefully before your visit, especially if you need to apply for a visa, and consult the Bureau of Consular Affairs. Travelers have been refused entry for many reasons, often trivial. During the application process, visitors to the U.S. are required to fully document mobile phone numbers, e-mail addresses and on-line identities they've used in the past five years.

Planning and pre-arrival documentation

Visa-free entry


The Visa Waiver Program (VWP) permits visa-free stays of up to 90 days. It applies to citizens of Andorra, Austria, Australia, Belgium, Brunei, Chile, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, San Marino, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan (passport must include ID card number), and the United Kingdom (must have right of abode in the UK, Channel Islands or Isle of Man).

Canadians and Bermudians are normally allowed to visit for up to six months without a visa. Permanent residents of Canada are not eligible for visa-free entry, unless they are also citizens of a country that participates in the VWP, or one of the separate provisions for a few other countries.

Citizens of the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, and Palau may enter, reside, study, and work in the U.S. indefinitely with only a valid passport.

Citizens of the Bahamas may apply for visa-free entry only at the U.S. Customs pre-clearance facilities in the Bahamas, but a valid police certificate that was issued within the last six months is required for those over the age of 14. Attempting to enter through any other port of entry requires a valid visa.

Citizens of the Turks and Caicos Islands may enter the U.S. without a visa only if they are travelling on a direct flight from there, but a valid police certificate issued within the last six months is required for those over the age of 14. Attempting to enter from any other country requires a valid visa.

Cayman Islands citizens, if they intend to travel directly to the U.S. from there, may obtain a single-entry visa waiver for about $25 (≈KY$21) prior to departure. A valid police certificate that was issued within the last three months is required for those over the age of 13. Attempting to enter from any other country will require you to have a valid visa.

With only a few exceptions – traffic violations, civil infractions (e.g. littering, noise violations, disorderly conduct), purely political offenses (e.g. non-violent protest in countries where it is not allowed), and offenses committed before the age of 16 – a criminal record will likely revoke any right to visa-free travel to the U.S. Anyone with a criminal record, including Canadians and Bermudians, should seek advice from a U.S. embassy on whether they need to obtain a visa.

Visa Waiver Program requirements

Travel Warning Visa restrictions:
Anyone who has visited Iran, Iraq, Libya, North Korea, Somalia, Sudan, Syria or Yemen on or after March 1, 2011 or Cuba on or after January 12, 2021 is not eligible to enter under the VWP. They remain eligible to apply for a regular tourism or business visa – at the expense of more cost and hassle than with the Visa Waiver Program (VWP). Similarly, dual citizens who hold the citizenship of Iran, Iraq, Sudan, or Syria in addition to a nationality otherwise eligible for a visa waiver cannot enter under the VWP.

The program is open only to travellers who are in the United States for tourism or business purposes. You cannot come to the U.S. for formal education, to get a job, or to conduct journalism under this program; if you plan to do so, you must get an appropriate visa in advance no matter how short your trip to the U.S. may be.

The 90-day limit is not extendable. A short trip to another country in North America will not allow a fresh 90 days upon return to the U.S. In fact, there is no set rule for how long you must stay out of the country to reset the 90-day limit; it is a matter of perception. An extended absence to the neighboring countries may reset the limit, particularly if your first trip to the U.S. was short. Take care if transiting through the U.S. on a trip around North America that exceeds 90 days.

Having a criminal record, having been refused entry, or having been denied a U.S. visa will make you ineligible to enter on the VWP; you will have to apply for a U.S. visa instead.

Entry under the VWP requires the completion of an online form and a payment of $21, preferably at least 72 hours before arrival. The form is called the Electronic System for Travel Authorization (ESTA). ESTA approval covers multiple trips and is valid for two years (unless your passport expires earlier). This requirement has been required for all travellers, including those arriving by land, since October 1, 2022.

All passports must be biometric. If your passport is an older one that was issued before biometric passports were available, you will need to obtain a new passport to travel to the U.S. on the VWP.

Entry under the VWP by air or sea requires travel with a signatory carrier. Any commercial scheduled services to the U.S. will be fine, but if you are on a chartered flight or vessel you should check the status of the carrier, as you may require a visa. Flying your own personal aircraft, or sailing your own personal yacht to the U.S. will require you to obtain a tourist visa in advance.

Travellers entering by air or sea should also have a return or onward ticket out of the United States. This requirement is not necessary for residents of Canada, Mexico, Bermuda, or the Caribbean.

Entry under the VWP does not allow you to change your immigration status, and if you are denied entry, the decision can't be appealed and you will immediately be placed on the first flight out.

Obtaining a visa

U.S. Visa/Residence Status Overview

  • B-1: Business visitor
  • B-2: Tourist ("visitor for pleasure")
  • B-1/B-2: Combo visa that can be used for either or both tourism and business
  • C-1: Transit
  • E-3: Employment for Australian Citizens
  • F-1: Academic Student
  • H-1B / L-1: Employment
  • J-1: Exchange Program / Postdoctoral Researcher
  • K-1: Fiance
  • M-1: Vocational Student
  • O-1 / P-1: Sportsperson / Performing Artiste
  • WB: Visa Waiver Program, Business; not extendable past 90 days
  • WT: Visa Waiver Program, Tourist; not extendable past 90 days

For the rest of the world, the visa application fee is a non-refundable $185 (as of June 2023) for visas that are not issued on the basis of a petition, and $205 for those that are; this fee is waived under very limited circumstances, namely for people requesting certain exchange visitor visas.

Depending on your nationality and the category of visa you are requesting, you may need to pay an additional fee (of up to $200) only if the visa is issued. This is called a reciprocity fee and is charged by the U.S. to match the fees charged by other countries on U.S. citizens.

Additionally, anyone traveling to the U.S. on a mainland Chinese passport must enroll in the Electronic Visa Update System (EVUS) for travel into the United States on any 10-year B-type visa. The enrollment is valid for two years (or until passport/visa expiry, whichever comes first) before it needs to be updated again.

Everyone requesting entry into the U.S. as a non-immigrant are presumed to be immigrants until they show evidence of "binding ties" to their home country, and sufficient proof that the visit will be temporary. Applicants must also demonstrate that they are genuinely entitled to the visa they are applying for. Face-to-face interviews at the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate are required for almost all nationalities, and waits for interview slots and visa processing can add up to several months.

Embassies are closed on U.S. holidays and on holidays of the host country. The application process can take up to six months.

Do not assume anything. Check on documentation requirements with the U.S. State Department or with the nearest U.S. consulate.

Your visa is generally not tied to your permitted length of stay; for example, a 10-year visa does not allow a stay of 10 years. On the other hand, you can enter the country on the last day of validity of your visa and still be allowed to stay, for example, up to 180 days as a tourist.

The Statue of Liberty in New York City

Travel to U.S. possessions

America's overseas possessions have slightly different rules. See each destination's article for details: Guam, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa. In short, you may visit these areas except American Samoa with a regular U.S. visa.

Arriving in the United States

Passport control

See also: Global Entry, NEXUS

All U.S. commercial ports of entry (airports and seaports) are designed to funnel all arriving passengers regardless of final destination into a "federal inspection area" manned by officers of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), a bureau of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security.

The U.S. equivalent of "passport control" is immigration inspection. You will be questioned briefly by a CBP officer to determine if you are admissible and your purpose of entry and circumstances match your visa class or ESTA conditions. If you are unable to convince CBP officers that you intend to abide by the terms of your visa or ESTA or they discover you are inadmissible for whatever reason (e.g. unspent previous immigration violations, criminal records flagged up on CBP database), you may be refused entry and deported.

Once they decide to let you in, you are digitally fingerprinted and a digital photograph is taken. Entry will be denied if either of these procedures is refused.

At selected airports, Canadian nationals, passengers travelling on VWP/ESTA, and holders of B, C, or D visas may be able to use automated passport control (APC) kiosks to record their passport and biometric details. Household members traveling together can do this at once. VWP nationals need to have ESTA clearance, and have entered the U.S. at least once since 2008. After entering the requested details on the kiosk, the traveller gets a receipt and goes to the designated CBP desk to continue the inspection process. Canadians and other selected nationals may also be eligible to participate in various trusted traveler programs such as Global Entry and NEXUS, which allow pre-approved passengers to use a designated kiosk for the inspection process. Unlike APC, these programs require prior application, background checks, an interview, and an application fee, but allows the passenger to bypass intense questioning and skip the lines at immigration for up to 5 years.

Because marijuana is still illegal under federal law, if you have consumed marijuana or invested in the marijuana industry, you can be banned from entering the United States. This is true even if marijuana is legal in the jurisdictions you consumed it in and even if it's also legal in the state(s) you're planning to visit. Border officials don't usually ask about marijuana, but if they see a reason to ask, they might. Even a single copy of "High Times" magazine or anything similar is enough to draw suspicion. If you admit to having used marijuana (or any other drug illegal under U.S. federal law) or invested in the industry, or if you are caught lying about it, you can be turned back and banned for life from entering the country. To appeal the ban, you have to apply for a $585 waiver.

CBP no longer stamps the passports of most visitors, though a stamp can be given on request. All entries are recorded electronically, and foreigners may print a copy of their electronic I-94 from CBP's web-site if they need proof that they are in the country legally.


Seeing double

Separate immigration and customs inspections are a hangover from an era when they were conducted by different government agencies. U.S. international airport terminals opened since 2019 (for example, Salt Lake City) use a simpler process in which arriving travellers collect their checked baggage before heading through a consolidated checkpoint where both inspections are handled in a single encounter.

After clearing immigration inspection at an air or sea port of entry, all arriving international passengers are expected to collect their checked baggage and walk it through customs inspection. Travellers importing goods over the relevant duty-free threshold (meaning the goods will be left behind in the United States) are required to declare them to customs.

Each household (i.e. family members living and traveling together) needs to complete one customs declaration form, which is traditionally collected by CBP at customs inspection. The vast majority of travellers with nothing to declare hand their forms stating that fact to a CBP officer and proceed to exit the federal inspection area.

Travellers eligible for APC, Global Entry, or NEXUS kiosks need not fill out the paper form. Those eligible for Mobile Passport Control (U.S. citizens and some Canadian citizens) also do not need to fill out the form, provided they have completed the app's questions and have a QR code ready to go. Detailed and up-to-date information on prohibited and restricted items can be found at the relevant government website.

Do not attempt to bring in items originating from countries against which the U.S. has imposed embargoes (Cuba and Iran); they will be confiscated by customs if discovered.

The United States has very strict biosecurity laws, and imposes restrictions on the types of food that may be brought into the country. In general, fresh food may not be brought into the country, though some types of processed, commercially packaged food may be allowed, depending on the country of origin. Check with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) for more details. All food and plant items being brought into the country must be declared to U.S. customs and presented for inspection, even if they are ultimately permitted. Failure to declare agricultural products can result in a fine, or in serious cases even prosecution. Sniffer dogs are sometimes deployed around baggage claims to catch food in baggage.

Besides your personal effects, which will go home with you, you are allowed to import individual gifts with a value of $100 or less per item. If you're 21 years of age or older, you may also import limited quantities of tobacco and alcohol products duty-free:

  • Up to 200 cigarettes (one carton), or up to 50 cigars, or up to 2 kg of loose tobacco products such as snuff, or a proportional combination thereof.
  • Up to 1 liter of alcohol. Unlike some countries, the one-liter restriction applies irrespective of strength: a standard 750 mL bottle of Scotch at 40% alcohol by volume (ABV) or 750 mL of wine at 14% ABV are both within the allowance, but a six-pack of 12 ounce (about 350 mL) beers at 5% ABV is more than 2 L, and is over the duty-free allowance.

If you are over the alcohol exemption by a small amount, such as a six-pack of beer or a second bottle of wine or spirit, customs officers may let you pass without assessing duty if you've made a full and accurate declaration. Overly or repeatedly exceeding the limit may result in duty and tax being assessed, the amount of which depends, in part, on the state where you're entering and the country the goods are from. Customs officers do not show this leniency with tobacco products; expect to pay if you are even one cigarette over! Failing to declare items over the limit may result in some combination of duty being charged, forfeiture of the items, and fines, if CBP finds them.

Some airports with pre-clearance have duty-free shops past the Customs inspection. To reduce avoidance, there is a dollar-value limit imposed on the amount of purchases you can make in these shops (at Vancouver Airport as of late 2019 this limit was $800), which is still far higher than the per-item limits listed above.

A reasonable quantity of perfume or cologne can also be imported provided the brand is not under a "Trademark Restriction in the United States". There is no restriction on the amount of money you can bring into or out of the U.S. However, if you are travelling with $10,000 or more (or its equivalent in foreign currency) per household, you must declare it on your customs form and you will be given a special form to fill out; not declaring exposes you to a fine and possible seizure of that cash. Checks, bonds and other financial instruments must also be declared. ATM/Debit cards linked to non-U.S. bank accounts carrying the said amount do not need to be declared.

The U.S. possessions of American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Marianas Islands, and U.S. Virgin Islands have their own requirements. Travel between these regions and the rest of the U.S. requires a customs check. There are some differences (mostly larger) in duty exemptions for U.S. citizens returning from these destinations.

Leaving the United States

Caution Thinking of overstaying?: Overstaying the period granted at passport control or violating your terms of entry (e.g. work on a B1/B2 status) will automatically invalidate your visa. It will also make it extremely difficult to re-enter the U.S. and may also bar you from re-entry for at least three years, if not permanently. If you overstayed on the Visa Waiver Program, you will need a visa for all future visits.

If you overstay for compelling reasons such as medical emergencies and flight delays or cancellations, you must keep immigration officials informed of your situation in order to avoid the above sanctions.

The U.S. has no passport control upon exit. If travelling by commercial aircraft or sea vessel, your airline or shipping company will scan your passport at check-in and report your departure to CBP on an electronic passenger manifest. CBP will automatically update your immigration record to reflect that fact, and you will not need to do anything further.

If you leave by land into Canada, Canadian immigration will report your entry to CBP, who will then update your immigration record to reflect your departure from the U.S., so you should in theory not need to do anything further. However, you might want to save evidence of your departure to be safe. These can include passport stamps, boarding card stubs showing departures outside the U.S., credit card slips showing in-store transactions outside the U.S., hotel bookings, school and employee attendance records, etc. If you depart by land into Mexico, or by private aircraft or sea vessel, save evidence of your departure, as it might not be recorded correctly. On future visits, bring the necessary documents in case you are asked to prove that you did not overstay previously.

If you take a side trip to Canada, Mexico, Saint Pierre and Miquelon or the Caribbean (except Cuba) and return within 30 days or the allowed time of your stay (whichever is shorter), you may re-enter the U.S. without obtaining a new visa, even if your visa is single-entry or has expired. However, you will only be admitted for the remainder of your original allowed time; the deadline to leave the U.S. won't be extended by just leaving for somewhere else in North America.

Try to avoid re-entering the U.S. a few days, weeks or months after one visit. Even if you don't overstay your visa, several U.S. visits spaced shortly after each other may be interpreted by immigration officers as intent to immigrate.

To check your recent travel history involving the U.S. for the past 10 years, check here. You will need the numbers of the passports you actually used to enter the U.S. in order to access your record.

By plane

Caution Enhanced security measures: Passengers on flights to the U.S. are subject to rigorous checks and security measures prior to boarding. This may include a comprehensive bag search, and rigorous questioning by security personnel for all passengers prior to being allowed to board the aircraft. Arrive at the check-in counter at least 3 hours before your scheduled departure time, and at the boarding gate early so you have enough time to complete all security procedures.
Seattle skyline

Most visitors from outside Canada and Mexico arrive in the United States by plane. Most travelers find themselves entering the U.S. at one of the major entry points along the coasts. The international airports in Atlanta (ATL IATA), New York City (EWR IATA & JFK IATA; for all airports, NYC IATA), Los Angeles (LAX IATA), Chicago (ORD IATA; for all airports, CHI IATA), San Francisco (SFO IATA), Seattle (SEA IATA), Miami (MIA IATA) and Houston (IAH IATA) are the main points of entry to the United States by plane.

Diamond Head and Waikiki Beach in Honolulu, Hawaii

In general, major cities on the east coast have the best connections to Europe, Africa, the Caribbean and the Middle East, while major cities on the west coast have the best connections to East Asia, Southeast Asia and Oceania. Most sizeable cities would be served by at least one flight to a major Canadian city, while New York City, Miami, Los Angeles and Houston generally provide the best connections to Latin America. Direct air travel from Cuba is available from Miami, but some restrictions continue to apply; see the Americans in Cuba article.

The "big three" carriers, United Airlines, American Airlines and Delta Air Lines, are among the largest airlines in the world, and operate flights from various cities around the globe into their respective hubs. Other smaller airlines also fly internationally, though options are usually limited to destinations within the Americas. Most major European and East Asian airlines also fly from their respective countries into several of the major hubs, with British Airways in particular having one of the most comprehensive networks into U.S. cities from their hub in London Heathrow.

The U.S. requires full entry formalities even for international transit. If you normally need a visa to visit the U.S. and can't avoid a transit, you will need at least a C-1 transit visa. If you are transferring to a domestic flight, you must go through customs and immigration at your first U.S. stop; make sure you allow ample time to make any transfers. This means collecting your bags at your port of entry and rechecking them in at designated drop-off points again. You also must go through a full security check before boarding your onward flight (see next section).

Most airports have near the exit a wall of "courtesy phones" with the description and the prices of motels in the area. You can call these motels free of charge and ask for a room and a pick-up shuttle will come to fetch you at the airport. The shuttles are usually free of charge, but you should tip the driver.

Airport security

TSA-approved lock with symbol

Security at U.S. airports is onerous, especially during busy holiday periods. Allow plenty of time (at least 15 minutes, sometimes more than 1 hour) and pack as lightly as possible. Security is handled by the Transportation Security Administration (TSA). Adults must show approved photo ID (a passport is sufficient).

When connecting from an international flight, all passengers must go through security screening to continue on the onward flight, after clearing immigration and customs inspections. That means all liquids and prohibited items (per TSA rules) that were purchased in a Duty Free shop or allowed through as carry on from a foreign airport must re-packed into checked luggage after coming out of the customs area and before re-checking luggage. In most airports there is a check-in desk or conveyor belt outside of customs for transiting passengers to re-check their luggage. Items cannot be re-packed or re-arranged before customs inspections in the luggage reclaim area.

There are limitations on liquids (including gels, aerosols, creams, and pastes) in carry-on baggage. Ensure that any liquids are held in containers no bigger than 3.4 ounces (100 mL). The containers must all be placed within a single zippered plastic bag that is 1 quart (946 mL) or less in size. Only one such bag, with however much liquid, is allowed per passenger. Medications (including saline solution for contact lenses) and infant and child nourishment are exempt but subject to additional testing; notify TSA agents if you are carrying these items, store them separately from your other liquids, and clearly label them in advance.

If you wish to lock your checked baggage, the TSA requires you to use special locks that have the Travel Sentry TSA lock system. These locks can be opened by TSA officials using a master key should they wish to inspect your bag. If your lock is not one of the TSA-approved locks, the TSA will break it open and you will not be entitled to any compensation for the damage.


Passengers whose journeys begin in airports in other counties that have preclearance facilities will usually be able to clear U.S. passport control and customs in those airports. Upon arrival, these flights are treated the same as U.S. domestic flights. Those with an onward connection to a domestic flight in the same terminal can proceed to that connecting flight without claiming their bags or clearing security, meaning that liquids and otherwise TSA-prohibited items purchased in the originating airport can be carried through.

From Canada

Those flying from major Canadian airports on a U.S. or Canadian carrier will usually be able to clear U.S. passport control and customs before boarding. Canadian carriers will arrive at domestic terminals or concourses in most U.S. airports. Some airports, such as LaGuardia Airport in New York City, that don't have customs and immigration facilities receive precleared flights from Canada.

