A landlocked country in the Sahel, Mali remains one of the poorest countries in the world, but it has wonderful musicians and some incredible sights, including four UNESCO World Heritage sites and the historic city of Timbuktu.
This province houses the capital, Bamako
Most of Mali's travel riches are concentrated in this region: unique rock formations at Hombori, the architecture of Djenné, and the unbelievable escarpment villages of Dogon Country
Has become the most populated province, due to the spillover from the civil war on Côte d'Ivoire.
Bordering Niger, this region has ethnic Songhai, Tuareg, Tadaksahak, and Zarma. Arid, but not as arid as places farther north.
Mali's most remote Saharan region, with a small population of Tuareg nomads, and the incredibly remote annual Saharan Nights festival in Essouk
|Timbuktu (Tombouctou) |
The name isn't the only reason to visit; the town itself is a unique Tuareg desert trading center
- 1 Bamako — the booming capital and largest city by far, fastest growing city in Africa, with a good claim to be the music capital of West Africa
- 2 Gao — small city on the Niger in the far east of the country, one time capital of the Songhai Empire, and home to the Tomb of Askia
- 3 Kayes — Mali's westernmost big city, by the border with Senegal, and best known for being the hottest continuously inhabited location in Africa
- 4 Kidal — a remote Tuareg city, with notoriety as a centre of the Tuareg rebel movement and for Al Qaeda activity
- 5 Mopti — a city across three islands in the middle of the Niger; gateway to Dogon Country
- 6 Ségou — Mali's third largest city and one-time capital of the Bamana Empire
- 7 Sikasso — Mali's second largest city and one-time capital of the Kénédougou Empire
- 8 Timbuktu — the legendary Saharan city of gold, trans-Saharan trade, and Islamic scholarship is nowadays a (fairly commercialized) centre of Tuareg culture.
- 1 Adrar des Ifoghas — a sandstone plateau in the Sahara home to rock paintings, salt mines operated for centuries, and a surprising array of wildlife.
- Dogon Country —a trek through this landscape of scattered cliff-side villages is not to be missed by any Mali visitor. The famous Bandiagara Escarpment is a World Heritage Site
- 2 Djenné — once a religious and commercial centre to rival Timbuktu, this small town of multi-storey mud buildings is quite a sight. It has declared a World Heritage site by UNESCO. Seeing Djenné from a rooftop offers an intriguing and unusual landscape, with its soft texture, rounded lines and melancholic colouring. It also features the largest mosque in the world made completely out of mud, which is restored every year by the community after the rainy season.
- The Niger Inland Delta where the Niger splits into many rivers across a broad floodplain, which forms a giant lake on the edge of the desert during the rainy season.
|Currency||West African CFA franc (XOF)|
|Population||20.2 million (2020)|
|Electricity||220 volt / 50 hertz (Europlug, Type E)|
|Time zone||UTC±00:00, Africa/Bamako|
|Emergencies||112, 15 (emergency medical services), 17 (police), 18 (fire department)|
|edit on Wikidata|
The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France on 22 Sept 1960 as the Mali Federation. Senegal withdrew after only a few months, and the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. The country was then governed by dictatorships until 1991. In 1992 the country's first democratic presidential elections were held.
Just under half the population is less than 15 years old. The great majority of Malians are Muslim, some also practice indigenous beliefs, and a tiny number are Christian. Around 10% of the population is nomadic. Most Malians work in agriculture and fishing.
Mali was once part of three famed West African empires which controlled trans-Saharan trade in gold, salt, slaves, and other precious commodities. These Sahelian kingdoms had neither rigid geopolitical boundaries nor rigid ethnic identities. The earliest of these empires was the Ghana Empire which expanded throughout West Africa from the 8th century until 1078.
The Mali Empire later formed on the upper Niger, and reached the height of power in the 14th century. Under the Mali Empire, the ancient cities of Djenné and Timbuktu were centres of both trade and Islamic learning. Mansa Musa, who ruled in the early 14th century, is regarded as the wealthiest person in history (est. $400 billion adjusted for inflation!) owing to the Malian Empire's production of gold & salt. He used this wealth to build some of the impressive mosques still to be found around the country. The empire later declined, and was being supplanted by the Songhai Empire. The Songhai people originated in current northwestern Nigeria. In the late 14th century, the Songhai gradually gained independence from the Mali Empire and expanded until eventual collapse largely due to a Moroccan invasion in 1591. The fall of the Songhai Empire marked the end of the region's role as a trading crossroads. Following the establishment of sea routes by European powers, the trans-Saharan trade routes lost significance.