Travelers on U.S.–Canadian flights operated by foreign carriers like Cathay Pacific, and those from minor Canadian airports that do not have preclearance facilities will still encounter full entry formalities upon arrival at their first U.S. stop; a Canadian transit visa may be required even if passengers are confined to a holding area for the entire transit time.

Some airports in Canada, including Vancouver International Airport, Terminal 1 of Toronto Pearson International Airport, and Montreal-Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport do not require passengers in transit from abroad to pass through Canadian Customs and Immigration controls before going through U.S. preclearance formalities. However, even if you pass through these airports, make sure that your papers are in order to allow you to enter Canada: if you cannot travel to the U.S. on the same day you go through preclearance, if you are not cleared for entry to the United States, or if you and/or your luggage is not checked through by your airline to at least your first destination in the United States, you must report to Canada Customs; a Canadian visa may be required. This arrangement does not apply in the reverse direction, meaning that you must pass through Canadian customs and immigration on your flight out.

From other countries

Preclearance facilities are available at following airports:

By private plane

Many small-town airports on the United States' borders welcome individually-owned small aircraft, so long as they are an official CBP Port of Entry. You must first transmit an APIS manifest and then contact the Port of Entry directly before departure to secure permission to land. Unless you are a citizen of Canada, Bermuda, Palau, the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia, you will need to a valid visa to fly to the U.S. on a private plane; you cannot enter the U.S. by private plane on the VWP.

By car

Travel Warning Visa restrictions:
All persons wishing to enter the United States by land must possess a valid passport; NEXUS, FAST, Global Entry, SENTRI, or passport card; Laser Visa; or an "enhanced driver's license" (issued by certain U.S. states and Canadian provinces)

Over half a million people cross the U.S.–Canada and U.S.–Mexico borders each day. Current wait times (updated hourly) are available on the U.S. customs service website. The average wait time is around 30 minutes, although this varies significantly depending on the crossing location. Urban crossings see more traffic, and delays at the busiest crossings can approach 1–2 hours at peak times such as weekends and holidays. Foreigners entering by land are required to pay a $6 fee when crossing the border, however this fee is waived if you made a side trip to Canada or Mexico and are simply re-entering the U.S.

The U.S.–Mexico border is the primary entryway for drug traffic into the country. As a precaution, your vehicle may be X-rayed or scanned by a drug-sniffing dog, and if you arouse suspicion, your vehicle may be thoroughly searched.

Crossing the border from Canada in a rental car is relatively straightforward with one of the large multinational companies. Be sure to inform the car rental company, even if you do not intend to spend the night in the U.S., as additional documentation will be required. The large multinational car companies usually permit you to pick up your rental car in Canada and drop it off in the U.S. and vice versa.

Rental cars from Mexico usually cannot be brought into the U.S. Depending on the rental company, some U.S. rental cars may be driven into Mexico with prior arrangements and additional fees, but are restricted to the border region and cannot be dropped off in Mexico. This is usually only possible if you are renting a car in the states bordering Mexico.

By bus

Greyhound offers inexpensive cross-border service from Canada and Mexico. Some routes, such as Toronto to Buffalo, have hourly service. Megabus U.S. also runs daily trips from Toronto (also a hub for Megabus Canada) to New York City via Buffalo for as low as $1. Many Mexican bus companies have routes to the U.S., often travelling deep into the country with passenger comfort levels far surpassing those of U.S. or Canadian bus lines. Bus passengers often experience greater scrutiny from U.S. customs officials than car or train passengers.

Ellis Island, the main historic terminus for immigrants coming from Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and parts of South America

By boat

See also: Alaska Marine Highway

Cunard offers transatlantic ship travel between the United Kingdom and New York City. Various other cruise lines offer one way travel to the U.S. from overseas ports. Some passenger ferries from Canada exist, mostly between British Columbia and Washington State or Alaska. It is also possible to enter the U.S. as a passenger on a cargo ship, although the Visa Waiver Program does not apply to cargo ship passengers.

Foreigners entering on small craft (such as yachts or sailboats) must report in person to a pleasure boat port of entry. These are listed on the U.S. customs service website. U.S. citizens who do not need to pay customs duties may use the CBP ROAM mobile application to report their entry by pleasure boat.

By train

Amtrak offers international service from the Canadian cities of Vancouver (Amtrak Cascades to Seattle), Toronto (Maple Leaf to New York City via Niagara Falls), and Montreal (Adirondack to New York City via Albany). On international trains from Montreal and Toronto, immigration formalities are conducted at the border; this takes significantly more time than it would on a bus, which often makes the bus faster than the train. Travelers from Vancouver clear U.S. immigration and customs at Pacific Central Station before they get on the train itself, just as they do for air travel. Be sure to allow enough time for inspections.

There are no direct trains to the Midwest from Canada, but VIA Rail runs trains from Toronto to Sarnia and Windsor on the border between Ontario and Michigan, and you can transfer onto Amtrak trains that go as far as Chicago after crossing the border into Port Huron and Detroit respectively.

There is no passenger train service between Mexico and the U.S. and there are no passenger trains to the border from anywhere in Mexico. The nearest Amtrak stations to the Mexican border are in San Diego, Yuma, Del Rio and El Paso.

By foot

There are many border crossings in urban areas which can be crossed by pedestrians. Crossings such as those in or near Niagara Falls, Detroit, Buffalo, San Diego, Nogales, and El Paso are popular for people wishing to spend a day on the other side of the border. In some cases, this may be ideal for day-trippers, as crossing by car can be a much longer wait.

Get around

The Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco

Just type 5-1-1

Many U.S. cities and states offer traffic and public transport information by dialing 5-1-1 on your phone. In the Internet era, 511 has evolved to be the default name of many of their traffic and transportation information websites. To find your local one, search online for "511" plus the name of your location.

The size of the U.S. and the distance separating major cities make air the dominant mode of long-distance travel for short-term travellers. If you have time, or are travelling a short distance, travel by car, bus, or rail can be far more interesting. Long-distance car travel, in particular, is a quintessentially American way to see the country. That said, do not underestimate the size of the country and the time it takes to travel between cities. For comparison, the distance between New York City and San Francisco is greater than that between Lisbon and Moscow.

By plane

See also: Flying in the United States

The quickest and often the most convenient method of long-distance intercity travel in the U.S. is by plane. Coast-to-coast travel takes about 6 hours from east to west, and 5 hours from west to east (varying due to winds), compared to several days for land transportation. Most large cities in the U.S. are served by one or two airports; many smaller towns also have some passenger air service, although you may need to detour through a major hub airport to get there. Depending on where you are starting, it may be cheaper to travel by bus, train, or car to a nearby large city and fly or, conversely, to fly to a large city near your destination and travel by ground to your destination.

The largest airlines are American Airlines, Delta, and United and two of the country's low-cost carriers, Southwest and JetBlue. Alaska Airlines and Hawaiian Airlines are large regional carriers, while smaller airlines include Spirit, Frontier, Allegiant and Sun Country.

Major carriers compete for business on major routes, and travellers willing to book two or more weeks in advance can get bargains. However most smaller destinations are served by only one or two carriers, and prices there can be expensive. There is almost no difference in fees and service between "low-cost" and "mainline" carriers anymore. Low-cost carriers occasionally offer more amenities than mainline carriers, such as inflight entertainment for a short-haul flight, or free checked baggage. Southwest Airlines, for instance, allows passengers to check in up to two pieces of baggage in their base price.


See § Security under § Get in - By plane

By private plane

See also: General aviation

The cost of chartering the smallest private jet begins at around $4000 per flight hour, with the cost substantially higher for larger, longer-range aircraft and cheaper for smaller propeller planes. While private flying is by no means inexpensive, a family of four or more can often fly together at a cost similar to or even favorable to buying first-class commercial airline tickets, especially to smaller airports where scheduled commercial flights are at their most expensive and private flying at its cheapest. General aviation is the most practical way to reach the outer boroughs of Alaska.

A jet card is a prepaid card offered by some private jet companies. Essentially, it allows you to purchase flight hours on private jets without the need to charter an entire aircraft. Jet cards typically offer a certain number of flight hours or credits that can be used to book flights on private jets within a specified time frame. You choose the type of aircraft, departure and arrival locations within the limits set by the jet card program.

By train

See also: Rail travel in the United States, Across the United States by train
Westbound Southwest Chief in Colorado

The United States does not have a well-developed passenger rail network. Except for certain corridors, passenger trains are scarce, slow, unreliable and expensive. For long distance travel, traveling by train is often more expensive than flying and slower than driving. The national rail system Amtrak +1-800-USA-RAIL (872-7245) is usually fairly efficient for shorter journeys in urbanized areas, and along the Northeast Corridor. On longer routes and in rural areas delays are common. The gangling shape of Amtrak's national network means that even major cities may be impractical to reach by train despite having Amtrak service. For long-distance travel, you must plan ahead to ensure trains are available and convenient. Nonetheless, for those with ample time, train travel in the U.S. is comfortable and can offer incredible views of the country. It can also be a cost-effective way to reach some smaller towns that have no cheap alternatives.

The Northeast Corridor runs between Boston and Washington, D.C., passing through New York City, Philadelphia and Baltimore. The Acela Express, a fast train along this corridor, is the closest thing the U.S. has to high-speed rail, but as it does not run on any dedicated tracks, do not expect speeds anywhere close to those of high-speed services you might be used to in Asia or Europe. The Northeast Regional, which travels along the same route but stops at more stations, is usually much cheaper and does not take much longer.

Some of Amtrak's most scenic routes include its flagship California Zephyr that runs from Emeryville, in the San Francisco Bay Area of California, to Chicago, and the Empire Builder from Chicago to Seattle or Portland. The Auto Train between Lorton, Virginia and Sandford, Florida is the only motorial service (i.e. taking your car on the train with you) in the United States.

Amtrak offers a 30-day USA Rail Pass which covers the entire country. Discounts of 15% are available for students and seniors. If you plan to buy a regular ticket within a week of traveling, it pays to check the website for sometimes significant "weekly specials". Around American holidays, long-distance trains (outside the Northeast) can sell out weeks or even months in advance, so it is advisable to book early. Booking early also often results in generally lower fares for all trains. Same-day reservations are usually easy, and depending on the rules of the fare you purchased, you can change travel plans on the day itself without fees.

Amtrak also operates some bus services to towns and cities not served by their trains. These can generally only be booked as part of combination rail and bus tickets.

Besides Amtrak, there are a few other operators that run long-distance passenger trains. Alaska (which is not served by Amtrak) is served by the state government-run Alaska Railroad between Seward and Fairbanks, while Florida is served by private operator Brightline between Miami and Orlando.

Many major cities offer reliable commuter trains that bring passengers in from the suburbs and the nearby cities. Some stations offer park-and-ride facilities, where you can park your car at the station and then ride the train into the city, avoiding traffic and parking hassles. Commuter trains may not run on weekends and holidays, or they may run at reduced frequencies, so be sure to check the train schedule ahead of time. It's best to buy tickets before you board the train, even if you're not required to do so, to get the best prices.

By boat

America has the largest system of inland waterways of any country in the world. It is entirely possible to navigate within the United States by boat. Your choices of watercraft range from self-propelled canoes and kayaks to elaborate houseboats and riverboat cruises.

Rivers and canals were key to developing the country, and traversing by boat gives you a unique perspective on the nation along with some beautiful scenery. Some examples of waterways open to recreational boating and/or scheduled cruises are:

  • The New York State Canal System operates four canals (including the famous Erie Canal) comprising 524 mi (843 km) of waterway open for recreational and commercial use. See New York state for details.
  • The St. Lawrence Seaway is now the primary port of entry for large ships into North America. Recreational boaters are welcome; however, the Seaway is designed for very large craft and a minimum boat length of 6 m (20 ft) applies. The Seaway starts in eastern Canada and goes to the Great Lakes.
  • The Mississippi River affords north-south access through the interior of the U.S. to the Gulf of Mexico and connects with all major interior waterways, including the Missouri and Ohio Rivers.

Each year, many beginning boaters successfully navigate these waterways. Any kind of boating requires some preparation and planning. In general, the Coast Guard, Canal and Seaway authorities go out of their way to help recreational boaters. They will also at times give instructions which you are expected to obey immediately. For example, small craft may be asked to give way to larger craft on canals, and weather conditions may require you to stop or change your route.

Regular ferries exist to a variety of destinations along the coasts. In the northwest of the country, you can travel with the ferries of the Alaska Marine Highway System from Bellingham, Washington all the way along Alaska's southern coast to Dutch Harbor-Unalaska. As a bonus you get to enjoy beautiful mountain and archipelago scenery. Moreover, much of off-the-beaten-path-Alaska is only accessible by boat. Outside of cruise ships, there is no commercial passenger service between the continental U.S. and Hawaii, between the Hawaiian Islands, or between the continental U.S. and its Caribbean dependencies such as Puerto Rico (although there is ferry service within the U.S. Virgin Islands).

By car

See also: Driving in the United States
The "High Five" five-level interchange in Dallas

America's love affair with the automobile is legendary, so travelling the United States without a car can be difficult. Most American cities have developed with automobiles in mind, so renting or bringing your own car is usually a very good idea. There are only a few major cities where using public transportation is preferable to driving: New York City, Chicago, Boston, San Francisco, and Washington. Other large cities like Los Angeles, Atlanta, and Miami have limited public transport options, and the options only get worse in smaller cities. Taxis and ride-hailing services are often available, but they can get expensive and taxis (especially) can be hard to find outside of airports (although most taxi companies will offer a service where you can call a phone number and have a cab come and pick you up ahead of time). While most Americans are happy to give driving directions, don't be surprised if many aren't familiar with the local public transport options available.

The main Interstate Highway system generally links only the major towns of every state. If you want to actually explore the town, there is usually a "Business [Number]" that runs through the town and usually serves as a sort of "main street" for smaller rural towns. The U.S. highway and state routes can lead you to many interesting off-the-beaten-path sights, if you don't mind stopping at traffic lights and dealing with pedestrians. Most sections of the roads are free to use, but there are some which levy fees.

Great American Road Trip

Route 66, a highway connecting Los Angeles with Chicago. Essentially the main route for the Great American Road trip. It also invokes nostalgia in the southwestern states.

A romantic appeal is attached to the idea of long-distance car travel; many Americans will tell you that you can't see the "real" America except by car. Given the scarcity of public transportation in most American cities, the loss of time travelling between cities by car rather than flying can be made up by the convenience of driving around within cities once you arrive. In addition, many of the country's major natural attractions, such as Monument Valley, are almost impossible to get to without an automobile or on a bus tour. If you have the time, a classic American road trip with a rented car is very easy to achieve; most major rental car companies will allow a one-way rental. Pay attention to how many miles they allow you to put on the vehicle, since you probably want to make detours for sightseeing. Because of the distances, this kind of travel can mean many long days behind the wheel, so pay attention to the comfort of the car you use. A "coast-to-coast" trip with more than one driver and few stops will take at least 5 days (4½ if you have strong bladders).

Driving laws

Americans drive on the right in left-hand drive vehicles. Driving law is primarily a matter of state law and is enforced by state and local police. While there are some minor variations state-to-state, the rules of the road are fairly consistent across the country. Police departments may use automated cameras to enforce red traffic signals and speed limits, although speed cameras are much rarer in the U.S. than in much of Europe, and it is often expected in the U.S. for a driver to exceed the posted speed limit by 5–10 mph (8–16 km/hr) without being cited by the police. Unless otherwise noted at an intersection or at the city level by default, drivers may (and are expected to) turn right after stopping at a red light, if there is no cross traffic and no pedestrians or cyclists are present. See individual city articles for more details.

Drivers are expected to stop for pedestrians and to allow emergency vehicles, with their lights flashing, to pass. School buses, which are almost always yellow, have red lights that illuminate and stop signs that swing out on the driver's side when the driver stops to pick up or drop off a passenger. In some states, all vehicles in both directions must stop for a school bus, and penalties may be severe for drivers who violate this law. This does not apply to privately-operated buses or public transport buses.

Foreign visitors age 18 and older can usually drive on their foreign driver's license for up to a year, depending on state law. Licenses that are not in English must be accompanied by an International Driving Permit (IDP) or a certified translation.

A 5-light signal (left) indicating that both straight and left-turning traffic has the right of way. If just the green circle was displayed, without a green left arrow, left-turning traffic would have to yield to oncoming traffic.

Drunk driving comes under fairly harsh scrutiny. If you are caught driving under the influence of alcohol, you will almost certainly be arrested. See § Drink below. In states where it is legal, driving under the influence of marijuana is treated as equivalent to (if not more serious than) drunk driving. However, it is not illegal to be drunk/high in the passenger seats, so it's perfectly legal to have a friend drive you home if you're under the influence.

By bus

See also: Long-distance bus travel in the United States

Intercity bus travel is widespread, but not available everywhere. Service between nearby major cities is frequent, and often connects many smaller towns with regional cities. It's commonly considered a "lower class" way to travel, but is generally dependable, safe and affordable. However, bus stations in some cities are located in rough neighborhoods (e.g. Los Angeles).

Greyhound Bus Lines ( +1-800-231-2222) have the predominant share of American bus travel in 45 states. Discounts are available to travellers who purchase their tickets 7–14 days in advance of their travel date. Greyhound buses typically run in 5-7 hour segments, at which time all passengers must get off the bus so it can be serviced, even if it's the middle of the night. Continuing passengers are boarded before those just getting on. Seating is on a first-come, first-served basis, except in some cities, where you can pay a $5 fee for priority seating. FlixBus acquired Greyhound Lines in 2021, and since 2023, allows customers to book both FlixBus and Greyhound routes on FlixBus's web site.

Megabus, Greyhound's biggest competitor, operates mainly in 30 states in the Midwestern and the eastern half of the country between the hub cities of Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas, New Orleans, New York, Washington DC and several other cities surrounding and between the hubs. It also offers connections to Montreal and Toronto in Canada. It also has a couple of routes in the west, which are not connected to those in the Midwest and the East Coast.

Chinatown buses are small independent companies that provide curb-side departures for a cheap standard cash fare. These lines operate mainly in the northeast between Boston, New York City, Philadelphia, Washington DC, and Baltimore. Some continue further out to destinations in the Midwest and the South from the northeast. Others operate between California, Nevada and Arizona. See the relevant city guides and GoToBus.com for more information.

Hispanic bus companies tend to have the most spacious buses in the country. Many are affiliate brands or subsidiaries of Mexican bus companies offering cross-border services beyond the border areas as far north as Chicago, as far east as Atlanta, and as far south as Mexico City. See Long-distance bus travel in the U.S.

Various smaller companies offer bus services throughout the country. A number of them are grouped under the Trailways brand, which you'll often find sharing space with Greyhound.

All but the smallest towns have some sort of local bus service, but it will often be limited compared to cities of a similar size in other countries. In general in the U.S., local buses don't stop at every stop. In some cities they'll stop if they see someone waiting at the bus stop, but in others you may have to give a little wave to let them know you want to get on. If you're on the bus and want to get off at the next stop, there's usually a button for you to push or a string to pull to signal the driver. To find a list of local transit agencies for each region, see the U.S. Local and State Transit Links page of American Public Transport Association.

By recreational vehicle (RV)

Main article: Car camping

Recreational vehicles – large, sometimes bus-sized vehicles that include sleeping and living quarters – are a distinctly American way to cruise the country. Some RVers love the convenience of being able to drive their home anywhere they like and enjoy the camaraderie that RV campgrounds offer. Other people dislike the hassles and maintenance issues that come with RVing. And don't even think about driving an RV into a huge metropolis such as New York. Still, if you want to drive extensively within the United States and are comfortable handling a big rig, renting an RV is an option you should consider.

By motorcycle

The thrill and exhilaration of cross country travel are magnified when you go by motorcycle. Harley-Davidson is the preeminent American motorcycle brand and Harley operates a motorcycle rental program for those licensed and capable of handling a full weight motorcycle. In some parts of the country, you can also rent other types of motorcycles, such as sportbikes, touring bikes, and dual-sport bikes. For those inexperienced with motorcycles, Harley and other dealerships offer classes for beginners. Wearing a helmet, although not required in all states, is always a good idea. The practice of riding between lanes of slower cars, also known as "lane-sharing" or "lane-splitting," is illegal, except in California where it is tolerated and widespread. Solo motorcyclists can legally use "high-occupancy vehicle" or "carpool" lanes during their hours of operation.