In the colonial era, Mali fell under the control of the French beginning in the late 19th century. By 1905, most of the area was under firm French control as a part of French Sudan. In early 1959, Mali (then the Sudanese Republic) and Senegal united to become the Mali Federation and gained independence from France on June 20, 1960. Senegal withdrew from the federation in August 1960, which allowed the Sudanese Republic to form the independent nation of Mali on September 22, 1960.
The country's climate ranges from tropical savannah (trees and grass, with tree density increasing as one travels south) in the south to arid desert in the north, with the Sahel in between. Much of the country receives negligible rainfall; droughts are frequent. Late May or early June (depending on how north one is) to mid or late October or early November is the rainy season. During this time, flooding of the Niger River is common, creating the Inner Niger Delta. After the rainy season is a cooler period when many plants are still green; this is from early November to around early February. From mid February until the rains start in May or June is the hot, dry, period, with daytime temperatures reaching maximum in March and April. This time of year is hot and extremely parched.
Mali consists of diverse Sub-Saharan ethnic groups sharing similar, historic, cultural and religious traditions. Various Mandé ethnicities (e.g., Bambara, Khassonké, Mandinka and Soninké) constitute more than half of Mali's population. Other significant ethnic groups include the Fula, Tuaregs and Moors, known as Azawagh Arabs.
- New Year's Day (January 1)
- Army Day (January 20)
- Martyrs Day (March 26)
- Easter Monday
- Eid al Fitr (Islamic religious observance)
- Independence Day (September 22)
- Christmas Day (December 25)
Mali is not a country you can just waltz into. There are few visa-free arrangements in place, and thus, almost everyone requires a visa to visit the country.
Visas are not required for citizens of Algeria, Andorra, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Indonesia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Macau, Mauritania, Monaco, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo and Tunisia.
If you require a visa to visit the country, you must possess a valid passport and you must submit the following: visa application forms, passport photos, a travel itinerary, flight tickets, and an invitation letter from a Malian organisation or individual (a hotel reservation will normally suffice for a tourist visa).
Visa fees tend to be expensive. For US citizens, it costs $131 to get a Malian visa (regardless of the type). Other citizens of other countries may have to pay even more money to get a Malian visa, so keep an eye out. As a general rule of thumb, the longer you intend to stay, the more expensive the visa will be.
At the Malian Embassy in Dakar, Senegal, a 30-day visa costs CFA25,000 (2018).
Air France flies daily non-stop from Paris Charles de Gaulle to Bamako (and return). Royal Air Maroc is a little cheaper than Air France and has daily flights from Europe and New York via Casablanca in Morocco. There are also smaller companies, such as Point Afrique, who fly cheaply to & from Mali in the busy tourist season. Air France and RAM arrive and depart in the middle of the night - so even if you are planning a budget trip it may be worth splurging for a nice hotel the first night where you can make real reservations and maybe even get picked up at the airport. TAP Portugal also flies daily from Lisbon.
Many African and pan-African airlines fly into Mali, for example: Ethiopian Airlines, Air Mauritania, Tunisair, Afriqiyah Airways and numerous others. Some of these airlines also have feature connections to Mopti.
The airport is about 20 minutes drive from the centre of Bamako. There are fixed rates for taxis to different parts of town: to find them, cross the roadway in front of the airport and go the right-hand end of the block of kiosks. You will see a group of taxi drivers and a board with prices. In Aug 2007, the price was CFA7,500.
However, if you know the local language enough, you might be able to bargain the official price down to CFA4,000 or even CFA3,000, especially if you arrive during the day. Make sure you board an official taxi though (see the Stay Safe section below). There is even well-hidden restaurant: follow the exit road past the barrier, and it is on the right, surrounded by trees, about 50 m from the terminal building. They're very friendly and serve basic but filling and tasty snacks. For getting back to the airport from Bamako, try negotiating hard and you may get a rate significantly cheaper than the set rates for the airport to Bamako.
If you fly Royal Air Maroc, beware that Casablanca Airport is notorious for opening checked-in bags and removing valuables. Also luggage can arrive late.
As is common with many other airports, there will be people trying to push you into unauthorised taxis and to change money, and some are even allowed into the airport terminal itself. Avoid them.
From Europe one has to cross the straits of Gibraltar, Morocco, Western Sahara and Mauritania. There are no longer any problems crossing Western Sahara along the coastal road. You will need to have your car and passport information ready to hand over at the various checkpoint however. There is now tarmacked roads all the way from Europe to Bamako and on to Gao (apart from 3 km at the border between Western Sahara and Mauritania).
There are several ways to get to Mali by car.
The most popular routes are from Senegal (especially since the Dakar-Bamako trains stopped) and Burkina Faso. The road from Gao to Niamey has been paved and a bridge is being built in Gao so the entire journey from Niamey to Bamako can be completed on paved (if not remote) roads.
There are also decent land crossings from Mauritania (paved) & Guinea. The Ivorian crossing leads into a region of northern Cote d'Ivoire controlled by rebels and, while fairly safe, will lead you through countless roadblocks and "officials" demanding bribes; if travelling to southern Cote d'Ivoire, you're better off travelling through Burkina Faso & Ghana.
There is a remote desert crossing with Algeria near Tessalit, but it is dangerous (prone to banditry and used for smuggling) and remote. It may be closed to tourists; even if not, the Algerian side is dangerous (banditry and al Qaeda extremists!) and requires a military escort.
There is public transport almost all the way from Europe to Mali be it buses or bush-taxis. The only exception is from Dakhla, Western Sahara, to Noudhibou, Mauritania where you can easily get a ride with a Mauritanian trader.
Mali has two large rivers that are navigable at least part of the year, both of which cross into neighbouring countries, although only the Niger has much in the way of pirogues.
- The Senegal River crosses into Mali from Guinea in the south and follows a northwest course into Senegal.
- The Niger crosses into, appropriately enough, Niger. Large boats are only active August-November and do not continue far past the border, but small pirogues regularly ply between Gao and Niamey with many stops along the way.
The main cities along the paved road into the north are connected via bus (Bamako, Segou, San, Mopti, Gao). A separate paved loop runs through the south (Bamako, Bougouni, Sikasso, Koutiala, Segou) There are many different companies with different schedules but they all have more or less the same prices. Normally a ride to Mopti (600km, half the way up), endures approximately nine hours; a ride to Gao at least 12. All times are very rough, however, and few bus companies will even give you an estimated arrival time as different drivers drive different speeds and it is not improbable that the bus breaks down and needs a repair or stops to help another bus. It is usually possible to make a reservation several days before, recommended during the tourist season, though one rarely has a problem just showing up 30-60 minutes before the bus leaves. More reliable companies include Bittar, Bani and Banimonotie (Sikasso region) among others.
- Bittar Transportation
By taxi brousse
To get around one can take the "Taxi - Brousse", the bush taxis. They are the main connection between towns which aren't connected via bus. They are very slow and they sometimes break down or stop to help other broken down taxis. So sometimes the ride takes longer than expected. Unlike the buses, these rarely run on a set schedule, so you generally just need to show up at the station (in a larger town) or sit by the roadside (in smaller villages) and wait for the next to come along - locals may be able to give you some idea what to expect.
In any larger city, taxis will be plentiful and are usually an easy way for the tourist to get where they are going without trying to figure out the local public transport system (if one even exists). Be prepared to bargain, as they will generally try to overcharge you - in Bamako CFA1,000 should get you anywhere in the city during the day (or up to CFA1,500 at night), while crossing the river will be CFA1,500-2,000. Also, tell the driver clearly if you do not know the location of the place you want to go, as they are rarely forthcoming about admitting that they don't know it and will often expect you to give directions, especially if it is not a popular or common destination.
By private car
A good option for a larger group or travellers who value comfort over economy is to rent a private car. A 4x4 is strongly recommended if you will be leaving the main highways (this includes the trip to Timbuktu). There are very few asphalt roads, and they are all single-carriageway outside towns, though most are in good condition. One leads into the North of the country (Bamako, Segou, San, Mopti, Gao), another branches off after Segou to cross the Niger at the Markala dam and goes as far as Niono, while another goes from Bamako to Sikasso and on into Ivory Coast. There are private people who rent out their 4x4 cars for a ride (in which case make sure you've got insurance and a carnet de passage, and plenty of petrol), but generally renting a car means renting a car and driver. This is strongly recommended as Malian roads and drivers can be unpredictable and the vehicles unreliable (better to have the driver figure out what that loud rattle is or why the engine started smoking!).