American enthusiasm towards motorcycles has led to a motorcycling subculture. Motorcycle clubs are exclusive clubs for members dedicated to riding a particular brand of motorcycle within a highly structured club hierarchy. Riding clubs may or may not be organized around a specific brand of bikes and offer open membership to anyone interested in riding. Motorcycle rallies, such as the famous one in Sturgis, South Dakota, are huge gatherings of motorcyclists from around the country. Many motorcyclists are not affiliated with any club and opt to ride independently or with friends. In general, motorcycling is seen as a hobby, as opposed to a practical means of transportation; this means, for example, that most American motorcyclists prefer not to ride in inclement weather. However you choose to ride, and whatever brand of bike you prefer, motorcycling can be a thrilling way to see the country.

By thumb

Gateway Arch in St. Louis, Missouri in the Midwest

Laws on hitchhiking vary from state to state, but in general, hitchhiking is legal throughout the majority of the country. You may not, however, hitchhike on Interstate highways or while standing in traffic lanes (usually marked by a solid white line at the shoulder of the road). If you plan to hitchhike, the best practice is to thumb rides at entrance ramps, or (better yet) highway rest areas.

However, due to increasing wariness of the possible dangers, hitchhiking in the U.S. is much less common than it used to be. International travelers to the U.S. should avoid this practice unless they have either a particularly strong sense of social adventure or extremely little money. Even many Americans themselves would only feel comfortable "thumbing a ride" if they had a good knowledge of the locale, and American drivers also practice caution for the same reasons.

Craigslist has a rideshare section that sometimes proves useful for arranging rides in advance. If you are open with your destination it's almost always possible to find a ride going somewhere in the country, with payment often being sharing the fuel costs.


Portland Head Lighthouse, Portland, Maine, in New England

The United States is extraordinarily diverse in its array of attractions. You will never run out of things to see; even if you think you've exhausted what one place has to offer, the next destination is only a road trip away.

The Great American Road Trip (see above) is the most traditional way to see a variety of sights; just hop in the car and cruise down the Interstates, stopping at the convenient roadside hotels and restaurants as necessary, and stopping at every interesting tourist trap along the way, until you reach your destination.

Indescribably beautiful scenery, history that reads like a screenplay, entertainment options that can last you for days, and some of the world's greatest architecture – no matter what your pleasure, you can find it almost anywhere you look in the United States.

Natural scenery

Jordan Pond in Acadia National Park, Maine

From the spectacular glaciers of Alaska to the wooded, weathered peaks of Appalachia; from the otherworldly desertscapes of the Southwest to the vast waters of the Great Lakes; few other countries have as wide a variety of natural scenery as the United States does.

America's national parks are a great place to start, and to see North American wildlife. Yellowstone National Park was the first true national park in the world, and it remains one of the most famous, but there are more than 60 others. The Grand Canyon is possibly the world's most spectacular gorge; Sequoia National Park and Yosemite National Park are both home to the world's tallest living organisms; Glacier National Park is a great place to see huge sheets of ice; Canyonlands National Park could easily be mistaken for Mars; and the Great Smoky Mountains National Park features abundant wildlife among beautifully forested mountains. The national parks aren't just for sightseeing, either; each has plenty of outdoor activities as well.

Carlsbad Caverns National Park, Carlsbad, New Mexico, in the Southwest.

Still, the national parks are just the beginning. The National Park Service also operates national monuments, national memorials, national historic sites, national seashores, national heritage areas... the list goes on and on. Additionally, each state has its own state parks that can be just as good as the federal versions. Most of these destinations, federal or state, have an admission fee, but it all goes toward maintenance and operations of the parks, and the rewards are well worth it.

Those aren't your only options, though. Many of America's natural treasures can be seen without passing through admission gates. The world-famous Niagara Falls straddle the border between Canada and the U.S.; the American side lets you get right up next to the onrush and feel the power that has shaped the Niagara gorge. The "purple majesty" of the Rocky Mountains can be seen for hundreds of miles in any direction, while the placid coastal areas of the Midwest and the Mid-Atlantic have relaxed Americans for generations. And, although they are very different from each other, Hawaii and Alaska are perhaps the two most scenic states; they don't just have attractions – they are attractions.

As can be expected in the U.S.A., people often enjoy natural scenery by car. Most people visiting national parks do so by driving along the roads inside the park. Of course, you can also hike where no cars can go, and overnight by tent at primitive campgrounds. Still, car camping is much more popular.

Historical attractions

Taos Pueblo, a UNESCO World Heritage site, and one of the largest pre-Columbian settlements in the southwest

The U.S. has a tremendous wealth of historical attractions – more than enough to fill months of history-centric touring.

The prehistory of the continent can indeed be a little hard to uncover, as most of the Native American tribes did not build permanent settlements. But particularly in the West, you will find magnificent cliff dwellings at sites such as Mesa Verde and Bandelier, as well as near-ubiquitous rock paintings (Petroglyph National Monument has some of the best rock art in the country, and it is located only 17 km outside of Albuquerque). East of the Mississippi River, the best-preserved Native American sites are at Cahokia just outside St. Louis and Serpent Mound in Ohio. The Museum of the American Indian in Washington, D.C. is another great place to start learning about America's culture before the arrival of Europeans colonists. In regions on or near reservations, Native Americans may sell handcrafts at roadside attractions. For the traveler looking for authentic Native American art, these are some of the best and most affordable ways to acquire it.

Although the settlement at Plymouth, Massachusetts, may loom larger in the nation's mind, the first successful British colony on the continent was at Jamestown, Virginia. In the nearby Colonial Williamsburg, people dress and act like they did when it was an early British colony, providing perhaps the best option for those looking to really 'get into' colonial American history. The eastern states of New England, the Mid-Atlantic, and the South have more than their fair share of sites from early American history as they make up what are known as the 13 Original Colonies. British influence can also be felt in the states of Washington and Oregon (and to a much lesser extent, Idaho), as these states plus British Columbia in Canada made up the Oregon Territory that was disputed between the U.S. and the U.K. until 1846. Indeed, the San Juan Islands in northwestern Washington State contain the only place on American soil where the British flag is officially flown.

French colonial influence is best felt in the Great Lakes region (especially around the more western lakes) as French fur trappers were the first Europeans to explore that region. The other main sites for French culture are in northern Maine and southern Louisiana. Both of these states have long histories with a group of French-descended people called the Acadians, and Acadian French (which is slightly different from Québécois or European French) is still in use in those regions. Louisiana in particular is known for its hedonistic Mardi Gras celebrations (always the Tuesday before Ash Wednesday and equivalent to Carnival in most Latin American and Mediterranean Catholic countries).

Spanish colonialism is most apparent in Florida and the states bordering Mexico, but some Spanish elements are felt as far north as Washington State and as far east as Kansas. All of the states of California, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Texas, and parts of Wyoming and Oklahoma were historically part of Spanish and later Mexican control, and retain their heritage or mixed those Spanish or Mexican cultures with indigenous and later American ones. The southwest in particular is littered with historic markers and monuments dedicated to memorializing or marking routes of Spanish conquistadors.

The other major European power to exert lasting colonial influence was Russia, particularly shown through the existence of Alaska. Russian presence in North American sans Alaska was limited to some small fur trading posts, the most well-known (and best preserved) being Fort Ross in California. Russia also (like Britain and the U.S.) maintained trading posts in Hawaii.

A handful of other European powers, such as the Netherlands and Sweden, established colonies in what is now the United States, although their lasting impact is quite limited. There may be some historical attractions themed to this (especially in New York City, which was previously New Amsterdam), but to nowhere near the levels of the other colonial powers. Swedish influence is most visible in the Midwest, which received many Swedish immigrants during the 19th century.

In the 18th century, major centers of commerce developed in Philadelphia and Boston, and as the colonies grew in size, wealth, and self-confidence, relations with Great Britain became strained, culminating in the Boston Tea Party and the ensuing Revolutionary War.

There are a large number of historic sites related to the American Civil War, the most destructive conflict on American soil.

West of the Mississippi River, there are a myriad of historic sites and markers dedicated to America's westward expansion. Some places, like Dodge City in Kansas and Tombstone in Arizona, were notorious for outlaw and vigilante violence.

Monuments and architecture

Americans have never shied away from heroic feats of engineering, and many of them are among the country's biggest tourist attractions.

Abraham Lincoln's tomb in Springfield, Illinois

Washington, D.C., as the nation's capital, has more monuments and statuary than you could see in a day, but do be sure to visit the Washington Monument (the world's tallest obelisk), the stately Lincoln Memorial, and the incredibly moving Vietnam Veterans Memorial. The city's architecture is also an attraction – the Capitol Building and the White House are two of the most iconic buildings in the country and often serve to represent the whole nation to the world.

A number of American cities have world-renowned skylines, perhaps none more so than the concrete canyons of Manhattan, part of New York City. There, a new World Trade Center tower has risen on a site adjacent to the fallen twin towers, and the Empire State Building and the Chrysler Building still stand tall, as they have for almost a century. Chicago, where the skyscraper was invented, can no longer claim the tallest building in the country, but it still has an awful lot of really tall buildings. Other skylines worth seeing include San Francisco (with the Golden Gate Bridge), Seattle (including the Space Needle), Miami, Pittsburgh and Philadelphia.

Some human constructions transcend skyline, though, and become iconic symbols in their own right. The Gateway Arch in St. Louis, the Statue of Liberty in Manhattan, the Hollywood Sign in Los Angeles, and even the fountains of the Bellagio casino in Las Vegas all draw visitors to their respective cities. Even the incredible Mount Rushmore, located far from any major city, still attracts two million visitors each year.

Museums and galleries

In the U.S., there's a museum for practically everything. From toys to priceless artifacts, from entertainment legends to dinosaur bones – nearly every city in the country has a museum worth visiting.

An exhibit at MEOW WOLF, an interactive contemporary art gallery in Santa Fe

The highest concentrations of these museums are found in the largest cities, of course, but none compare to Washington, D.C., home to the Smithsonian Institution. With almost twenty independent museums, most of them located on the National Mall, the Smithsonian is the foremost curator of American history and achievement. These museums are all 100% free. New York City also has an outstanding array of world-class museums.

You could spend weeks exploring the cultural institutions just in these two, but there are also many other cities with world class museums such as Chicago, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Pittsburgh and Boston. Many universities also operate small museums that have interesting exhibits and often are free to enter, while those interested in specific sports or topics will often be able to find museums even in some small towns that suit their tastes. The U.S. also offers Halls of Fame tailored to specific sports, music genres, and occasionally other, more niche topics. And some cities are clustered with museums specific to the city's industry; for example, Los Angeles is the place to be for any and all museums dedicated to movies, film, and TV and the industry behind them.


Here is a handful of itineraries spanning regions across the United States:

  • Appalachian Trail – a foot trail along the spine of the Appalachian Mountains from Georgia to Maine
  • Braddock Expedition – traces the French-Indian War route of British General Edward Braddock (and a younger George Washington) from Alexandria, Virginia through Cumberland, Maryland to the Monongahela River near Pittsburgh
  • Interstate 5 – the primary interstate highway along the west coast from the Mexican border with California to the Canadian border with Washington state, passing through the major west coast cities and the capitals of three states
  • The Jazz Track – a nation-wide tour of the most important clubs in jazz history and in jazz performance today
  • Lewis and Clark Trail – retrace the northwest route of the great American explorers along the Missouri River
  • Oregon Trail – the mid-19th century path taken by western settlers from Missouri to Oregon
  • Pacific Crest Trail – one of the original National Scenic Trails; travels along the west coast from Mexico to Canada
  • Pony Express National Historic Trail – commemorates the mail service route through the Old West, between St. Joseph, Missouri and San Francisco, California
  • Route 66 – tour the iconic historic highway running from Chicago to Los Angeles
  • Santa Fe Trail – a historic southwest settler route from Missouri to Santa Fe
  • Touring Shaker country – takes you to one current and eight former Shaker religious communities in the Mid-Atlantic, New England and Midwest regions of the United States
  • Trail Of Tears National Historic Trail – follows the route of the forced westward migration of many American Indian tribes in the 1830s
  • U.S. Highway 1 – travelling along the east coast from Maine to Florida


Arts and music

Mid-size to large cities often draw big ticket concerts, especially in large outdoor amphitheaters. Small towns sometimes host concerts in parks with local or older bands. Other options include music festivals such as San Diego's Street Scene[dead link] or South by Southwest in Austin. Classical music concerts are held year round and performed by semi-professional and professional symphonies. Many cities and regions have unique sounds. Country music is popular throughout the U.S. but is particularly concentrated in the South and rural West. Nashville is known as "Music City" because of the large number of country artists who live in the city. It's home to the Grand Ole Opry, the most famous country music venue in the nation, and numerous other live music venues. African-Americans in the South gave rise to jazz and the blues, with numerous music scenes and venues in cities nationwide. Many of the most popular mainstream bands are based in Los Angeles due to the large entertainment presence and concentration of record companies.

America is considered to be the spiritual home of musical theater, and many of the world's most famous musicals have had a run on Broadway in New York City at one time or another. No trip to New York would be complete without catching at least one musical on Broadway. The United States is also home to one of the world's premier opera companies, the Metropolitan Opera in New York.

A quintessential American experience is the marching band festival. You can find these events almost every weekend between September and Thanksgiving throughout the country and again from March to June in California. Check local event listings and papers to find specifics. Also notable is the Bands of America Grand National Championship held every autumn in Indianapolis. To see the best of the best, get tickets to the "finals" performance, where the ten best bands of the festival compete for the championship. Both "street" or parade marching bands as well as "field" or show bands are found at almost every high school and university in America.


Baseball in Daytona Beach, Florida

The United States has a professional league for virtually every sport, including pillow fighting. America's passion for sports is rivaled hardly anywhere in the world, with the leagues with the world's highest attendance both per game (NFL) and total (MLB) and other leagues that are the best and most popular in their respective sport. Watching a game is a good way to meet and interact with the locals. A few of the most popular sports are:

  • Baseball, often referred to as "America's pastime", is one of the most widely played sports in the country. The U.S. is home to 29 of the 30 MLB (Major League Baseball) teams (the other is the Toronto Blue Jays). The season lasts from April to September with playoff games held in October, with the championship games known as the World Series. With each team playing 162 games per team per season and the cheapest seats usually $10-20, this is possibly the best sporting event for international travellers to watch. There are also several hundred minor league teams scattered across the U.S.; while quality of the games is lower, prices are cheaper (even free in a few leagues).
  • The U.S. is home to 29 of the 30 NBA (National Basketball Association) teams, and the world's premier men's basketball league. The season runs from November to April, with playoffs in May–June. Its counterpart the WNBA (Women's NBA), which plays during the NBA offseason, is one of the most stable and popular women's team sports leagues in the world.
  • The NFL (National Football League), with 32 teams (all in the contiguous U.S.) is the leading promoter of American football in the world. It has virtually nothing in common with association football (Americans know that sport as soccer). It developed from rugby football, and still has some things in common with its cousin from England. It is extremely popular, and the day of the championship game, the Super Bowl, is an unofficial national holiday and perennially the most watched event in American sports. Most games are on Sundays, and watching games in the stands or on TV on Sunday is an important tradition for many Americans. The season lasts from September to December, with playoffs in January ending with the Super Bowl in February.

"Hockey" vs "Ice hockey"

In most English-speaking countries, "hockey" is used for a game played on grass and "ice hockey" for the one on ice. In North American usage, however, the former is called "field hockey", while "hockey" alone almost always means "ice hockey" (or, rarely, roller hockey).

  • The NHL (National Hockey League) is the premier ice hockey league in the world. 25 of its 32 teams are in the U.S. Slightly under 50% of players are Canadians, another 25% Americans, and the rest come from many other parts of the world, mainly northern and eastern Europe. The season runs from October to April, followed by playoffs that culminate in the Stanley Cup Final in June, the titular cup of which is the oldest professional sports trophy in North America.
  • Auto racing draws big crowds all over the country, with hundreds of thousands attending the marquee events – the Indianapolis 500 for the open-wheel IndyCar series, and the Daytona 500 for the NASCAR stock car circuit. IndyCar racing is closer, faster, and arguably far more dangerous than that of NASCAR. NASCAR almost exclusively races on oval tracks, while IndyCar competes on a wide variety of tracks including city streets. Both sports' seasons run from late winter through mid-fall, with races almost every week. There are also the Miami Grand Prix, United States Grand Prix, and Las Vegas Grand Prix, all annual races on the Formula One calendar. The Miami Grand Prix was first held in 2022 on a temporary street circuit that surrounds Hard Rock Stadium, home to the NFL's Miami Dolphins, in the northern Miami suburb of Miami Gardens, Florida. The US Grand Prix is held on a road course in Austin, Texas. The Las Vegas Grand Prix debuted in 2023 on a circuit in the Las Vegas area of Nevada. The Vegas circuit combines permanent track with city streets, including slightly more than a mile of the Las Vegas Strip.
  • MLS (Major League Soccer) has 29 teams – 26 in the U.S. plus three in Canada – in its current 2024 season, with another U.S. team set to debut in 2025. While it may not be as popular with the media, MLS is still widely viewed and enjoyed (particularly by Hispanic communities), and is a preferred destination for top players from European leagues who are past their prime. The season does not coincide with soccer in most other countries: the regular season runs March to October, with MLS Cup playoffs from October to December. The women's equivalent is the National Women's Soccer League (NWSL), with 14 teams in 2024 and an expansion to at least 15 expected in 2026. Its season starts in March with the NWSL Challenge Cup, which from 2024 is a one-off match similar to the "supercups" in many European countries (such as England's FA Community Shield). The regular season runs into September, followed by playoffs that end in late October. Starting in 2024, the NWSL will have competition as a top-flight women's league in the form of the USL Super League (USLS), run by the United Soccer League, an organization that also operates many lower-level men's and women's leagues plus a number of youth leagues. USLS will start play with 8 teams, and unlike other U.S. soccer leagues will play a fall-to-spring season, matching the calendar of the most prominent European soccer nations.

One unique feature of the American sports landscape is the extent to which sports are associated with educational institutions. In many regions, especially the South and Midwest, college sports enjoy followings that rival or surpass those of major professional teams, especially football and men's basketball. (In fact, 8 of the 10 largest non-motorsports stadiums in the world – all seating more than 100,000 spectators – are for U.S. college football teams, and the country's three largest basketball arenas house college teams.) The NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) has over 1,000 member schools, including almost all of the country's best-known colleges and universities. The college football and college basketball seasons roughly coincide with their professional counterparts; the NCAA Division I men's basketball playoff tournament, "March Madness", is especially widely followed even by casual sports fans. Rowing enthusiasts may wish to watch the Harvard–Yale Regatta, a 4-mile-long (6.4 km) race held in Connecticut every year modeled after The Boat Race between Oxford and Cambridge in the United Kingdom, between the men's coxed eight rowing teams.

Many communities also take great pride in their high school sports teams, and especially in smaller locales, those teams are a major part of local culture. From August to May, a high school game can be a great (and cheap) way to meet locals and discover the area in a way many visitors never experience. The most popular sports are usually football and boys' basketball (and to a lesser extent girls' basketball), plus hockey in New England and the upper Midwest. In some areas, a particular high school sport enjoys an elevated cultural position. Examples include football in Texas, basketball in Indiana, hockey in Minnesota, and wrestling in Iowa.

The United States is home to many of the world's most famous golf courses. The most famous is the Augusta National Golf Club, which is the home of the Masters, one of the world's most prestigious professional golf tournaments, and also one of the four majors in men's golf. The U.S. is also home to 2 of the other 3 majors in men's golf, namely the U.S. Open and the PGA Championship, which rotate between different golf courses in the U.S. every year. Golf is popular both as a participation and spectator sport, and the U.S. supports several major professional tours. (See also: Golf#United States.)