Travel within Bamako can be difficult for the business traveller and leisure tourist alike. One of the best options is to rent a car with a chauffeur. This can be done on a by-day basis and is an enormous help for someone that is new to the city. When trying to visit numerous places in one day, it becomes difficult to rely on the local taxi system. The chauffeur is a local resident and will know most of the names of the places that you need to go. There is no hassle in finding a parking spot as the chauffeur can wait for you while you attend to the business at hand.
For the tourist, this option can be your solution to seeing the city of Bamako in a care-free manner. Trips out of the city are available as well, although the fare can be somewhat higher than intra-city rates. Gas is an additional cost to the renter. A distinguished man by the name of Aldiouma (pronounced al-Jew-ma) Togo runs a classy operation is open to negotiation for rates. Usually around CFA25,000-30,000 per day for intra-city use. Slightly less than double that fee for extra-city travel. His info: Aldiouma Togo: Cell: +223 642-6500 Home: +223 222-1624 [email protected]
It is possible to travel across Mali by plane, as numerous companies have sprung up. It is possible to fly (usually from Bamako) to cities such as: Mopti, Timbuktu, Kayes, Yelimané, Gao, Kidal, Sadiola, and others.
The planes, typically, are Czech turboprops (LET-410s) and small Russian jetliners (Yakovlev YAK-40s). Air travel in Mali is fast but, compared to a bus ride, expensive. It is not, however, foolproof - often you are at the mercy of the carrier, who may choose not to fly on a certain day if too few passengers show up! You can generally get tickets at the airport before flights, however the best bet is to book a ticket in advance.
Société Transport Aerienne (STA) and Société Avion Express (SAE) are the two most popular, and most reliable, carriers.
It is possible to travel around Mali by boat, however this is very seasonal. The most common option, only really possible in the wet season, is a barge to/from Timbuktu. There are also very small boats, "pirogues" in French, which are available to be hired almost anywhere - they are essentially large canoes. When the big boats are not running you can still charter a pinasse (like a big, motorised pirogue). Or use one of the public pinasses. These will run for another 3 months or so before the water levels being too low for them as well. You can navigate the river all the way from near Bamako to Gao, though the level drops more rapidly in the portion between Bamako and Mopti.
French is the official language, but Bambara (or Bamanankan in the language itself), along with numerous other African languages (Peulh/Fula, Dogon, and Tamashek, the language of the Tuareg people), are spoken by 80% of the population. Few people speak French outside bigger towns, and even Bambara gets rare in some regions. Very few people speak English. A Songhai phrasebook is available on the French Wikivoyage project.
The Great Mosque The Great Mosque is made completely of mud, was made in 1906, and it has five stories and three towers. Every spring the people replaster the Mosque. Regrettably, entrance to non-Muslims is not allowed. Apparently this prohibition is a consequence of a fashion photo-shoot more than 10 years ago, which was regarded by the locals as "pornographic".
Sites and cultural landscapes making up the Mali Empire can be seen in different parts of the country.
- Cruise the Niger River on a traditional pirogue.
Exchange rates for CFA francs
As of January 2022:
Exchange rates fluctuate. Current rates for these and other currencies are available from XE.com
The currency of the country is the West African CFA franc, denoted CFA (ISO currency code: XOF). It's also used by seven other West African countries. It is interchangeable at par with the Central African CFA franc (XAF), which is used by six countries. Both currencies are fixed at a rate of 1 euro = 655.957 CFA francs.
The West African CFA franc is to be renamed the "eco" by the end of 2020. It would continue to be fixed to the euro.
There are plenty of crafts in Mali. Various ethnic groups have their own, trademark masks. There are some great musical instruments; blankets; bogolas (a type of blanket); silver jewellery, and leather goods. The Touareg people, in particular, produce attractive silver and leather goods, including jewellery, daggers, spears, swords and boxes. Local music also makes good souvenirs.
All Ecobank ATMs in Mali take Mastercard and Visa card for cash withdrawal. A list of locations is shown on their web site.
The most universal Malian dish is rice with sauce, often peanut "tiga diga na," tomato/onion/oil or leaf/okra based which is usually served some fish or meat if purchased or prepared for guests. "To", a gelatinous corn or millet food served with sauce, is another Malian classic, though more a village food than something most tourists would encounter. In the north, couscous is also quite common.