The United States hosts many tennis tournaments in the ATP and WTA tours, with the US Open being the most prestigious among them. It is regarded as one of the four Grand Slams. The US Open is held every year from late August to Early September at the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center in the New York City borough of Queens.

The rodeo celebrates the traditions of the Old West, especially in Texas and the Great Plains. A subset of rodeo, bull riding, enjoys a moderate degree of popularity as a standalone event, with the main circuit being Professional Bull Riders.

The U.S. is also one of the major centers for combat sports, especially boxing and mixed martial arts. Las Vegas is arguably the epicenter of both boxing and MMA; countless big-money boxing fights have been held at venues in or near the area's giant casino resorts, and the largest promoter of MMA cards, the Ultimate Fighting Championship, has its headquarters in Vegas. Many companies other than UFC run MMA shows throughout the country. Also of note is professional wrestling, a hybrid of sports and entertainment in which the outcomes may be predetermined, but the athleticism and training required of performers is undeniable. Numerous companies (known as "promotions") run shows, with some operating only in a small local area and the largest, WWE and All Elite Wrestling, running shows throughout the U.S.

Festivals and fairs

The Iowa State Fair, one of the most well-known state fairs. Common sights at state fairs include food stalls, amusement rides, and local booths selling goods.

Many towns and/or counties throw fairs to commemorate the establishment of a town or the county with rides, games, and other attractions. Almost every state has one or more state fairs. These began as competitions and shows to promote agriculture and livestock; now they include industrial product exhibitions, concerts, and carnival rides and games.


There are numerous national parks throughout the United States, especially the vast interior, which offer plenty of opportunities to enjoy outdoor activities, including Recreational shooting, ATV riding, hiking, bird watching, prospecting, and horseback riding. National parks are the crown jewels of the much larger National Park System, which also includes historic and cultural landmarks.

  • National Trails System is a group of 21 "National Scenic Trails" and "National Historic Trails", and over 1,000 shorter "National Recreation Trails" for a total length of over 50,000 mi (80,000 km). While all are open to hiking, most are also open to mountain biking, horseback riding, and camping and some are open for ATVs and cars.

Amusement parks

The United States is the birthplace of the modern amusement park, and to this day, amusement parks form an integral part of American childhood and teenage culture. The first-ever permanent amusement park was built on Coney Island in New York City, and while not as glamorous as some of the newer ones, is still home to a famous historic wooden roller coaster and numerous other attractions.

The Los Angeles and Orlando areas in particular are home to numerous well-regarded amusement parks, with giants Universal and Disney operating parks in both locations. Another chain of amusement parks that is well-regarded locally, though not so well-known internationally, is Six Flags, which has multiple locations throughout the country, and is particularly known for its innovative roller coasters and other thrill rides. Other chains include the marine-themed SeaWorld, which is known for its marine mammal shows, and Cedar Fair.



The 2018 series of U.S. $100, $50, $20, $10, $5, $2 and $1 bills. Older styles are still frequently seen in circulation.

The U.S. currency is the United States dollar ($), divided into 100 cents (¢). Foreign currencies are almost never accepted, though some major hotel chains may accept traveller's checks in other currencies. Some establishments close to the Canadian and Mexican borders accept their currencies, though usually at poor exchange rates. Japanese yen is sometimes accepted in Hawaii.

Some U.S. businesses do not accept cash, while some small businesses accept only cash. Foreign credit or debit cards should be accepted in most places, and you should carry some cash (including several $1 bills) in case your card is not accepted or if you need to leave a cash tip.

The dollar is sometimes colloquially known as a buck, so "5 bucks" means $5. Common American banknotes (or bills) are the $1, $5, $10, $20, $50 and $100. The $2 bill is still produced, but rarely seen in circulation and is occasionally refused as payment, especially by vending machines. Some small stores keep only a small amount of cash in the drawer to make change, and as a result, will refuse $50 or $100 bills for small purchases. All $1 and $2 bills and older bills of the larger denominations are greenish and printed with black and green ink (thus the nickname "greenbacks"). Newer versions of the $5, $10, $20, $50 and $100 bills are slightly more colorful. All the bills are the same size. Banknotes never expire and several designs of each note can circulate together, but older designs may (rarely) be refused by some retailers. If you have an old or damaged bill, a local bank may be able to exchange it for a newer bill if you bring it to a teller.

The standard coins are the penny (1¢, copper color), the chunky nickel (5¢, silver color), the tiny dime (10¢, silver color) and the ridged-edge quarter (25¢, silver color). Half dollar (50¢, silver) and dollar ($1, gold or silver; not to be confused with the quarter) coins are uncommon. Coin-operated machines usually only accept nickels, dimes, quarters, and $1 bills, though some may also accept the rare dollar coins. Vending machines that sell more expensive items may take $5, $10, or even $20 bills, although most will dispense only coins in change. Though Canadian coins are sized similarly, machines usually reject them. Humans, on the other hand, generally won't notice (or care about) a few small Canadian coins mixed with American, particularly in the northern parts of the country.

Currency exchange and banking

Exchange rates for U.S. dollars

As of January 2024:

  • €1 ≈ $1.10
  • UK£1 ≈ $1.27
  • AU$1 ≈ $0.68
  • CA$1 ≈ $0.76
  • Japanese ¥100 ≈ $0.71

Exchange rates fluctuate. Current rates for these and other currencies are available from XE.com

Currency exchange centers are rare outside the downtowns of major coastal and border cities, and international airports. Some banks also provide currency exchange services, though you may sometimes be required to call in advance. Due to the high overhead of exchange rates and transaction fees, it is often better to acquire U.S. dollars in your home country before travel; rates at currency exchange desks in airports, tourist areas and shopping areas in particular are usually terrible.

ATMs (also called "cash machines" and other regional names) can handle foreign bank cards or credit cards bearing Visa/Plus or MasterCard/Cirrus logos. They usually dispense bills in $20 denominations and generally charge about $2 to $4 to cards issued by other banks. Smaller ATMs in restaurants, petrol stations, etc., often charge higher fees (up to $5). These fees are in addition to your card issuer's own fees. Some ATMs, such as those at courthouses or other government buildings, have no fee. As with anywhere else in the world, there is a risk of card skimmers installed on these machines that can steal your credit card details. To deter skimmers, some ATMs allow authentication using a mobile app or using a contactless debit card, although these are rare and these are unlikely to work with foreign banks.

Another option is withdrawing cash (usually up to $40 or $60 over the cost of your goods) when making a debit card purchase at a supermarket, convenience store, or a large discount store such as Walmart. This is known as getting "cash back." The majority of large stores do not charge for this service (though it may be contingent on signing up for the store's loyalty program, which is also usually free); however, the bank that issued your card may impose a fee. The cash bank limit varies by store as well, from $10 at small convenience stores up to $100 (and never over that) at large stores.

Opening a bank account in the U.S. is a fairly straightforward process, and there are no restrictions on foreigners having them.

Payments by direct bank transfer (also called ACH, for Automated Clearing House) are not accepted by most merchants. Personal checks are still used by some U.S. residents to pay bills, but most stores do not accept them, and a check drawn on a foreign bank is very unlikely to be accepted. The term EBT, common at supermarkets, refers to a government benefit, and not to Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT or EFTPOS) used in some countries.

Credit and debit cards

Major credit cards such as Visa and MasterCard (and their debit card affiliates) are widely used and accepted. Other cards such as American Express and Discover are also accepted, but not as widely.

JCB, UnionPay (China) and RuPay (India) have alliances with Discover, so they can be used at any retailer that accepts Discover cards even if the store does not display the logo on its window.

Almost all sit-down restaurants, hotels, and shops will accept credit and debit cards. Some businesses will only accept credit/debit card, and some will only accept cash. Many retailers have a window sticker or counter sign showing the payment methods they accept.

Nearly all large retailers will accept credit cards for transactions of all sizes, even as small as $1 or $2. However, some small businesses and independently-owned stores may specify a minimum amount of money for credit card use or charge slightly extra, due to card processing fees.

Shops may also ask for photo identification for foreign-issued cards. When making large purchases, it is typical for U.S. retailers to ask to see some form of photo identification. If you do not have one, you can purchase a prepaid card or gift card with Visa, MasterCard or AmEx logo from a variety of stores. Some reloadable cards require identification to be submitted before they can be used; to avoid this issue, stick to one-time-load gift cards, which never require this. Hotels and rental car companies, which place holds on your credit card, may refuse prepaid cards and gift cards.

In most cases, customers authorize transactions by signing a paper slip or an electronic device, but many retailers will waive the signature requirement for small purchases. In some stores, especially supermarkets, convenience stores, transport vending machines, and pharmacies, you may be asked to select "debit" or "credit". If you have a VISA or MasterCard debit card, choosing "credit" will do the same thing to your account as a "debit" transaction (i.e. deduct funds from you account) but will prompt you to sign the charge slip. Choosing "debit" will lead to a prompt for a PIN, the same PIN you use at a cash machine. The EMV "chip-and-PIN" credit card authorization system used in Europe, Canada, and in some other countries has been adopted by most U.S. merchants. Many chip-and-PIN payment terminals also support contactless payments by card, phone, and watch. On rare occasions, such as for large purchases or if your card does not bear your signature, merchants may ask for photo ID so that the customer can prove that they are using their own card.

Gas station pumps, some public transportation vending machines, and some other types of automated vending machines often have credit/debit card readers. Many of these ask for the ZIP code (i.e., postal code) of the U.S. billing address for the card, which effectively prevents them from accepting foreign cards (they are unable to detect a foreign card and switch to PIN authentication). At gas stations, you can use a foreign-issued card by paying the station attendant inside. If you have a Canadian MasterCard or American Express card, you can use it at all pumps that require a ZIP code by entering the digits of your postal code (ignoring letters and spaces) and adding two zeroes to the end. When using a debit card, some stations will place a hold on your account for a specified amount (a notice will be present on the pump, typically $75) and then update the charge once you've filled up (but there is often a 1–2 day delay between removing the "hold" and updating the amount charged).

Most restaurants will issue "separate checks" (bills) on request so that each member of a group can pay with their own card. If you would like separate checks, it is best to make this request before you order, as splitting one check into multiple checks is more difficult. Alternatively, you can usually pay one bill with multiple cards, or with a mixture of cards and cash, typically splitting the balance equally across cards. Restaurants are not obligated to accept multiple payments for one bill, as this requires more time and effort; if you are traveling with a group, consider rotating the duty of "picking up the tab" so that one person pays at each meal.

Mobile payments

In the U.S., the most popular mobile payment options use near-field communication (NFC) technologies such as Apple Pay and Google Pay. If you see the NFC logo, which looks like the Wi-Fi symbol rotated 90 degrees, on a payment terminal, you may be able to tap an NFC card or mobile device against it when it is ready (look for four lights in a row, one of which is lit). For small purchases, typically under $50, no PIN, signature, or ID verification is required for NFC payments. In some cities, NFC cards and devices can be used to ride public transport, removing the need to purchase a ticket or prepaid card. Cards and devices (e.g. iPhones and Apple Watches with Apple Pay) issued abroad with NFC capabilities may not work in some merchants where NFC/contactless is used; in such cases, swipe your card or use chip and PIN.

Mobile payment apps such as PayPal and Venmo are popular among U.S. residents for informal money exchange, but most retailers do not accept them, and they may offer poor exchange rates when paying a U.S. recipient from an account in another currency. Chinese payment apps such as Alipay may be accepted at merchants that have many customers who are tourists or immigrants, but they are largely unknown among the general public.

Mobile ordering apps for U.S.-based chains may not work across countries. For example, a Starbucks gift card sold in Japan may not be accepted in the U.S., and the Starbucks MX app used in Mexico cannot be used to place advance orders at U.S. cafés.

Sales tax

There is no federal sales tax (such as VAT or GST). As such, you cannot claim a sales tax refund when leaving the U.S.

On the state level, all states except Alaska, Delaware, Montana, New Hampshire and Oregon have sales tax. The exact amount varies depending on location, but tends to run between 5% and 10%. In addition to state sales taxes, individual counties and cities often impose local sales tax on top of the state sales tax.

Goods and services that are taxed or not taxed vary widely depending on the location, but restaurant meals are usually taxed, while groceries are prescription drugs are commonly not taxed. Taxes are usually not included in posted prices, but added to the bill on top, so be prepared for the total to be higher than the listed prices would indicate.

Generally, regional price variations will usually have more impact on a traveller's wallet than the savings from seeking out a low- or no-sales-tax destination.

Some cities, such as New York City, also impose a hotel tax on accommodation on top of the sales tax. Rental car taxes are also much higher than sales tax rates; many rental car agencies bundle them in with facility charges and other fees, resulting in a bill much higher than the advertised base rate.

Places for shopping

See also: Shopping in the United States
Mall of America, the nation's largest shopping mall in Bloomington, Minnesota

America is the birthplace of the modern enclosed shopping mall and the open-air shopping center. In addition, American suburbs have miles and miles of small strip malls – long rows of small shops with shared parking lots. Large cities have central shopping districts that can be navigated on public transport, and many smaller cities and towns (including older suburbs) have smaller walkable shopping streets, often called Main Street. These streets were an iconic part of American culture before the mall, and those that remain continue to be vibrant shopping destinations with plenty of small businesses. However, pedestrian-friendly shopping streets are uncommon and usually small. American retail stores, especially in suburban areas, are gigantic compared to retail stores in many other countries, and have some of the longest business hours in the world, with many chains open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Department stores and other large retailers are usually open from 10AM to 9PM most days, and in November and December, may stay open as long as 8AM to 11PM. Discount stores tend to stay open as late as 10PM or midnight, or may be open 24 hours a day. Most supermarkets are open late into the evening, usually until at least 9PM, and many stay open 24/7. Sunday hours tend to be somewhat shorter, or the stores may close.

The U.S. pioneered the factory outlet store, in which branded goods are sold for bargain prices, and in turn, the outlet center, a shopping mall consisting primarily of such stores. Outlet centers are found along major Interstate highways outside of most American cities, typically a long distance from the city center so as not to cut into higher-priced sales in populated areas. Many international tourists visiting large cities make long side trips to outlet centers to take advantage of the deals.

If you see a driveway or yard full of stuff on a summer weekend, it's likely a garage sale (or yard sale), where families sell household items they no longer need. Churches often hold rummage sales, with proceeds generally going to their church or a mission or project they support.

Flea markets (called "swap meets" in Western states) have vendors selling all kinds of usually inexpensive merchandise. Bargaining is expected.

Thrift stores are retail stores run by churches, charities, and not-for-profit organizations that take in unwanted or un-needed household items as a donation and re-sell them to support projects they are engaged in.


Bald Eagles in Homer, Alaska

The U.S. is generally considered expensive although the cost of living is typically lower than in many other Western countries, whose residents often come to the U.S. to shop.

A bare-bones budget could be $30–50/day, and you can double that if you stay at motels and eat at cheap cafés. Add on a rental car and hotel accommodation and you'll be looking at $150/day and up. There are regional variations too: large cities like New York and San Francisco are expensive, while prices go down in rural areas. Most U.S. cities have suburbs with good hotels that are often much cheaper than those in the city center. Thus, if you plan to rent a car and drive between several major cities on a single visit to the U.S., it is usually a better idea to stay at safe suburban hotels with free parking, rather than downtown hotels that charge exorbitant parking fees.

If you intend to visit any United States national parks, such as the Grand Canyon or Yellowstone National Park, it is worth considering buying a National Parks and Federal Recreational Lands Pass, which gives you access to almost all of the federal parks and recreation areas for one year.

Many hotels and motels offer discounts for members of certain organizations which anyone can join, such as AAA (the American Automobile Association). If you're a member, or are a member of a club affiliated with AAA (such as the Canadian Automobile Association, the Automobile Association in the UK, or ADAC in Germany), it's worth asking at check-in. Many chain motels/hotels also have frequent customer plans that offer loyalty discounts.


Tipping is widely practiced in the United States. Standards vary, but gratuities are always given to servers in restaurants and bars, taxi drivers, parking valets, and bellstaff in hotels. When traveling in the U.S., try to keep some $1 and $5 bills in your wallet for small tips.

Thinking about Tipping

Tipping in many countries is very rare or often not done at all, and unthinkable to some visitors. It is, however, an essential part of your trip to the United States, and you will upset people greatly by refusing to tip or tipping too little, as doing so deprives servers of what is often the main component of their income. A good way to approach this is to treat all prices in a restaurant or other service as having an unwritten 20% tax, and adjust accordingly – i.e., that $40 meal actually costs $48 (probably plus another $4 for sales tax).

Tipping in the United States is so common that in many service establishments, such as hair salons and restaurants, customers who did not tip are often asked to pay a tip, or in rare cases verbally scolded by staff for "stiffing" them. Servers at restaurants may add an automatic gratuity to the bill if they suspect that their guests, based on their appearance or mannerisms (e.g., speaking a foreign language), are unfamiliar with American tipping customs.

While Americans themselves often debate correct levels and exactly who deserves to be tipped, generally accepted standard rates are:

  • Taxis – 10–20%. For livery cabs, if you hail the cab on the street and negotiate the fare in advance, then pay the negotiated amount plus an extra $1–2.
  • Shuttle bus drivers – $2–5 (tip more if they help you with your luggage)
  • Private car & limousine drivers – 15–20%
  • Parking valet – $1–3 for retrieving your car (unless there's already a fee for parking)
  • Tour guides/activity guides – Between $5 and $10 depending on the size of the group (tips are lower in large groups), the cost of the tour, how funny/informative the guide was.
  • Full-service restaurants – 18–20%; tip higher (~20%) in higher-cost cities like New York and San Francisco. Many restaurants automatically charge a mandatory tip for larger groups, in which case you do not need to add any additional amount.
  • Food delivery (pizza, etc.) – $2–5 minimum; 15–20% for larger orders
  • Bartenders – $1 per drink if inexpensive or 15–20% of total
  • Housekeeping in hotels – $2–3 per day for long stays or $5 minimum for very short stays
  • Porter, skycap, bellhop, hotel doorman – $1–2 per bag if they assist ($3–5 minimum), $1 for hailing a taxi or calling a cab
  • Hairdressers, masseuses, other personal services – 10–15%

The legal minimum wage for restaurant waitstaff and other tip-earners is quite low (just $2.13/hour before taxes in some states where minimums for other workers can be much higher, depending on the area). Therefore, tipping for this service is regarded as even more essential. If you receive exceptionally poor or rude service and the manager does not correct the problem when you bring it to their attention, a deliberately small tip (one or two coins) will express your displeasure more clearly than leaving no tip at all (which may be construed as a forgotten tip).

At restaurants, compute your tip based on the subtotal, the cost of your meal before sales tax. If you were provided any free or discounted items, or if you used a coupon or voucher, tip as if you had paid full price. For example, if your party ordered $100 worth of food and drink discounted to $60, compute your tip as a percentage of $100. If you are paying your bill in cash, you can leave the total (including tax) plus your tip in the folio or tray provided. Your server or the bartender can give you change or break bills (e.g., provide two $10 bills for a $20) if necessary. If paying by credit card, you can add a tip by using a payment device or by writing your desired tip onto a charge slip, depending on the payment system that the restaurant uses. Write your tip neatly in dollars, not as a percentage; tipping in whole dollars is generally easier. It is acceptable, and not uncommon, to pay for only the total with a credit card and to leave a tip in cash.

Some restaurants apply an automatic gratuity or service charge. This should be disclosed (albeit usually in small print) on the menu before you order as well as on the bill when it arrives. In past decades, this was common only for larger groups, but these mandatory charges became more common in the aftermath of the pandemic and are sometimes used as a way of making the list prices seem lower than the true cost. When the service charge is around 20% of the bill, no additional tip is usually necessary, although you will probably be given the option to add one anyway. If the service charge is smaller than the usual tip, you should add a tip.