In the largest cities, decent "western" restaurants can be found, charging near western prices. Bamako even has good Chinese, Vietnamese, Italian, Lebanese and more. In smaller places, the standard Malian restaurant serves chicken or beef with fries and/or salad - usually edible and affordable, but boring and not particularly Malian. The better places in the more touristy areas may also have some local specialities. "Street food" is a lot more fun (and super cheap) - breakfast will be omelet sandwiches, lunch is usually rice with a couple sauces to choose from, and dinner presents many options including beans, spaghetti cooked in oil and a little tomato, potatoes, fried rice, chicken, meatballs, beef kebabs, fish, and salad. You can find little tables along the roadsides and near transport centers.
Snacks you may find for sale include little cakes (especially in bus stations), various fried doughs (either sweet or with hot sauce), peanuts, roasted corn if in season, sesame sticks, and frozen juices in little plastic sacks. Fresh fruit is widely available and always delicious. Some of the best are mangoes, papaya, watermelon, guavas, bananas and oranges - the particular selection depends on the season.
Of course, as in any tropical, underdeveloped country, food borne disease is a major concern for the traveller. The main culprits for diarrhea are untreated water (especially in rural areas) and fruits and vegetables which have not been peeled or soaked in bleach water - salads (even in fancy restaurants!) are likely to cause problems. Food, especially meat, should be thoroughly cooked; this is likely more an issue with Western food in restaurants than with Malian foods which are usually cooked for hours. Drink bottled water, and consultant a doctor about bringing an antibiotic like cipro to treat diarrhea that is severe or does not improve over a couple days.
Treat tap water with suspicion. It is often so heavily chlorinated that one suspects few bugs could possibly survive in it. But short-term visitors will be safer with bottled water. There are several cheap local brands, but be warned that they are only drunk by foreigners and wealthy Malians: don't rely on finding bottled water in shops patronised by "ordinary" Malians. Soft drinks such as Coca-Cola or Fanta are more widely available and safe . Street vendors sell water and home-made ginger and berry drinks in little plastic bags. They are often iced which makes them very refreshing in the heat. Generally, you shouldn't drink these without treating them first.
However, one which is called "bissap" in French and "dabileni" ("red hybiscus") in Bambara, is made from hibiscus flowers that are boiled during preparation, and so generally is safe to drink. It is a particularly delicious non-alcoholic drink you shouldn't miss. In Bamako, it is possible to purchase at most corner stores treated water in small plastic bags for CFA50; these are much cheaper, and of course more environmentally friendly, than bottles. The bags are marked with a brand name; be careful not to mistake them for the tap water that is sold in unmarked plastic bags by street vendors. Also widely sold in this way is sweet milk and yoghurt, which are normally clean because the bags are industrially filled. Fresh milk can also be bought from buckets at the roadside in some villages, although it should always be thoroughly boiled before drinking as it can carry tuberculosis bacteria (often Malians do this before selling, but it is safer to do it yourself or at least ask).
There are various types of accommodation options of various prices and qualities. You will pay USD60-100 per night (and up) for a what would be a decent to nice hotel by western standards. At the other end of the spectrum you can pay about USD5-10 per night for a bed or mattress, usually with mosquito net and sheets, in a room or on the roof. Such places will usually have toilets and showers in a shared facility (think camp site camping with less gear). All tourist areas have hotels or auberges and many places will also have homestays. Sleeping on the roof terrace, if available, is not only the cheapest option but also usually the coolest and gives you the pleasure of sleeping under the stars, which are incredibly bright outside of Bamako because there is so little light pollution. However, use a mosquito net and be prepared to wake to prayer call at 05:00.
Mali has numerous musical instruments you can learn. In particular it is a popular place to learn how to play various drums (bongo, djembe,...)
Mali is one of the poorest countries in the world. The average worker's annual salary is approximately US$1,500. However, seasonal variations lead to regular temporary unemployment of agricultural workers.
Mali is politically unstable and therefore lawlessness is wide spread. In June 2012, Mali was hit by a political crisis and a civil war, which temporarily split the country into two parts: the north being named as "Azawad" and being controlled by a group of Islamist rebels, whilst the south experienced a military junta. Travelling in Timbuktu and Gao provinces is particularly extremely dangerous, and as of July 2012, the Islamist rebel groups have ordered all shrines which are considered to involve idolatry to be destroyed. The U.S., Canada and UK travel advisories have since continued to advise against all travel to Mali at this time.