Tipping at fast food places is neither necessary nor expected, and major chains like McDonald's do not let their employees accept tips. It is also not necessary to tip when ordering takeout from a restaurant that normally offers table service, although many people tip 5% to 10% in this situation. Some eateries, especially in the fast casual sector, have a "tip jar" at the checkout station, but tipping in that scenario is purely optional, and you wouldn't be expected to contribute much more than the coins you're handed back as change. At cafeterias and buffets, a small tip (10% or so) is expected for the staff who clear the table for you and who refill your drinks. At independent coffee shops, if you have an elaborate drink order or if you spend a lot of time in the shop with your drink, the staff will appreciate a dollar or two that you can deposit into a tip jar or add to your credit card charge. If you buy merchandise at a place that primarily operates as a restaurant or a coffee shop, you do not need to tip a percentage of the item's cost. If, for example, a barista helps you pick out a bag of coffee or grinds it for you, you can tip them a dollar or two to thank them.

To tip the housekeeping staff at hotels, leave a small amount of cash on a table or nightstand with a brief thank-you note. It is common to do this on the final day of your stay, or for extended stays, once per week. Do not leave cash visible in your room when you go out, as it may be mistaken for a tip.

The rules for tipping concierges are arcane. For most services – asking for maps, information, tours, etc. – a tip is not expected. But for things above and beyond like special, unusual, time-consuming requests, if you receive a lot of attention while others are waiting, or even just for an exceptionally high level of service, tips should generally be large, usually starting at $5 (a $1 tip would be insulting).

At casinos, dealers at table games such as craps and blackjack may receive tips, such as when the dealers are helpful and particularly when the player has won a significant amount. Players tip dealers by placing chips on the table and saying, "For you" or, "For the dealers." Some players make a "two-way" bet: two bets, one for themselves and one for the dealers. If the bet wins, the dealers collect the bet and the winnings as a tip. If the bet loses, the dealers do not receive a tip. Players are also expected to tip the staff who bring them "free" drinks while playing; tipping $1 or $2 per drink is common, paid with cash or chips.

Tipping well can make you look good in front of your American friends, dates and business partners, and could even earn you preferential treatment from staff, with the reverse also being true for tipping poorly.


Main article: American cuisine

American cuisine is far more than the bland McDonald's-and-Coca-Cola monolith that international stereotypes make it out to be. It's as diverse as the American people themselves, sporting regional variations between different parts of the country and incorporating localized versions of ethnic dishes from around the world. Each region's cuisine developed based on their immigrant heritage and availability of ingredients at hand.

The variety of restaurants throughout the U.S. is remarkable. In a major city such as New York, it may be possible to find a restaurant from nearly every country in the world. In addition to independent restaurants, the U.S. possesses a singularly baffling array of fast food and casual chain restaurants; the sheer variety domestically is immense.

You will want to experience the foods of the region you are visiting: seafood in San Francisco, lobster in Maine and Boston, steak in Texas, Creole in New Orleans, barbecue (BBQ) throughout the South and Texas with each region having its unique sauces and preparations.

Fresh food availability is particularly obvious in California, which is also enjoying a prominence of organic food and "slow food" movements. In Florida, you will want to tour the orange groves for that freshly squeezed taste. Georgia is renowned for fresh peaches. States on the southern borders, such as New Mexico, serve lots of Mexican foods, and the spiciness and flavors will vary based upon the Mexican state they border.

Many restaurants, especially those serving fast food or breakfast, do not serve alcohol, and many others may only serve beer and wine. Portions are often huge, regardless of restaurant style. Many restaurants offer several portion options: ask when ordering if choices are available. Taking home "leftovers" is very common and is a good way to get two meals for the price of one. Ask for a "to-go box" at the end of your meal.

In much of America, home-cooked food is as good as or substantially better than typical restaurant fare. This is particularly true in rural areas and small towns. Potluck suppers are held throughout the Midwest and South (you may find a few on the coasts if you are lucky). If you have the opportunity to attend a potluck or carry-in dinner, this is a chance not to be missed. You'll enjoy everything from Jello salad to venison (deer) and elk to Southern fried chicken. It's soul food of the best kind.

Places to eat

Large cities host many examples of every type of restaurant imaginable from inexpensive neighborhood eateries to extravagant full-service restaurants with extensive wine lists and prices to match. Most medium-sized cities and suburbs will also field a decent selection. In the most upscale restaurants, rules for men to wear jackets and ties have become more relaxed. Check with the restaurant if in doubt.

Takeout food is common in larger cities. Place an order by phone or online and then go to the restaurant to pick it up. Many places also offer delivery; in some cities, it is easier to have pizza or Chinese food delivered than to find a sit-down restaurant. Food delivery is sometimes operated by the restaurant itself (as with many pizzerias and Chinese takeouts) but most other restaurants make their food available in app-based food delivery services such as GrubHub, DoorDash, or Uber Eats. These services can get expensive with fees and tips, and even the base food prices are often marked up in the app. Pizza and Chinese are especially ubiquitous in the U.S.; towns as small as 5,000 typically have at least one pizza shop and one Chinese takeout/delivery restaurant, and often more than one. Hardcore pizza fans will usually prefer local pizza places to the big national chains; many such restaurants also offer takeout and delivery.

Fast-casual restaurants offer a fast-food dining style (i.e. usually no table service), but the meals tend to be fresher and healthier. The food takes a bit longer to prepare – and costs a few dollars more – than at fast food joints, but it's generally worth it. Some fast-casual places even serve alcohol.

Diners are quintessentially American and have remained popular since their heyday in the 1940s and 50s. They are usually individually run, open 24-hours and found on major roads, in large cities or in suburbs. They offer a wide variety of huge meals that often include soup or salad, bread, beverage and dessert.

Truck stops are also an American experience. You will only encounter these places if you are traveling between cities. They are found on the interstate highways and cater to truckers. These fabled restaurants serve what passes on the road for "plain home cooking": hot roast beef sandwiches, meatloaf, fried chicken, and of course the ubiquitous club sandwich or burger and fries, served in large portions, often 24 hours a day. "All you can eat" buffets and large breakfasts abound. Truckers know their eating: if there are plenty of trucks outside, it'll be tasty, but not healthy.

Chain sit-down restaurants have a more predictable level of quality and price than local diners and truck stops, although those with discerning palates will probably still be disappointed.

For the backpacker or those on very restricted budgets, American supermarkets offer a wide variety of packaged or processed foods that are either ready or almost ready for consumption, including breakfast cereal, ramen noodles, canned soups, and frozen meals.

In the largest cities, corner stores abound. These small convenience stores carry a variety of snacks, drinks, and packaged foods. Unlike most convenience stores, their products are sold at relatively low prices (especially by urban standards) and can provide snacks or even simple meals for a budget no more than $5 a day.

Types of food

A cheeseburger

Popular American food items include hamburgers, hot dogs, pizza, ice cream, and pie. While many types of food are unchanged throughout the United States, there are a few distinct regional varieties of food (most notably in the South).

Fast food restaurants are ubiquitous, but the variety of this type of restaurant in the U.S. is astounding: burgers, hot dogs, pizza, fried chicken, barbecue, TexMex, and ice cream only begin to touch on it. Alcoholic beverages are usually not served in these restaurants; soft drinks are standard. Don't be surprised when you order a soda, are handed a paper cup and expected to fill it yourself from the soda fountain (refills are often free). The quality of the food varies, but because of the strictly limited menu, it is generally good, especially in the daytime. Also, the restaurants are usually clean and bright, and the service is limited but friendly. A few restaurants, called drive-ins, serve you directly in your car. Most fast food places outside of dense urban areas offer drive-thru service, allowing you to place an order from the establishment's menu posted on the side of a dedicated auto lane, and then paying for it and having it handed to you (packaged to go) at a separate side window before driving to your next destination.

Rib tips in Memphis

At its best, barbecue (often abbreviated "BBQ") is pork or beef ribs, beef brisket, or pork shoulder slowly wood-smoked for hours. Ribs are served as a whole- or half-rack or cut into individual ribs, brisket is usually sliced thin, and the shoulder can be shredded ("pulled") or chopped. Sauces of varying spiciness may be served on the dish, or provided on the side. There are also unique regional styles of barbecue, with the best generally found in the South. Barbecued meat can be served with a variety of sides, including chili, corn on the cob, coleslaw and potato salad. Barbecue restaurants are unpretentious and the best food is often found at very casual establishments. Expect plastic dinnerware, picnic tables, and sandwiches on cheap white bread. Barbecue found on the menu at a fancy chain or non-specialty restaurant is likely to be less authentic. Ribs and chicken are eaten with your fingers; tackle pork and brisket either with a fork or in a sandwich. Some Americans (though never Southerners) use "barbecue" as a synonym for "cookout": a party where the likes of chicken, hamburgers, and hot dogs are grilled outdoors (rather than smoked). These can be fun, but are not to be confused with the above.

With a rich tradition of immigration, America has a wide variety of ethnic foods – everything from Ethiopian cuisine to Laotian food is available in major cities with large immigrant populations – and they're even beginning to cross-pollinate into fusion restaurants, with menus that are a mix of two or more different types of cuisine.

These slices of pizza are from New York, but you can get pizza like this in many pizza parlors throughout the Northeast and beyond

Italian food is perhaps the most pervasive of ethnic cuisines in America, almost to the point where its "foreign-ness" is debatable. While more authentic fare is certainly available in fancier restaurants, Italian food in the U.S. has often taken a different direction than that of Italy itself, especially in terms of pizza, which in the United States is available in a myriad of homegrown styles that are famous regionally and sometimes nationwide, but unknown in Italy. There are also restaurants that specialize in Greek and Middle Eastern cuisines (with feta cheese and hummus fairly widespread on supermarket counters), and in somewhat smaller numbers also German and French restaurants.

Sushi is one of the most common Asian dishes in the U.S.

Chinese food is widely available and adjusted to American tastes. Authentic Chinese food can be found in restaurants in Chinatowns in addition to communities with large Chinese populations. Japanese sushi, Vietnamese, and Thai food have also been adapted for the American market, with dedicated restaurants in larger towns. Indian and Korean restaurants are also present. It's common for restaurants to be generically "Asian," which in the U.S. is typically understood to mean East Asian; these restaurants will often have a name suggesting Japanese or Chinese cuisine but will offer dishes associated with both countries. Less commonly Thai and Vietnamese food is included as well, and offerings from other cuisines are far from unheard of.

Also very popular is Latin-American cuisine, especially Mexican, which for many years came almost exclusively in the form of Tex-Mex cuisine: a homegrown hybrid originally developed in Texas but based on an Americanized interpretation of the cuisine of Northern Mexico. Nonetheless, the small authentic Mexican taquerias that were once limited mostly to California and the Southwest have now spread throughout the country. You'll also find Cuban food in South Florida and Puerto Rican and Dominican restaurants in Northeastern coastal cities, both generally serving a more authentic and less Americanized product.

The Jewish community has given a great deal to the culinary scene. While full-fledged Kosher delis are a dying breed that are nowadays mostly relegated to New York City and other places with exceptionally large Jewish populations, some specialties like bagels and pastrami have entered the culinary mainstream and are now enjoyed nationwide by Americans of all types. Most American Jewish cuisine (like most American Jews) is of Ashkenazi origin; Sephardi and Mizrahi food is largely unknown in the U.S.

Dietary restrictions

Restaurants catering to vegetarians are becoming more common in the U.S. Most big cities and college towns will have restaurants serving exclusively or primarily vegetarian dishes. In smaller towns you may have more of a challenge. Waitstaff can answer questions about menu items, but may consider dishes with beef or pork flavoring, fish, chicken, or egg to be vegetarian. This is especially common with vegetable side dishes in the South. Meat-free breakfast foods such as pancakes or eggs are readily available at diners. Vegan restaurants (and vegan options at other restaurants) are increasingly appearing, especially in large cities.

People on low-fat or low-calorie diets should be fairly well-served in the U.S. Even fast-food restaurants tend to have a few healthier options on the menu, and can provide charts of calorie and fat counts on request.

Awareness of food allergies varies. Packaged food must be labeled if it contains milk, eggs, fish, shellfish, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, or soy. Packaged food must also list its ingredients, although this can include non-specific items like "spices", "seasonings", or "added color". But there is usually no obligation to label allergens in unpackaged food, e.g. in restaurants, bakeries, and fresh food at grocery stores (but laws vary by state). Some restaurants do label allergens, and cater to those with food allergies. Fast food and casual-dining chain restaurants are often a safer bet for people with food allergies as they have consistent ingredients and methods. At sit-down restaurants, inform your waiter, ask questions, and if your waiter is unsure of anything then have them double-check or insist on speaking to a chef. A large selection of gluten-free foods are available, but like other allergens, the labeling laws (must contain less than 20 ppm gluten) apply to packaged food but not restaurants.

People on religious diets should not have any problems finding what they need in the major cities. Most major cities have at least one halal and kosher butcher, and there are often restaurants serving those respective communities too. The Halal Guys is a uniquely American chain of halal restaurants, originating from a New York City street cart, that operates branches in many major cities. However, such food is often not available at all in small towns and rural areas.


It is usually inappropriate to join a table already occupied by other diners, even if it has unused seats; Americans prefer this degree of privacy when they eat. Exceptions include cafeteria-style eateries with long tables and crowded informal eateries and cafés where you may have success asking a stranger if you can share the table they're sitting at. Striking up a conversation in this situation may or may not be welcome.

Table manners, though varied, are typically European-influenced. Slurping or making other noises while eating are considered rude, as is loud conversation (including phone calls). It is fairly common to wait until everybody at your table has been served before eating, though starting to eat is considered acceptable if your food is hot. In nice or high end restaurants, or if invited to a meal in a private home, you should lay cloth napkins across your lap; you can do the same with paper napkins or keep them on the table.

Many fast food items (sandwiches, burgers, pizza, tacos, etc.) are designed to be eaten by hand; a few foods are almost always eaten by hand (French fries, bacon, barbecue ribs, and many appetizers) even at moderately nice restaurants. If unsure, eating so-called "finger foods" with a fork and knife probably won't offend anyone; eating fork-and-knife food by hand might.

Offense isn't taken if you don't finish your meal; most restaurants will package the remainder to take with you, or provide a box for you to do this yourself (sometimes euphemistically called a "doggy bag", implying that the leftovers are for your pet). If you want to do this, ask the server to get the remainder "to go"; this will be almost universally understood, and will not cause any embarrassment – while a more casual restaurant will typically not blink at the term "doggy bag," it may be considered crude in a fine-dining establishment. Some restaurants offer an "all-you-can-eat" buffet or other service; taking home portions from such a meal is either not allowed or carries an additional cost.

When invited to a meal in a private home, you might ask if you can contribute something to the meal, such as a dessert, a side dish, wine or beer, or for an outdoor cookout, something useful like ice or disposable cups or plates. The host will often decline, especially since you're a traveller. If you aren't asked to contribute to the meal, it is considered good manners to bring along a small gift for the host (often called a hostess gift). A bottle of wine, box of candies or fresh cut flowers are most common. You should not expect your gift, if it's food, to be served with the meal; the host has already selected the meal's components. Gifts of cash or very personal items (e.g. toiletries) are not appropriate.

An exception is the potluck or carry-in meal, where each guest (or group/family) brings a food dish to share with everyone; these shared dishes make up the entire meal. Usually dishes are grouped (e.g., salads, main dishes or casseroles, side dishes, hors d'oeuvres, desserts); you should ask the host if they want you to bring something in particular. Ideal dishes for a potluck should be served from a large pot, dish, or bowl, and are usually served buffet style – hence the emphasis on salads, casseroles, and bite-sized foods. These types of meals typically offer a wide assortment of well-prepared foods and may be the very best way to experience authentic American cuisine – and your foreign specialty might just be the star attraction!


America's native spirit – bourbon, neat

Drinking customs in America are as varied as the backgrounds of its many people. In the cities, you can find everything from tough local "shot and a beer" bars to upscale "martini bars"; urban bars and nightclubs will often serve only simple food, or none at all. In the suburbs, alcohol is mainly served in restaurants rather than bars. And in rural areas, the line between "bar" and "restaurant" is often blurred to the point of meaninglessness; with few establishments nearby, locals go to the same place for both meals and nightlife. A few states have dry counties, places where it is illegal to sell alcohol for local consumption; these are mostly in rural areas.


Date confusion

Some 21-year-olds trying to use their ID to purchase alcohol may be confounded by an unexpected problem: the date is often in the wrong order!

In most of the world, a birthdate of 12 January 2003 would be written using day-month-year order, such as 12/1 2003. But the U.S. invariably uses month-day-year order, in which 12/1 would be taken to mean December 1, almost a full year later! Unless your ID specifically states that it uses day-month-year format, or uses [English] names for the month, it's likely that your ID won't be accepted. If you want to avoid the problem, get an alternative ID that shows your birthdate in an unambiguous format.

The drinking age is 21. Enforcement of this varies, but always carry a valid picture ID in case you are carded. Generally accepted forms of ID are a U.S. driver's license, state ID or passport. Some bars and retailers require IDs on all transactions, and some may not accept a foreign driver's license. In some states, people who are under 21 cannot even legally enter a bar or liquor store – and even where the law allows it, individual bars might still choose not to admit minors.

Alcohol sales are typically prohibited after 2AM, though there are some cities where bars are open later or even all night. In some states, most stores can only sell beer and wine; hard liquor is sold at dedicated liquor stores. Several "dry counties" – mostly in southern states – ban some or all types of alcohol in public establishments; private clubs (with nominal membership fees) are often set up to get around this. Sunday sales are restricted in some areas.

Except where noted otherwise, alcohol must be consumed on private property, not in public spaces like a park or a public street, and you may not be allowed to take your drink or even an empty bottle away from a licensed establishment. If you need to step outside to smoke, in many areas, you are expected to leave your drink inside, usually with a coaster or napkin on top to indicate that you intend to return. Being "drunk and disorderly" is illegal. Open container laws prohibit people in most of the U.S. from carrying unsealed bottles or cans of alcoholic beverages around in public, even if they have been reclosed and even if they are in a bag. Most towns ban drinking in the open with varying degrees of enforcement. Police often target areas that are known for alcohol-related mischief and may cite you for violations of local liquor laws; to prevent this, bars and restaurants may "cut off" patrons who have over-consumed. If one member of your party is informed that they are cut off, do not buy drinks for them; this will likely result in your whole group being asked to leave.

American police keep a sharp eye out for drunk drivers. Foreigners will typically be deported. If you have an open container of alcohol anywhere in a car other than in the trunk, you can be heavily fined. Taxi cabs are fairly prolific in medium to large cities, and ride-hailing apps have drivers even in small cities. If you're in a restaurant or bar, just ask the bartender or the serving staff for help.


The pricing and availability of alcohol varies considerably across the U.S. Even among products with familiar brand names, alcohol content and branding vary to follow local laws.

Beer and wine are the main non-distilled alcoholic drinks, with whiskey the main hard liquor (i.e. distilled drink). Hard cider is the alcoholic drink from fermented apples; although enthusiastically consumed two centuries ago, its popularity is only now resurging after decades of obscurity. "Cider" without further qualification is just an unfiltered variety of apple juice, though in the context of a bar, the word is understood to refer to the alcoholic beverage.

Beer constitutes approximately half the alcohol consumed in the U.S. Nationally known light lagers (which are cheap and mediocre) remain most prevalent, despite the emergence of other types of beer since the 1990s. Microbreweries, which specialize in small-batch, high-quality beers made by traditional methods, add much-needed variety. Microbrews, also called "craft beers", are often inventive and experimental; some are excellent examples of classic beer styles, while others push the limits and develop new, unique flavors. Most are only available locally, but quite a few have reached regional or even national distribution. Some bars and restaurants serve craft beers, while others don't, seemingly at random. Most stores (even convenience stores) carry at least a few, and many have a wide selection. Brew pubs combine microbrewery and bar and serve highly regarded beer that is made on the premises.

Alcopops are widely available in the U.S., including "hard" varieties of lemonade and soft drinks. Hard seltzer, which skyrocketed in popularity in the late 2010s, is a clear, fizzy, fruit-flavored alcoholic beverage. Alcopops and hard seltzers are also called "malternatives" and are often made in a way similar to beer to conform with local tax and sale laws. They usually contain similar alcohol contents to beers and are sold in containers of similar volume.

Wine is available across the quality spectrum. American wines are labeled primarily by the grape variety. A rough guide to quality comes in the specificity of the labeling. Color alone ("red", "white", and "rosé" or "pink") denotes the lowest echelon. Above this, regions are labeled by state (e.g. "California"), an area of a state (e.g. "Central Coast"), a county or other small region (e.g. "Willamette Valley"), or a specific vineyard (e.g. "Dry Creek Vineyard").

The cheapest wine tends to come in a plastic bag encased in a box. "Fortified wines", known as "bum wine", are the precise opposite of high-class European port, sherry or Madeira.

All 50 states practice some sort of winemaking, though 90% of America's wine – including its most highly regarded from the Napa Valley – is Californian. Wine from California, whose Mediterranean climate makes it ideally suited to wine production, has been highly regarded ever since a Chardonnay from Napa shocked the winemaking community by winning a blind taste test in Paris in 1976. Wines from Oregon's Willamette Valley and Washington state represent good value as they are less well known. Michigan, Colorado's Wine Country, and New York State's Finger Lakes produce German-style whites which have won international competitions. The Llano Estacado region of Texas is also notable for its wines.

Sparkling wines are available by the bottle in upscale restaurants, and are also sometimes served by the glass. The best Californian sparkling wines have been rated comparably to leading French champagnes but they are not commonly sold in supermarkets outside of California.

Most bars, except urbane wine bars, serve unremarkable wine. Wine is taken quite seriously by some restaurants, but as with all other alcoholic drinks in restaurants, expect to pay up to four times the liquor store price for a bottle. Some restaurants are "BYOB," or "bring your own bottle," which means customers are allowed to bring and drink their own wine, though many such restaurants charge a fee for this privilege. This fee is often listed on menus as "corkage." BYOB restaurants typically expect customers to bring unopened bottles of wine; due to local liquor laws, customers may not be allowed to bring opened, partially-consumed bottles home.

Sparkling cider is usually a non-alcoholic drink that comes in the shape of a champagne bottle and can be flavored. Hard ciders are those that contain alcohol in them. (Unlike in Europe, the word "cider" by itself implies a non-alcoholic and still drink, almost always made with apples.)

Hard alcohol (i.e. spirits) is usually drunk with mixers, but it is also served "on the rocks" (with ice) or "straight" (unmixed, with no ice, also called "neat"). Whiskey, the traditional choice, remains popular despite the increased popularity of vodka and other clear spirits. Whiskey is distilled from many different grains. The main types are rye, malt (made with mainly barley) and bourbon (made with mainly corn, i.e. maize).


The bright lights of Sin City, Las Vegas, Nevada

Nightclubs in America run the usual gamut of various music scenes, from discos with top-40 dance tunes to obscure clubs serving tiny slices of obscure musical genres. Country music dance clubs, or honky tonks, are laid fairly thick in the South and West, especially in rural areas and away from the coasts, but one or two can be found in almost any city. Also, gay/lesbian nightclubs exist in nearly every medium- to large-sized city.

A uniquely American type of drinking establishment is the speakeasy, a secret bar with a hidden entrance that is easy to miss unless you know exactly what to look for. This type of establishment traces its history to the Prohibition era of the 1920s and 1930s, when alcoholic beverages were illegal nationwide. While some speakeasies in operation today actually trace their history back to the Prohibition era, many are newer establishments that were deliberately built that way to capitalise on the theme.

"Happy hour", a period usually lasting from 30 minutes to three hours, usually between 5–8PM, sees significant discounts on selected drinks. "Ladies' nights", during which women receive a discount, are increasingly common.

Until 1977, the only U.S. state with legalized gambling was Nevada. The state has allowed games of chance since the 1930s, creating such resort cities as Las Vegas and Reno in the process. Dubbed "Sin City," Las Vegas in particular has evolved into an end-destination adult playground, offering many other after-hours activities such as amusement parks, night clubs, strip clubs, shows, bars and four star restaurants. Gambling has since spread outside of Nevada to a plethora of U.S. cities like Atlantic City, New Jersey and Biloxi, Mississippi, as well as to riverboats, offshore cruises and Indian reservations. State lotteries and "scratch games" are another, popular form of legalized gambling. In some areas, online gambling (including on sports) is legal, although you must be physically present in the state where the casino or bookmaker operates. Wagering across state lines is illegal in the U.S.


Some bars and nightclubs charge cover charges, which might be payable by cash or credit card, on entry. Bring cash($1, $2, and $5 bills) if you expect to provide tips to staff, such as a doorman, a parking valet, or a coat check clerk. Some particularly upscale venues have attendants in restrooms who provide towels and toiletry items and who expect cash tips in return.

To save time, most bars will run a tab for patrons who want to use credit cards, either by holding onto the customer's card or by scanning it once and returning the card. An open tab is one that you can continue to add drink orders to; if you have previously opened a tab, tell the bartender your last name (and your first name, if you have a common last name) so that they can add another item to it. When you are ready to leave, request that the bartender close or close out your tab, giving your name. Ensure that you get your card back (check the name on the card you're given). You will be asked to add a tip when you close out. If you order a drink and you do not have a tab open, a bartender may ask a question such as, "Do you want it open or closed?" If you say "closed," you will pay for your drink immediately. If you do not close your tab before the bar closes, a sign will usually indicate that the tab will be closed automatically with a particular percentage gratuity added.

Non-alcoholic beverages

The United States has a wide variety of soft drinks (usually called pop, soda, or Coke in the generic sense, depending on region) with some of the most famous brands originating here. While Pepsi and Coca-Cola are sold around the world, some flavors are hardly known outside North America. Sparkling water, once seen as a European curiosity, has become increasingly popular as a healthier alternative to sugary soft drinks and is now available in most stores. Tap water is generally safe to drink (see individual place articles for details) and is usually served for free at restaurants, although you may need to request it. In most parts of the country, ordering brewed coffee, tea, and fountain soft drinks entitles the customer to free refills. Espresso drinks and bottled soft drinks are not refilled for free. If you are unsure whether a refill is free, ask before you order. Americans like to put a lot of ice into their drinks, so unless you specifically request otherwise, expect any non-alcoholic drink you order in a restaurant (including water) to contain a large quantity of ice cubes. When ordering water at fast food restaurants, request a "cup of water" if you don't want bottled water.

Coffee is a popular breakfast drink for Americans, and most breakfast restaurants and bakeries have jugs of brewed coffee to serve to their customers. European and Southeast Asian visitors might notice that the coffee served in most American breakfast restaurants tends to be less strong than what they are used to back home, though stronger espresso-based drinks are also available at most cafes. The Pacific Northwest, in particular the cities of Seattle and Portland, is considered by many of be the coffee capital of America, with a particularly high concentration of independent artisanal coffee shops. Tea is much less popular than coffee in the U.S., but is not hard to find, and virtually every place that serves coffee will also serve tea.

Many bars and restaurants offer mocktails, also known as virgin cocktails, which look like mixed alcoholic drinks but which contain no alcohol. These are popular with people who cannot drink or who choose not to drink alcohol. A bartender or waiter can recommend these at most bars and restaurants, even at those that are known for their alcoholic beverage selection, so that non-drinkers can feel included.


Classic 1950s motel in Seligman, Arizona along Route 66

It's generally wise to book ahead, directly with the provider when possible. In major cities, prices can vary wildly by season, if there are large conventions in town, etc.

Checking in almost always requires photo ID (driver's license or passport) and a credit or debit card matching the ID that will have a hold placed on it to cover any damages to the room. This applies even if you have prepaid for your stay online. It may take several days for the hold to clear after you check out.

By far the most common form of lodging in rural United States and along many Interstates is the motel. Providing inexpensive rooms to automotive travelers, most motels are clean and reasonable with a limited array of amenities: telephone, TV, bed, bathroom. Motel 6 ( +1-800-466-8356) is a national chain with reasonable rates ($30–70, depending on the city). Super 8 Motels ( +1-800-800-8000) provide reasonable accommodations throughout the country as well. Reservations are typically unnecessary, which is convenient since you don't have to arbitrarily interrupt a long road trip; you can simply drive until you're tired then find a room. Often they will also light up their sign outside to tell if there is vacancy, in which case you can simply walk in if they have one. However, some are used by adults looking to book a night for sex or illicit activities and many are located in undesirable areas.

Business or extended-stay hotels are increasingly available across the country. They can be found in smaller towns across the Midwest or in coastal urban areas. Generally they are more expensive than motels, but not as expensive as full-scale hotels, with prices around $70 to $170. While the hotels may appear to be the size of a motel, they may offer amenities from larger hotels.

Some extended-stay hotels are directed at business travelers or families on long-term stays (that are often relocating due to corporate decisions). These hotels often feature kitchens in most rooms, afternoon social events (generally by a pool), and serve continental breakfast. Such "suite" hotels are roughly equivalent to the serviced apartments seen in other countries, though the term is not generally used in American English.

Hotels are available in most cities and usually offer more services and amenities than motels. Rooms usually run about $80–300 per night, but very large, glamorous, and expensive hotels can be found in most major cities, offering luxury suites larger than some houses. Check-in and check-out times are almost always fall in the range of 11AM-noon and 2PM-4PM, respectively. Some hotels in the U.S. will not take people under the age of 21 if not checking in with older adults. Many U.S. cities now have "edge cities" in their suburbs which feature high-quality upscale hotels aimed at affluent business travelers. These hotels often feature all the amenities of their downtown/CBD cousins (and more), but at less exorbitant prices. A minority of hotels are dog-friendly, with even fewer allowing other types of pets; either way you'll likely need to pay a surcharge and a refundable damage deposit. Amenities such as wi-fi and breakfast are usually free in mid-range hotels, but often not available at all in the cheapest motels, and only available for exorbitant prices in luxury hotels.

Many bed & breakfasts are in old, antique, or historic houses.

In many rural areas bed and breakfast (B&B) lodging can be found that are usually in converted houses. B&Bs feature a more home-like lodging experience, with free breakfast served. Bed and breakfasts range from about $50 to $200 per night and can be a nice break from the impersonality of chain hotels and motels. Unlike Europe, most American bed and breakfasts are unmarked.

Youth hostels haven't really taken off in the U.S., but they exist across the country. Some are affiliated with the American Youth Hostel organization (a Hostelling International member). Quality of hostels varies widely, but at $8–$24 per night, the prices are unbeatable. Despite the name, AYH membership is open to people of any age. Non-AYH hostels are also available, particularly in larger cities. Hostels are clustered in more touristy locations: do not assume that all mid-sized cities will have a hostel, and even very big cities may only have one or two.

Camping can also be an affordable lodging option, especially with good weather. The downside is that most campgrounds are outside urban regions, so it's not much of an option for trips to big cities. There is a huge network of national parks ( +1-800-365-2267), with most states and many counties having their own park systems, too. Most state and national campgrounds are of excellent quality, with beautiful natural environments. Expect to pay $7–$20 per car on entry. Kampgrounds of America (KOA) has a chain of commercial campground franchises across the country, of significantly less charm than their public-sector equivalents, but with hookups for recreational vehicles and amenities such as laundromats. Countless independently owned private campgrounds vary in character. RV or trailer camping is a popular way for Americans to tour the country's scenic wilderness areas, and the there is good infrastructure catering for this, though you will typically have to reserve in advance.

Some unusual lodging options are available in specific areas or by prior arrangement. For example, you might enjoy staying on a houseboat in Lake Tahoe or the Erie Canal. Or stay in a treehouse in Oregon. More conventional lodging can be found at college or university dormitories, a few of which rent out rooms to travelers during the summertime. Finally, in many tourist areas, as well as big cities, you can rent a furnished house by the day.

Many lodging rental options (like homestays) can be found through online services like Airbnb and Vrbo, but be wary of extra fees, which can make these more expensive than a traditional hotel or other options.


Main article: Studying in the United States
See also: Touring prestigious and notable universities in the U.S.

Studying full-time in the United States is an excellent opportunity for young adults seeking an advanced education, a chance to see a foreign country, and a better understanding of the U.S. and its people. It can be done independently by applying directly to a college for admission, or through the "study abroad" or "foreign exchange" department of a college in your own country, usually for a single term or one year. The latter is usually easiest; the two institutions will handle much of the arrangements, and you don't have to make a commitment to four years living in a strange country. The U.S. is home to many of the world's most prestigious universities and attracts more international students than any other country in the world, and a lot of cultural diversity can be seen throughout its top universities.


Main article: Working in the United States

The United States, as the biggest economy in the world, entices foreigners with employment opportunities across the full range of skill levels and economic sectors. Like other countries, though, the U.S. has adopted immigration and visa laws designed to give preference to U.S. residents. Make sure you understand what legal barriers you face to getting a job in the U.S. Do not attempt to work illegally in the U.S., as you could potentially be subject to arrest, deportation, and a ban on re-entry. Illegal workers also run the risk of unsafe work conditions.

Stay safe

The United States is generally a safe country for tourists, but risks do exist.


Although headline-grabbing major crimes give the U.S. a reputation for crime, few visitors experience any problems; common-sense precautions and staying alert are generally sufficient to avoid trouble. The U.S. does have a notably higher homicide rate than European countries, but with the highest rates of violent crime connected with gangs and drugs in specific neighborhoods, and with heated disputes; avoid those and you'll likely be fine. Most urban tourist areas are heavily policed and are generally safe from all but petty crimes.

Crime in rural America tends to be rare, mainly localized in very poor, troubled communities that are relatively easy to avoid. That said, homelessness, drug abuse, and mental illness are ongoing problems in the United States, often visibly affecting the streets of urban areas, especially pedestrianized zones. Verbal outbursts from marginalized individuals are unfortunately common and can be unsettling. Thankfully, these instances usually remain verbal and do not escalate into physical violence. Nonetheless, it's advisable to heed the locals' example and maintain a cautious distance. On a less concerning note, encounters with homeless individuals may involve aggressive requests for money – if you feel harassed, say "No" or "No, sorry" and walk away.

Some remote areas along the Mexican border are unsafe due to the presence of drug smugglers and human traffickers. Official border crossings, as well as cities and towns along the border, are safe.

Mass shootings

Mass shootings regularly make headlines in the U.S., but in such a huge country the risk to any individual is very low. It is extremely unlikely to happen to you on your visit.

Discrimination and hate crime

Most Americans are, or at least profess to be, tolerant of other races, and as a tourist, your chances of becoming a victim of racially-motivated harassment or hate crimes are very slim. The U.S. Constitution, in addition to laws on the federal and state level, prohibits racial discrimination in a range of public spheres such as employment, university admissions and receiving services from retail businesses. However, the Constitution also guarantees freedom of speech to a greater degree than in most other Western democracies, so it is possible to encounter racist comments (both blatant and subtle) in public forums. Furthermore, according to FBI data, hate crimes, especially those targeting race, religion, and sexual orientation, are increasing, and sometimes result in injuries and killings.

Emergency services

Dialing 911 at any telephone will reach the emergency services (police, fire, ambulance, etc.).

Any U.S. phone, regardless if it is "active" or not, must be able to dial 911 if it is connected to the network, and such calls are always free. In most cases, the 911 dispatcher should be able to locate your phone, even if you do not say anything. Modern cell phones will send a GPS fix of your location down to a few meters within a few seconds of dialing 911. Dialing 911 and leaving an open line will bring all 3 emergency services to your location in under 5 minutes in most populated areas. Response time may be longer in sparsely populated areas or along the Interstates.

If you dial 911 in error, do not hang up; wait for a dispatcher to answer and then apologize for your mistake. If you hang up before a dispatcher answers, you will receive a call back. If you do not answer this call, emergency responders may come to your location.


Officers of the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) in a patrol car

The United States has a multitude of different law enforcement agencies. As a tourist, there are three types of police you are most likely to encounter: state police or highway patrol units on major highways, in rural areas and in state government offices; county sheriffs deputies in rural and suburban areas; and city or town police officers in municipal areas. There are also smaller police departments, like transit or airport police which patrol public transportation, and university or campus police which patrol universities campuses. Finally. there are federal officers, such as FBI agents, that are generally found only in or near federal facilities, such as ports of entry, national parks, and federal government offices.

While most American police officers are professional, polite, and take their duties very seriously, the country's various police forces are also criticized over various incidents of misconduct, use of deadly force, quality of officers, and militarization. Officers can be more aggressive in ways that may frighten people not used to America's law-and-order culture. Incidents of police corruption, however, especially the types that tourists might encounter, are exceedingly rare. Do not offer bribes to a police officer under any circumstances; bribery is a crime that is punishable by fines, imprisonment, or both.

If you've been stopped by a police officer for any reason, stay calm, be respectful, and be cooperative. Keep your hands visible at all times when speaking to a police officer. If you need to reach for something (driver's license, identification), tell them. Do not run or walk away from a police officer when they signal for your attention, do not stand too close to a police officer, and do not touch a police officer under any circumstances.

If a police officer pulls you over in traffic (they do this by flashing sirens and lights at your vehicle), stop your car somewhere safe and keep your hands on the wheel. If you need to reach for something (e.g. your vehicle registration), let the officer know before you do so. Do not exit your vehicle unless they tell you to, and do not drive away from them.

It is particularly important for you to appear calm and cooperative if you are non-white, since non-white people are more likely to be subject to harassment and the use of physical force by police officers.

Instructions on how to pay a fine are often printed on the ticket, but in general, fines arising from most minor traffic infractions can be paid by mail. Increasingly, fines can be paid online or over the phone, albeit with convenience fee of a few dollars. If you have a complaint about an officer's behavior, you should contact your country's embassy for advice first. The recourse available varies by state and locality.

When deciding whether to call the police, consider weighing the severity of the crime you perceive against the tendency of American police to resort to the use of physical force. Police interactions over even minor nuisances such as public intoxication can escalate rapidly. Depending on the locality, there may be an option to either call for an ambulance without police response or call for appropriate mental support staff.

Border Patrol

The United States Border Patrol works near both the Canadian and the Mexican borders, as well as in Southern coastal areas like the Florida Keys. They can verify immigration status and enforce immigration laws in the "border zones" – generally within 40 miles of Canada and 75 miles of Mexico (although the law allows for 100 miles from any border, including sea and the Great Lakes). Near Canada they tend to be unobtrusive and generally focus their work on long-distance buses and trains. Near the southern border, systematic vehicle checkpoints or being stopped on the street with the query "Are you a U.S. citizen?" is much more likely. They tend not to target tourists specifically.

Foreigners are always required to carry their passports, visas, and landing cards (or Green Cards). Being found without them near the border could lead you to being detained until your status is verified, or possibly fined. If your documents are in order, you generally won't be questioned. In most states (Arizona is a notable exception), police and other local authorities are not allowed to question you about your immigration status or to ask to see your passport or visa unless you're arrested and charged with a crime, and then only for the purpose of connecting you with your embassy.

As a result of the 9/11 attacks, some statistics have shown that Muslims or those who are assumed to be Muslims may be disproportionately targeted for additional screenings at airports despite claims that passengers are chosen at random.


Large protests may form in response to major news events, particularly in major cities. These may be assemblies, in one place, or marches, down major roads. The U.S. has constitutional protections of freedom of speech and freedom of assembly, and non-citizens may attend protests in the U.S.

While most protests are peaceful, some have turned violent due to actual or perceived actions by protesters. Protests may disrupt traffic, including public transport and walking routes, and may cause businesses to close suddenly. Hotels and transport hubs are almost never closed due to protests, although they may require document checks (e.g., a hotel room key or a flight reservation) to allow entry during times of unrest. On very rare occasions, drivers have effectively used their vehicles as a weapon by driving through protests and protesters, and injuries, even death, have been reported from such incidents. If you attend a protest, be aware of your surroundings and have a way out identified at all times, should a protest turn violent. Keep a mobile phone with you with phone numbers of local friends or family.