The train between Bamako and Kayes is notorious for theft: if taking the train, you should exercise extreme caution, carry a pocket flashlight, and keep your belongings with you and valuables directly on your person at all times.
You also have a good chance of encountering the police. They are generally mostly concerned with directing traffic and fining people for improper papers, so you have little to fear from them, but always at least carry a copy of your passport and visa (and preferably the original if keep it secure).
Carrying only a driving license is not sufficient and might lead to a ride to the police office unless you bribe your way out. Notice that the police in Bamako often stop taxis, although this can be somewhat avoided by never putting more than four passengers in the car and by taking only "official" cabs (the ones with the red plates only: in Bamako, a car with white plates is not an official taxi even if it has a taxi sign on top, regardless of what the driver may tell you).
The northeast half of Mali (everything north and east of Mopti Province) is simply not safe for travel, as the murky alliance of Al Qaeda and Tuareg rebel groups have been targeting foreigners for kidnappings. Unfortunately, in late 2011, these kidnappings occurred in other parts of the country as well (including the capital), and tourist-kidnapping by terrorists is a real concern.
Although homosexuality is legal in Mali, an investigation by the Pew Global Attitudes Project in 2007 showed that 98% of Malians surveyed believe that homosexuality is a way of life that should be rejected - a rate similar to Kenya and Egypt. LGBT travellers should be careful with public displays of affection.
Some political restlessness as of July 2020 stemming from the overturning of results of parliamentary polls for 31 seats by the Constitutional Court that resulted in candidates from President Keita's party getting re-elected; there have been protests in the city of Bamako.
Although it is rarely enforced, you are required to have an international vaccination card showing immunization against yellow fever. It is also recommended to get Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, typhoid, and meningitis vaccinations. You may also consider getting a polio vaccination due to the outbreak of polio in Northern Nigeria that has spread around the region.
Mali is highly endemic for malaria, including s. falciparum malaria, the most acute variety. All travellers should plan to take a malaria prophylaxis throughout their time in Mali (mephloquine and Malarone are the most common). The other main precautions are to use insect repellent in the evenings and to sleep under a mosquito net in all but the fancy, sealed, air-conditioned hotels. This will significantly lower your exposure to malaria as the mosquitoes that carry the parasite are only active at night, but you would want to take these precautions even without the risk of malaria simply to avoid being covered in itchy mosquito bites! You will almost never see or be bothered by mosquitoes during the day.
Food and water
The rule "cook it peel it or forget it" should be followed. Also water should only be drunk out of sealed bottles or after it is sterilized through boiling or chemical utensils. The food is another issue. It's sometimes difficult to know if it's cooked long enough. Also, to Westerners, the unusual spices are sometimes the cause for sickness, especially diarrhea. Also expect little stones or bits of grit in the meal, especially the local couscous (this doesn't mean it's unsafe though, as it has been cooked long and thoroughly). For the traveller the main danger is diarrhea. For mild diarrhea you should be sure to get lots of rest, drink lots of clean water and eat soft plain foods. If the diarrhea is severe or lasts several days, be prepared to take antibiotics. During the illness the body will lose a lot of water and salt. Coca Cola (sugar and water) and pretzel sticks (salt) are available everywhere and can help with recovery. There are also instant powders that have the necessary glucose and salts available to purchase.
Ramadan is the 9th and holiest month in the Islamic calendar and lasts 29–30 days. Muslims fast every day for its duration and most restaurants will be closed until the fast breaks at dusk. Nothing (including water and cigarettes) is supposed to pass through the lips from dawn to sunset. Non-Muslims are exempt from this, but should still refrain from eating or drinking in public as this is considered very impolite. Working hours are decreased as well in the corporate world. Exact dates of Ramadan depend on local astronomical observations and may vary somewhat from country to country. Ramadan concludes with the festival of Eid al-Fitr, which may last several days, usually three in most countries.
If you're planning to travel to Mali during Ramadan, consider reading Travelling during Ramadan.
Greeting people is very important. You should get familiar with the greetings in French or, better, in Bambara. Vendors should be treated in a proper way, even when you buy just fruit or bread. It is very important to show a general interest in the other person, so ask about family, work, children, and so on. The answer is simple: "Ça va" (It's all right). The interlocutor should not answer in a negative way.
- "Bonjour. ça va?" (Good morning. Are you all right)?
- "Et votre famille?" (And your family?)
- "Et vos enfants?" (And your children?)
- "Et votre travail?" (And your job?).