Natural disasters

Tornadoes are more common in the United States than in any other country.

The U.S. is a huge country with very varied geography, and parts of it are occasionally affected by natural disasters: hurricanes and tropical storms from June through November in the South and along the East Coast, blizzards in New England, near the Great Lakes, and in the Rocky Mountains, tornadoes mostly in the Great Plains and Midwest, earthquakes on the West Coast and in Alaska, volcanoes in Hawaii, Alaska and along the West Coast, floods in areas of the Midwest and Texas and wildfires in the late summer and early fall in the western half, particularly California and the Southwest.

Because tornadoes are so common between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains, this area has earned itself the colloquial name Tornado Alley. In most tornado-prone regions, a system of sirens will sound when a tornado warning is issued. If you hear the siren, seek shelter immediately.

Hawaii contains several active volcanoes, but they are not usually a threat to life and limb. The last high profile eruption in the mainland U.S. was that of Mount Saint Helens in 1980.

In the case of a natural disaster, local, state or federal authorities can issue a warning over the Emergency Alert System. It has a very distinctive electronic screeching followed by a sound similar to a dial tone prior to any message. It will override AM/FM radio broadcasts as well as TV systems. Smartphones will often receive an alert message based on the current location of the phone (depending on the phone's settings, this may include a loud alert tone).

Coast Guard weather is broadcast continuously on VHF marine radio for seafarers; a separate system (seven frequencies around 161 MHz) provides conditions ashore. Special "weather radios" are able to monitor the frequency, even in standby mode, and sound the alarm if deadly storms (such as tornadoes or hurricanes) are brewing.

Gay and lesbian

Castro Street pedestrian crosswalk with Rainbow Flag Colors

In general, homosexuality is not considered to be as well accepted in the U.S. as in Canada, Australia, New Zealand or Western Europe. Members of the LGBT community may receive unwanted attention in some places. Incidents targeting members of the LGBT+ and other communities are on the rise in the U.S.

As a general rule of thumb, acceptance of homosexuality is more widespread (even to a degree on par with Western Europe) in larger cities, college towns, in the Northeast and along the West Coast. Major LGBT-friendly destinations include New York's Chelsea, Chicago's Northalsted (also known as Boystown), Seattle's Capitol Hill, San Francisco's Castro Street, and Los Angeles' West Hollywood. Even leaving aside major tourist destinations, most cities have specific neighborhoods where gay people tend to congregate, and many have resource centers for LGBT people. However, you'll find homophobes and LGBT-accepting folks in all corners of the country.

The rainbow flag or gay pride flag is widely known even outside the gay community, and is commonly used by both individuals and businesses to signal that they (as individuals or as businesses) are LGBT, LGBT-owned, tolerant or welcoming to LGBT people. Other symbols exist but are much less widely recognized. Criminal incidents against users of the rainbow flag, from vandalism to murder, have happened.

If you're married to someone of the same sex, you may encounter some difficulties in more conservative areas of the country, but Supreme Court rulings have made it clear that no municipal, state or federal authority is allowed to treat same-sex relationships differently from opposite-sex ones, and employers are also not allowed to discriminate against employees based on their sexual orientation or gender identity. In most jurisdictions, individual businesses remain free to refuse service to gays and lesbians; fewer than twenty states list sexual orientation as a protected category (like race and gender) and fewer still extend these protections to transgender persons. While transgender persons are not prohibited from travel, some have reported undue scrutiny at airport security checkpoints. A few large cities have enacted local anti-discrimination ordinances, and many places have alternative monthly or weekly publications providing LGBT-relevant news and event listings. National LGBT publications include Out magazine and The Advocate.

Men planning to engage in any sexual activity should be aware of the heightened risk of HIV and other infections in the United States. Most cities have affordable or free testing and treatment centers for STIs, though hours may be limited and waits may be long. Planned Parenthood clinics are often an affordable alternative, but due to the organization’s link to abortion, anti-abortion protesters may harass visitors. PrEP and PEP are widely available, but require a doctor's prescription.


Caution Note: You can be turned away from the U.S. border if you are carrying any substance prohibited by U.S. federal laws, including marijuana. You can also be turned away if you are employed in the cannabis industry where this is a legal activity. You can be banned from entering the U.S. for life if you lie to a customs official. Crossing the U.S. border with any quantity of cannabis in any form is a federal offense.

On the national level, drug laws can be pretty severe: even possession or transportation of small amounts can lead to prison or deportation. However, state/local laws and attitudes concerning the most commonly available drug, marijuana, vary widely from state to state. As of 2023, 23 states and the District of Columbia have legalized recreational marijuana (although not all legalizations have come into force yet) and 38 states and Puerto Rico allow medical use of marijuana. A further 8 states have decriminalized possession of small amounts of marijuana. In all states where recreational marijuana is legal, you must be 21 or older to consume it or purchase it, and driving under the influence of marijuana is treated with equal or greater severity to driving under the influence of alcohol. Federal officials can still arrest and prosecute people for consuming legal amounts of marijuana in a state where it is legal (since federal law overrides state law). However, in practice, this hasn't happened for many years.

The legal amount of marijuana you can possess varies from state to state, and some states have restrictions on where you can consume it (such as not in any 'public place' like a park or street). In some states, medical marijuana dispensaries are so commonplace that they seem almost ordinary. It is common for dispensaries to display a green cross; in many European countries that green cross would indicate a normal pharmacy/apothecary. Almost every dispensary will display some form of vivid green imagery, making its purpose unmistakable. It's best to look up the marijuana laws of the states you will be visiting if you wish to partake in the high life in the America. Some more liberal-minded cities (e.g. Denver, Oakland, Santa Cruz, and Ann Arbor) have gone beyond marijuana and decriminalized hard drugs by municipal law.

Under no circumstances should marijuana and hard drugs be transported across state lines (even when it's legal on both sides of the border), onto Indian reservations, onto federal lands or properties (such as federal office buildings, military bases, and post offices), onto flights or across international borders (including Canada, where marijuana is legal). Doing so is considered drug trafficking and subject to the aforementioned harsh penalties. Some airports have "cannabis amnesty boxes" pre-, and sometimes bizarrely post security, where you can get rid of any cannabis products without facing a penalty. It is illegal to consume cannabis while in a National Park, Monument, or other site maintained by the Department of the Interior (including National Forests/Grasslands).


With the exception of licensed brothels in parts of Nevada outside of Las Vegas, prostitution is generally illegal. Police officers have been known to pose as prostitutes to catch and arrest anyone offering to pay for sex.


"No recreational shooting", Roxborough State Park, Colorado

It's true: the U.S. has a strong gun culture, and many – by no means all – Americans own a firearm. Possession of firearms is regulated by individual states, and while these regulations (obtaining necessary permits, the kinds of arms permitted) vary greatly from state to state and, sometimes, from city to city within the same state, the U.S. is generally considered to be a place with lenient attitudes towards firearm ownership, especially compared to Europe and Asia.

Although U.S. citizens have a constitutionally guaranteed right to own and carry firearms, non-immigrant aliens present in America for fewer than 180 days cannot legally possess a firearm or ammunition, unless they travelled specifically for hunting or sport shooting, or they have a valid hunting license from the state they are shooting in. Entry in a recognized shooting competition also qualifies. Anything else is strictly illegal. People who have renounced U.S. citizenship are not allowed to possess firearms or ammunition, even for sporting purposes.

Your chances of getting shot are very low, but:

  • In a city, a civilian with an openly visible firearm is generally a rare sight, and thus potentially more of a concern than one in the countryside. Nonetheless, since many states do permit "open carry", you may encounter somebody with a holstered firearm. Police officers, even detectives who wear civilian clothes on duty, will almost always carry firearms. Many states also have "concealed carry" laws which permit the possession of a concealed firearm in clothing or in a vehicle. Keep in mind that people with permits to carry a firearm, openly or concealed, are usually not criminals and not going to harm you. If you witness somebody carrying a gun in a life-threatening or intimidating manner, dial 911. Brandishing a firearm is a crime in many states.
  • Hunting is popular in rural America. Use of marked trails is generally safe, but if you plan to venture off the beaten path, find out where any hunting may be afoot. If so, everyone in your party (including your dog!) should wear bright colors, particularly "Blaze Orange", to be highly visible to the hunters. The timing and length of hunting seasons, and any applicable permits and regulations, vary between states – see respective state government websites for more information. Hunting is not normally allowed in national or state parks, but is permitted in some national forests.
  • Target shooting is a popular sport. Many ranges welcome tourists and will have a variety of firearms available to rent and shoot at the range. Many implement a "two person minimum" rule and consider it unsafe to rent firearms to lone individuals.
  • The legal carrying of firearms for protection by individuals hiking, exploring or camping in the wilderness is on the rise due to a small number of highly publicized incidents along well-known hiking trails. This is a controversial issue in the hiking/camping community, with strong arguments on both sides. The proponents argue that legal possession of a firearm does not increase the level of danger for bystanders: those who carry may very well have military or police backgrounds and be more than willing to assist others in an emergency.
  • Private property is more strongly protected in the U.S., both in law and in custom, than it is in many other parts of the world. In some areas, it is legal for owners to shoot and kill people in defense of their property. Make sure you avoid taking shortcuts across land that might be privately owned, even if unfenced. In all cases, it's considered to be trespassing, which is a crime. If you are in an urgent situation where you have to seek refuge on someone's property, be sure to appropriately notify the owner, or you risk being mistaken for a trespasser.

"Free" tickets and vacations

See also: Common scams

In tourist-oriented areas, touts offer free or deeply-discounted tickets, or vouchers for restaurants, hotels, or attractions. In many cases, these are come-ons to get you to attend a timeshare presentation. These presentations may require you to shuttle to a remote site, watch an hour-long presentation, and then receive a personal sales pitch to spend a lot of money (often more than $10,000) for a timeshare membership. Although timeshares are a form of real property and can be resold, they have annual fees that owners must pay, and they are rarely resold for more than their original purchase price.

You are in no danger by attending these presentations, but the value of the "free" vouchers is often overstated, and your party will lose hours of their vacation time as they watch the presentation and endure a high-pressure sales pitch. In some cases, you may be able to find discounted tickets at last-minute ticket booths or through secondhand sales, although be wary of bogus tickets sold via online marketplaces.

Event tickets

Scalping, or the reselling of purchased tickets at events like concerts or sports games, is not always legal. In some areas, ticket resale is permitted only up to a low level above the ticket's face value. It is common to see scalpers holding signs reading "I need tickets" near event venues, offering to buy or sell tickets in cash. Sometimes, these scalpers are police in disguise. Tourists who are unfamiliar with local laws should avoid scalpers, and should purchase tickets ahead of the event or from the official ticket seller. If you have tickets to an event that you can no longer attend, you may be able to exchange tickets for a future event at the box office, sell your tickets using an official resale marketplace, or sell your tickets on a widely-used third-party marketplace such as Craigslist. Official marketplaces are usually safest, but they charge fees to the buyer and the seller. Consult the event's or venue's web site for information about refunds, exchanges, and resale of tickets.

Stay healthy


A female Eastern Deer Tick (Ixodes scapularis), the primary vector for Lyme disease and other parasitically-transmitted diseases

The United States is relatively free from serious communicable diseases found in many developing nations; however, the HIV rate is higher than in Canada and Western Europe, with about a 0.5% infection rate in the overall population.

For the latest in traveler's health information pertaining to the United States, including advisories and recommendations, visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website for health information for travellers to the United States.

There are two infectious diseases that are worth becoming educated about:

  • Human cases of rabies: While quite rare in the United States, the disease is more prevalent in the country's eastern regions. It is usually contracted from animal bites or saliva. If you are bitten by any mammal, even if it's "just a scratch", see a doctor as soon as possible, as you will die if you wait until symptoms appear. Bats and other small, wild animals are especially prone to carry the rabies virus. If you happen to find a bat in the room (particularly upon waking up, or in the room of an unattended child), call or see a doctor since there may have been an unnoticed bite. Avoid other wild mammals like raccoons, skunks, and foxes, even if they seem tame and approachable.
  • Lyme disease: It is spread via deer tick, which is prevalent in the woodlands and open fields of many rural areas. There have been cases of Lyme disease in every state, but the great majority have been reported in the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic states and Great Lakes states such as Wisconsin, Minnesota and Illinois. When venturing into the outdoors, it is a good idea to apply an insect repellent onto exposed skin surfaces that is effective against deer ticks. Should you get flu-like symptoms after hiking through wooded areas, make sure to get tested for Lyme disease, as it is often confused with other diseases, and early treatment is usually quite effective. Depending on the part of the country you're in and the time of year, deer tick populations (and/or the proportion of deer ticks carrying diseases) can range from effectively zero to nearly 50% or more. Local parks and recreation departments or state wildlife services will typically have reliable statistics on tick populations and disease prevalence, so check with them before venturing into natural areas.

Other diseases that are endemic within the United States, but are of far less concern, include Hantaviral Pulmonary Syndrome (found in western regions), Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (mostly in the Rocky Mountain region), West Nile Virus (all regions) and Eastern/Western Equine Encephalitis (particularly in the Midwest).

Due to the high amount of travel and the fact that diaspora communities from almost every country in the world have some presence here., the U.S. is somewhat more likely than other places to have "imported" cases of pandemics, as seen in the case of the Ebola epidemic of 2014. Again this is unlikely to be of concern to you.

Health care

American health care is highly advanced and extraordinarily expensive. If you can afford it, you have at your disposal the most cutting edge treatments that are often not available anywhere else.

Make sure that your travel insurance is valid for the U.S. Given the high costs, some "world-wide" insurance specifically does not cover the U.S. Work or student visa holders are generally required to take up private health insurance as part of their visa conditions; check with your employer or school to see if health insurance is provided as part of your employee or student benefits.

To the patient, America's public (20%), private for-profit (20%), and private not-for-profit (60%) hospitals are generally indistinguishable. Inner city public hospitals may be more crowded and less well maintained, but costs and service levels are consistently high in all types. No hospital can refuse a life-threatening emergency case. Private hospitals may only stabilize such patients before sending them to a nearby public hospital, which will generally act as the regional center for 24-hour emergency treatment.

Ambulance in Pittsburgh

In a life-threatening emergency, dial 911 to summon an ambulance to take you to the nearest hospital emergency room ("ER"), or in less urgent situations get to the hospital yourself and register at the ER's front desk. Ambulance fees typically range from a few hundred to a few thousand dollars, and though they will never refuse to transport you in an emergency, the ambulance fees will be billed to you at a later date. ERs treat patients regardless of their ability to pay, even though their services are not free. Expect to pay at least $500 for a visit, plus the cost of any specific services or medications you are given. Avoid using ERs for non-emergency walk-in care; they are 3–4 times more expensive than other options, and your non-urgent condition means you will have a wait of hours or maybe days. Most urban areas also have minor emergency centers (also called "urgent care", etc.) for conditions that don't require a visit to the ER (e.g. superficial lacerations). Few are open at night.

Walk-in clinics can provide routine medical care; to find one, search online for "Clinics", or call a major hospital and ask. Patients see a doctor or nurse practitioner without an appointment (but often with a bit of a wait). They are typically very up-front about fees, and always accept credit cards. Make sure the clerk knows you will be paying "out of pocket"; if they assume an insurance company is paying, they may inflate the bill with unnecessary extras.

Dentists are accustomed to explaining fees over the phone, and most will accept credit cards. Health insurance typically does not provide dental coverage; you will need to take up separate dental insurance for that.

Note the difference between a red cross and a green cross: in the United States, anything medically related will have a red cross, whereas medical marijuana dispensaries will have a green cross. In areas of U.S. cities popular with tourists, some pharmacies use the green cross that international tourists would recognize, even if they do not sell cannabis.

Air quality

Due to wildfires, pollution, volcanic activity, or other factors, some parts of the United States may have poor air quality at times. Individuals with asthma or other respiratory health conditions may be advised to remain inside or limit strenuous activity outside. You can check air quality for any U.S. city at AirNow.gov. N95 masks that filter out small particulate matter (labeled PM2.5) can help you breathe more easily in bad air; these are often available at drugstores and hardware stores. Some lodging options provide an air purifier.

Water quality

Tap water is potable, but sometimes avoided due to the taste imparted by the chlorine used to purify it.

Bottled water is near ubiquitous and available for a variety of prices. Quality tends to be high and the chemical difference between a 50¢ bottle of water and a $5 bottle of water is oftentimes negligible.

Lead plumbing is still a problem in some places, as became evident in the high profile case of Flint, Michigan, but hotels and public water dispensers are unlikely to be affected.


Plugs and sockets

The United States uses 120 volts for the majority of home electrical devices (excluding large appliances). There are two standard types of electrical plug used: Type A plugs (with two vertical pins) and Type B (with two vertical pins and a round ground pin). Type A plugs are compatible with, and may be safely plugged into a Type B outlet. The frequency is 60 Hz, in contrast to most 230 V countries. If you live in a 230 V country, check that the devices you bring are compatible with the 120 V outlets.

Some hotels and homes have USB sockets for charging portable electronics. These sockets have low current and are not recommended for charging tablets and laptops with higher power needs.

Electronics stores, hardware stores, and general merchandise stores sell plug converters and transformers.

Religious services

Christian visitors looking to attend religious services should have no problem locating a house of worship, even in small towns. Most churches in the United States practice an "open table", meaning they welcome you to participate in worship, and some or all rituals, even if you're not a member of their religious denomination. Some churches, and some entire denominations, welcome LGBT individuals. However, some churches hold views that can be quite controversial, including hate towards certain groups. You may want to check before visiting.

Some churches also have after-church luncheon for free or at a nominal cost. Visitors are always welcome to stay for lunch and fellowship as a way to meet locals.

News and media

The United States has free and vibrant media, with a wide array of news outlets covering the gamut in terms of focus, factual accuracy and political biases.

Print media: Just about every mid-sized city (and many small ones) has a daily newspaper covering local news and often some national news. Major metropolitan areas will usually have more than one paper to choose from. With a few exceptions, most papers provide reasonably balanced coverage of hard news, with their political biases manifesting themselves only in their editorial or opinion sections.

The national paper of record is The New York Times; its coverage of national and international issues makes it daily reading just about anywhere in the country. For financial news, The Wall Street Journal is similarly well-respected and widely read. For a more casual but still informative format, USA Today is the most widely circulated print newspaper in the country. Many hotels offer free copies of either the local paper or USA Today; ask at the front desk. Other widely read papers include the Los Angeles Times (known for its West Coast coverage) and The Washington Post (with exemplary political reporting from the nation's capital). Time and Newsweek are news magazines published weekly that offer more in-depth feature coverage.

Locally-focused lifestyle magazines may also be available in certain cities, giving you more information on entertainment and nightlife.

Online editions are usually available for American print publications but nowadays conceal most of their content behind paywalls. For hard copy print publications, look for newsstands. Coffee shops, convenience stores, and supermarkets often sell newspapers, and supermarkets also often carry magazines.

Broadcast television: Major metropolitan areas also have a full suite of television stations; small cities might have only two or three local stations, especially if they're within broadcast range of a larger city. The major broadcast networks are ABC, CBS, NBC, Fox, and PBS (public broadcasting.)

Many cities have at least one station that air local newscasts. Local stations affiliated with ABC, CBS and NBC networks will often air the network’s national newscast. PBS stations may also air the network’s national newscast, in addition to news programmings from other, foreign news networks such as BBC, NHK, and DW. Local stations will also offer syndicated shows and programs produced in-house.

Cable/satellite television: Almost the entire country is wired for cable TV, with hundreds of channels running the gamut in terms of program offerings, including news and sports. Satellite television service is also available, and offers roughly the same offerings as cable television stations. For news-focused cable and satellite stations, the quality of the reporting (even outside of segments they consider to be “opinion”-based) differs, ranging from balanced and fair to reports that are biased towards a particular political narrative.

Broadcast radio is a much more fragmented market than television; major cities have dozens of stations on both AM and FM bands. The AM band is mostly used for political or sports talk formats; music stations are almost exclusively found on the FM band. Online streams for such stations may be available.

Satellite radio: Many rental cars come equipped with satellite radio. There is only one provider of such service: SiriusXM, and the company offers hundreds of channels of music, comedy, news, talk, and sports, without the need to keep finding new stations as you drive across the country.


Cigarettes are widely available at most grocery and convenience stores

Whether you are allowed to smoke in a bar, restaurant or other public indoor space varies between, and even within, states. Smoking indoors is banned in most cases, and many states have laws about smoking near public entrances: keep an eye out for posted signs stating a minimum distance to the door. Typically, if you find an ash tray or a butt station, you are safe to smoke there. Some venues that permit cigarette smoking do not allow cigars.

Some states have weak regulation, such as Kentucky, Oklahoma, or Virginia. In California, Utah, and Washington state, on the other hand, smoking has acquired a degree of social stigma, even where it is permitted. You may want to ask the people around you whether they mind before lighting up.

You can buy cigarettes at many grocery stores, convenience stores, and big-box stores. Prices vary greatly, due to taxes and regulations that vary by state and by city. Native American reservations often sell deeply discounted tobacco products to attract visitors. The minimum age to purchase tobacco products is 21 in all states, and cigarettes of flavours other than menthol are banned. As with alcohol, expect to be asked to show ID when purchasing tobacco.

Cigarette alternatives such as nicotine gum, smokeless tobacco, and electronic cigarettes ("vapes") are often available where cigarettes are sold; you can also find them at specialty tobacconists, called "smoke shops" or "vape shops". Smokeless tobacco use is popular in the South. Typically, the laws that restrict smoking also apply to vaping. The sale of flavored cigarettes and vapes is significantly restricted, although some smoke shops sell products that customers can mix as they desire.


Burning Man, Nevada

The United States is a large, diverse country; therefore, cultural norms vary significantly from region to region. In general, social etiquette tends to be more formal in the Northeast and the South, more casual on the West Coast, and somewhere between those two extremes in the Midwest.

Social etiquette and breaches

  • Americans tend to be inquisitive. Foreigners can expect to be asked about their home country, their vocation, and so on.
  • It is polite to firmly shake hands when meeting someone or being introduced, and when concluding a business meeting, though handshaking is often skipped in less formal situations. In casual situations, some people may offer a fist bump, or even a hug. Just follow along; mistakes in those situations are no big deal at all. As a result of COVID-19, people may prefer a touch-free greeting, or an elbow tap. Kissing on the cheeks in greeting is rare and usually done only between close friends and family.
  • As an adult, once you're introduced to someone, you can usually call them by their first name. Calling someone by their last name is more formal, and with rare exceptions is always done with "Mr./Mrs./Ms./Miss", or with a professional title with the last name (e.g., "Doctor", "Professor" or "Officer"). Such professional titles can also be used alone without a name. If you don't know someone's name, use "sir/ma'am". If you're still not certain, it's safer to be polite and use last names. Many people will soon respond with "Please, call me [first name]". Or, you can ask someone how they would like to be addressed.
  • Unless it is really crowded, leave at least one arm's length of personal space between yourself and others.
  • Punctuality is valued: being five minutes late for a meeting is not usually a problem, but if you will be any later, try to call or text beforehand.
  • Americans often draw a strong distinction between their work and personal life. It is generally inappropriate to inquire about someone's personal life in a professional context.
  • As a result of the country's history of racial discrimination, race and ethnicity can be sensitive, touchy subjects. If you have to reference race, Black or African American, Asian, Latino or Hispanic, Native American or American Indian, Pacific Islander, and White or Caucasian are acceptable terms. The indigenous people of Hawaii do not identify as "Native American" or "American Indian"; just stick to the term "Native Hawaiian" instead. Likewise, the indigenous people of Alaska are best referred to as "Alaska Natives". The terms "Red Indian" for referring to Native Americans or "Negro" for referring to African-Americans are now considered racist slurs and should be avoided.
    • There are some racist tropes and terms that have historically appeared in caricatures, and it is best to avoid alluding to any of them in normal conversation; a few of them might not be obvious to foreigners.
    • It's best to altogether avoid jokes about race or ethnicity; some of these may be told casually in many other countries, but they are very likely to cause offense in the U.S.
  • Indian reservations are scattered throughout the country. They often include sites regarded as sacred. If you decide to visit a reservation, be respectful. If you are unsure about something, simply ask. Most tribal groups have a history of conflict with white people, and remain economically disadvantaged today.
  • Confederate symbols, especially Confederate battle flags or the song "Dixie", are regarded by some as an integral part of Southern identity, but are controversial throughout the country due to their association with slavery, racial segregation, and white supremacy.
  • The Swastika symbol is highly offensive as it is associated with antisemitism and white supremacy. You should avoid displaying the symbol, even in a religious context, to prevent misunderstandings.
  • Gender and sexuality are sensitive issues and best avoided as conversation topics with people you don't know well. As with race, jokes about these are best avoided.
  • Gun control is a very polarizing and sensitive issue. Visitors (particularly to rural areas) should tread very lightly with this subject.
  • Religion can be a sensitive subject. Some hold fundamentalist views and religion is connected to some hot political issues.
  • Political discourse is incredibly polarized. The American political landscape is deeply divided; in some cases, political allegiance can take precedence over reason and civility. Hot issues include illegal immigration, multiculturalism, abortion, religion and LGBTQ+ rights.
  • Attitudes towards breastfeeding in public vary. Laws permit it (except in Idaho and Puerto Rico) and it is exempted from prosecution for public indecency or indecent exposure in many states. Still, whether covered or not, it can elicit unwanted stares, negative comments or complaints. Some businesses allow and protect breastfeeding mothers. Breastfeeding rooms are available in most airports, and public places. Many stores will also allow changing rooms to be used for this purpose.

Also see the section on tipping, and the section on smoking.


Dress in the U.S. tends to be fairly casual. For everyday clothes, jeans and T-shirts are always acceptable, as are shorts when the weather is suitable. Sneakers (athletic shoes) are common; flip-flops and sandals are also popular in warm weather. In the winter in northern states, boots are commonly worn.

In general, dress code is a bit more formal in the metropolises of the East Coast, and in the South (where "Southern style" is a surviving concept), and more relaxed the further west you go. See also Working in the United States. In more conservative areas, it is customary for people to dress up in their best clothes when they go to church on Sundays.

Generally, Americans accept religious attire such as yarmulkes, hijabs and burqas without comment.

When dressing up for nice restaurants or upscale entertainment, a pair of nice slacks, a collared shirt, and dress shoes will work almost everywhere. Ties for men are rarely necessary, but jackets are occasionally required for very upscale restaurants in big cities (which sometimes have jackets to lend).

At the beach or pool, men prefer loose bathing trunks or boardshorts, and women wear bikinis or one-piece swimsuits. Nude bathing is not generally acceptable and is usually even illegal except at certain designated spaces. Even toplessness is not practiced by local women, and is illegal in some states.


By phone

A phone charging station at Newark Liberty International Airport

The best option is a mobile phone with a U.S.-based carrier or with Voice over IP (VoIP) software and Wi-Fi. Public pay phones are very rare even in major cities, and hotel room telephones impose high fees for even local and toll-free numbers.

U.S. merchants and services that use text messaging will typically only be able to send messages to U.S. numbers, and other than those from Canada, may not accept numbers from abroad.

Domestic calls

Like Canada, the country code for the U.S. is +1. The long-distance prefix (trunk code) is also "1", so U.S. telephone numbers are sometimes written as an eleven-digit number: "1-nnn-nnn-nnnn". The rest of the telephone number consists of ten digits: a three-digit area code, and a seven-digit number. The "1" is often omitted when the number is written, and the area code is occasionally omitted as well. There can be many area codes in large cities, and only one or two for the entirety of a less-populated state. The area code does not indicate whether a number is a mobile or a landline; calling mobile phones and landline phones typically costs the same price. Also, most Americans do not change their numbers when they move, so the area code of their mobile number may not match landlines in the region.

While you sometimes can leave out the trunk prefix and area code when making local calls from landline phones, it is simpler to always dial all the number, including the "1". From a mobile phone, always dial ten digits without the "1". From abroad, you need the +1, of course.

Domestic calls to area codes 800, 888, 877, 866, 855, 844 and 833 are toll-free. Toll-free numbers are generally free from fixed lines in homes and most businesses and from pay phones. Mobile phones and fixed line phones installed in hotel rooms may still charge customers to call toll-free numbers. With few exceptions (such as Canada or, rarely, Mexico) they are not reachable from abroad. (VoIP users may be able to circumvent this restriction by calling via a U.S.-based gateway.)

International calls

To dial abroad from the U.S., the international access code is 011. On a mobile phone, "+" will also work.

Canada, U.S. territories, Bermuda, and 17 Caribbean nations are part of the North American Numbering Plan, and have the same +1 country code as the U.S. Calls made between these countries are dialed using only the full 11-digit number, without the "011" or "+" access code, but almost all are charged at international rates.

Phones and directories

Pay phones are very hard to find. Possible locations include transportation hubs including airports and train stations, in or near stores and restaurants, shopping mall entrances, and near bus stops. Most are coin operated (quarters, dimes and nickels) and do not accept banknotes. Prices are normally $0.50 for the first three minutes, and $0.25 for each additional minute. An online directory of pay phones can be found at Pay Phone Directory. Calls to 911 (to report an emergency) and to toll-free area codes (800, 888, 877, 866, 855, 844 and 833) are free from pay phones.

Telephone directories are often split into two books: the white pages list phone numbers alphabetically by last name, and the yellow pages list businesses by category (e.g. "Taxicabs"). Many residential land-line phones and all mobile phones are unlisted. Directory assistance can be had (at an extra cost) by dialing 411 (for local numbers) or 1-[area code]-555-1212 (for other areas). If 411 doesn't work, try 555-1212, [area code]-555-1212 or 1-[area code]-555-1212. Free directory information (with advertisements) is available: dial 1-800-FREE-411 (1-800-3733-411) or browse 411.info. Regional telephone companies' web sites also provide directory information. Using the website of the company that operates in the region you are interested in yields the best results.

Long-distance telephone calling cards have been available at convenience stores, although you are much more likely to find mobile phone refill cards in their place. Using a calling card from a pay phone is more expensive than using it from a fixed line is. There may also be effective charges per connection as well as per minute; some cards also carry hidden weekly or monthly charges which deplete their value. If you have a mobile phone and easy access to Wi-Fi where you're staying, VoIP services will be less expensive and easier to use than calling cards.

Mobile phones

The three largest mobile phone networks in the U.S. are AT&T, Verizon Wireless, and T-Mobile. These all have good coverage of practically all urban/suburban and many rural areas of the country, although each network has strong and weak areas. There are many mobile virtual network operators (MVNO) that rebrand service on the major carriers' networks.

Calls to mobile phones are charged the same as calls to land lines, and mobile phones don't pay surcharges when calling domestic long-distance. Instead, mobile phones are charged for all usage, outgoing and incoming. Credit packages from $25/month allow you to make hundreds of minutes' worth of calls.

If you want to have a mobile phone in the U.S. while you travel, you have several options.

Use your phone from home if it's compatible. All U.S. operators use the same 4G LTE standard that is used internationally, although the North American frequency band plan is different than that in the rest of the world, so make sure your phone supports the right frequencies. Bands 2 and 4 are the bare minimum and will get you coverage in the cities but don't reach outside them. Band 12 will get you some rural coverage from AT&T and T-Mobile, while Verizon uses band 13 for its rural coverage. For 5G phones, due to the fragmented nature of the 5G band plan, don't expect a 5G phone purchased from outside North America to receive 5G signal in the U.S. Your phone must support 4G LTE or greater to work in the U.S.

Roaming service (using your home phone number on a U.S. network) can be expensive, and will depend on the networks your home provider has contracts with, as well as your own provider's fees. While some providers now provide U.S. roaming inclusive or have a special roaming bundle, others will still charge very expensive per-use rates. Canadian postpaid phones generally roam at a fixed rate of C$9 per day. Freedom Mobile offers good pricing.

Buying a SIM card or eSIM is a better way to use your personal phone; by installing the SIM card or eSIM in your phone, you'll have a local U.S. telephone number prepaid with no contract, hundreds of minutes' worth of calls, and large amounts of data. Dual-SIM phones may be able to route calls and messages for your home number using a U.S. network. The prices make it more economical for extended stays, but the convenience of cheap calls and data make this an attractive option for any visitor. In addition, some prepaid providers even offer reasonably priced roaming in Mexico and Canada for visitors continuing to those countries; this can be especially helpful in the case of Canada as mobile phone service is far more expensive there.

SIM cards are available for purchase at most electronics stores, supermarkets, drugstores, as well as other retailers including Wal-Mart and Target. Make sure that your phone is not SIM-locked and is compatible with the SIM card and the frequencies of the network. Avoid a monthly contract, and get a one-time prepaid plan.

Providers who sell prepaid SIM cards include AT&T's Prepaid, Cricket, Straight Talk's Bring Your Own Phone and T-Mobile. AT&T and Cricket reject activation on some phones purchased from outside the U.S. Additionally, while Verizon also sells prepaid SIMs, their service is not compatible with as many internationally-purchased phones as T-Mobile or AT&T; check on their website to see if they will allow your device to be activated on their network before you buy. eSIMs are available from Airalo, Textr eSIM and Ubigi, among others; these companies can sell you an eSIM before you depart, allowing you to use U.S. networks from the moment you land in the country.

Purchasing prepaid minutes and a basic mobile phone is another option. These can be found at some grocery stores, at most electronics stores, office supply stores, and convenience stores, and online. A low-end smartphone with some amount of talk time, texts, and data preloaded can be purchased for around $50. Some prepaid services charge a flat fee per month (e.g. $20/month), or a fee for days when the phone is used (e.g. $1.25/day). Prepaid, contract-free service is available from many providers, such as Boost Mobile, Cricket, Straight Talk, TracFone, AT&T, T-Mobile, and Verizon Prepaid. These phones are subsidized and SIM-locked, and each provider has different policies regarding unlocking for future use, so keep that in mind if you plan on keeping the phone long-term.

Mobile phone service varies considerably outside of the lower 48 states and Hawaii.

  • T-Mobile does not have a network of its own in Alaska and instead relies on domestic roaming on local provider GCI. This domestic roaming is not available to prepaid customers. Even for postpaid customers it is limited to 200 MB per month. If you are starting in the lower 48 and Hawaii and continuing to Alaska, purchase service from an AT&T or Verizon-based provider. If starting from Alaska and continuing to the lower 48, there is also the option of purchasing a prepaid plan from GCI that includes unlimited usage in the lower 48 and Hawaii for $50/month.
  • Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands are covered by a slightly different set of providers. The Pacific territories (Guam, CNMI, American Samoa) have their own providers and no U.S. mainland carrier offers native coverage there.

SMS/iMessage is the de facto standard for text messages in the U.S.; many Americans do not use other messaging apps. Services that require a mobile phone number, with text message verification, typically work only with U.S. phone numbers. WeChat or WhatsApp are only used by a small number of businesses in areas popular with immigrants and tourists. Do not assume that a business's phone number accepts text messages of any sort; they will indicate if they use a particular service.

In some areas, mobile phone users can text 911 to report an emergency. The FCC has more information about Text to 911 on its web site, including a list of supported areas. Calling 911 is still recommended wherever possible. Texting 911 in an area where responders cannot accept text messages will result in the texter receiving a bounce-back message.

By mail

Self Service Postal Center

Addressing mail with a properly-formatted address will expedite its journey with the United States Postal Service (USPS, not to be confused with the private shipper UPS). The ZIP code (postal code) is important, and you can look up ZIP codes and correct address formats online. A 5-digit ZIP code identifies a main post office; a 4-digit extension (recommended but optional) may narrow this to one business or an individual building. Addresses should be written in three to four lines with the name of recipient, house number and street name, suite or apartment or building number, city or town, two-letter state abbreviation, ZIP code, e.g.:

Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.
149 New Montgomery St.
San Francisco, CA 94105-3739

First-class international airmail postcards and letters (up to one ounce/28.5 grams) cost $1.50. All locations with a ZIP code are considered domestic, including the 50 states, U.S. possessions, Micronesia (FSM), Marshall Islands, Palau and overseas military bases, ships (APO or FPO) and diplomatic posts (APO or DPO). Domestic postcards cost $0.51, and ordinary letters up to an ounce, $0.66 (2023). "Forever" stamps are available for the first ounce of domestic and international postage, and protect against future increases. Mailing thick or rigid objects, or non-standard shapes increases the postage cost.

Poste Restante, the receiving of mail at a post office rather than a private address, is called General Delivery. There is no charge for this service. You must show ID such as a passport to pick up your mail. Post offices will usually hold mail for up to 30 days. If the city is large enough to have multiple post offices, only one (usually in the center of downtown) will allow General Delivery.

FedEx and UPS also have a "Hold for Pickup" option and have locations throughout larger cities in the U.S. Though usually more expensive, these may be a better option when receiving something important from abroad.

By Internet

For travelers, you should expect to have Internet access in the U.S. using Wi-Fi hotspots and mobile phone networks. In remote areas, satellite Internet may be the only option; this requires dedicated equipment and high fees, so it is recommended for use only in emergencies. Internet cafés are rare and public computers that allow Internet access are likely to be very restricted.


The most generally useful Wi-Fi spots are in coffee shops, fast-food chains, and bookshops, though you may need to buy something first. Some cities also provide free Wi-Fi in their downtown areas.

A few less obvious Wi-Fi spots may be found in:

  • Public libraries – Free Wi-Fi is almost always available, although you may need to get a log-in from the information desk. The network may even be accessible 24/7, so even if the library is closed you may be able to sit outside and surf.
  • Hotels – chain hotels usually have it in the rooms and the communal areas; smaller independent hotels vary. An overpriced option at high-end hotels, but included standard at most economy limited service chains.
  • Colleges and universities – they may have networks in their libraries and student centers that are open to non-students. Some have networks accessible throughout campus, even outdoors.
  • Airports – even smaller regional ones offer Wi-Fi, almost always for free. Airport lounges typically provide unlimited free Wi-Fi.

If your device and mobile phone plan allow it, consider tethering your laptop to your phone. Note that some prepaid plans, even "unlimited" plans, limit tethering. Mobile broadband via a Wi-Fi hotspot device is also an option, with many major providers offering prepaid data-only plans. Make sure to check a coverage map before you buy; each company has large areas with bad or no coverage.

Public PC terminals

Internet cafés have effectively disappeared in the U.S., as have public kiosks for quick use. When using any public computer, expect your access to be monitored and restricted. If you need Internet access, your options may include:

  • Public libraries – they have PCs with broadband for public use, but you may need a library card. Some libraries give out free internet cards that have no book-lending privileges for out-of-area visitors.
  • Photocopy shops – may have computers available for public use (at a cost), e.g. FedEx Office ( +1-800-GOFEDEX (4633339); when prompted by the voice menu, say "FedEx Office" or press "64"). Some are also commercial mail receiving agents (such as The UPS Store) and offer fax service. Some FedEx Office stores are open 24 hours a day; call your local branch to confirm their services, prices, and hours.
  • Hotels – all but the most spartan have "business centers" with computers, printers, and sometimes also photocopiers and fax machines.
  • Electronics stores – the computers on display are often connected to the Internet, and staff might not mind if you use them for a little personal browsing or to check your email. The Apple Store is particularly generous and will allow browsing without intent to buy; however, some websites, such as Facebook, are blocked.
  • University libraries – while private universities may restrict entry to their students and faculty, public university libraries may be open to the public and they may also have a computer or two for public use. Hours are likely to be very limited when the university's classes are not in session.
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