Uttar Pradesh

Map of India showing Uttar Pradesh's location

Uttar Pradesh (UP, Hindi: उत्तर प्रदेश Uttar Pradeś) is a large state in the Plains region of India. With around 240 million inhabitants in 2021, it is not just more populous than other states of India, but all other sub-national regions in the world. If UP were a country, it'd be the fifth most populous country, just behind Indonesia and ahead of Pakistan.


Uttar Pradesh regions - Color-coded map — switch to interactive map
Uttar Pradesh regions - Color-coded map
The central part of the state including the capital, Lucknow, is known as the granary of India, and the centre of various period films of Bollywood and modern films.
Between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers, in the western and southwestern part of the state. It is home to Agra, which is the main destination for visitors.
  Northern Bundelkhand
A geographic and cultural region of gentle hills in the southwestern part of the state.
The eastern end of Uttar Pradesh is one of the most ancient regions of India and enjoys a rich heritage and culture.
On the upper Ganges alluvial plain in the northern part of the state.


Here are nine of the most notable cities.

  • 1 Lucknow — capital of Uttar Pradesh, the City of Nawab, also home to one of the IIMs
  • 2 Agra — tourist capital of India, home to three UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the Taj Mahal
  • 3 Ayodhya — known as the birthplace of the Hindu God Rama and Lord Rishabhadeva, first Tirthankar of the Jains
  • 4 Jhansi — historical city of Bundelkhand
  • 5 Kanpur — once known as the "Manchester of India", now famous for its leather works and IIT Kanpur
  • 6 Mathura — known as the birthplace of Lord Krishna
  • 7 Prayagraj (Allahabad) — holy place where the rivers Ganges, Yamuna and Saraswati meet
  • 8 Sarnath — the site of the Buddha Sakyamuni's first teaching after gaining enlightenment
  • 9 Varanasi — one of the holiest cities in India to Hindus, many temples are off-limits to non-Hindus, on the banks of the Ganges

Other destinations[edit]

  • 1 Dudhwa National Park — A project for wildlife preservation
  • 2 Etawah Safari Park — A project for wildlife preservation
  • 3 Pilibhit Tiger Reserve


Uttar Pradesh is the fourth largest state in terms of land area. The western plain is the most urban region. The postal code of Uttar Pradesh is 121XXX - 285XXX. Agriculture is the most important section of Uttar Pradesh’s economy, employing about three-quarters of the work force. Uttar Pradesh has the largest production of food grain and oilseeds in India. In addition, UP ranks the first in the production of wheat, maize, barley, gram, sugar cane, and potatoes. The three most important industries of UP are sugar, cotton fabrics and diversified food preparations. Goods carrier equipment, photostat machines, chemicals, polyester fibre and steel tube galvanized sheets are the other big industries of UP.

Kathak, one of the eight recognised classical dance forms in India, was born in Uttar Pradesh. Additionally, the countryside songs and dances are significant traits of the local culture. Uttar Pradesh is famous for handicrafts such as carpet weaving, hand printing, chikan (a type of embroidery), metal enamelling, brocade and brass, and ebony work. Uttar Pradesh has the biggest brass and copperware manufacturing industry in India.


The State of Uttar Pradesh has an ancient and rich history. It was recognised in the later Vedic Age as Brahmarshi Desha or Madhya Desha. Many great sages of the Vedic times flourished in this state. Several sacred books of the Aryans were also composed here. Two great epics of India, Ramayana and Mahabharata, appear to have been inspired by Uttar Pradesh.

Uttar Pradesh has played a vital role in the history of many different religions. In the sixth century BCE, Uttar Pradesh was associated with two new religions - Jainism and Buddhism. It was at Sarnath that the Buddha preached his first sermon and laid the foundations of his order, and it was in Kushinagar in Uttar Pradesh, where Buddha breathed his last breath. Several pilgrimage centres in Uttar Pradesh like Ayodhya, Prayag, Varanasi and Mathura became reputed centres of learning. In the medieval period, the area passed under Muslim rule and led the way to new synthesis of Hindu and Islamic cultures. Ramananda and his disciple Kabir, Tulsidas, Surdas and other intellectuals contributed to the growth of literature in Khadiboli, Braj Bhasha, Awadhi and other languages nowadays treated as dialects of Hindi.

Uttar Pradesh preserved its intellectual excellency even under the British administration. The British combined Agra and Oudh into one province, and called it United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. The name was shortened to the United Provinces in 1935. In January 1950, the United Provinces was renamed as Uttar Pradesh.

The state is bounded by the states of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh as well as Nepal to the north, Haryana and Delhi to the west, Madhya Pradesh to the south, and Bihar to the east. Uttar Pradesh can be divided into two distinct regions, (i) Southern hills and (ii) Gangetic plain.

Get in[edit]

By plane[edit]

Uttar Pradesh has international airports at Kushinagar, Lucknow, Varanasi and Ayodhya, with another fifth international airport in Noida expected to open in late 2024. Besides, the state also has some smaller airports with domestic operations.

Get around[edit]


  • Sangam, Anand Bhavan, Minto Park, Sita Samahit Isthal, Company Garden, New Yamuna Bridge, and lots more in the holy city Allahabad (Prayag).
  • Ghats at Varanasi (Kashi).
  • Nawab's or Royal city Lucknow.


Take a holy dip in Sangam at Allahabad and visit ghats at Varanasi and it is a very royal place.

In Lucknow, there is a place called Chowk. Chowk has tons to offer (in terms of touristy locations like the Imambaras) and its narrow streets are interesting.


The cuisine consists of both vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. Uttar Pradesh's most famous dishes include kebabs, Dum Biryani, and various Mutton recipes. The Chaat, samosa and pakora, among the most popular snacks in all of India, are also originally from Uttar Pradesh.

Uttar Pradesh has been greatly influenced by Mughal cooking techniques. Mughali cuisine is also integral to Western and Central Uttar Pradesh's cuisine.

The state is famous for its Nawabi foods (of Lucknow and environs) and use of mutton, paneer, and rich spices including cardamom and saffron. Lucknow, the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, is a heaven for food lovers due to the sheer range of variety available. Lucknow, before being the seat of Nawabs (Kings) of the Awadh region, is the birth place of the famous Awadhi cuisine. Awadhi cuisine bears similarities to those of Kashmir and Punjab. It is a good place to find refined Muslim Indian food. During your visit, go to Old Lucknow. It's normal to visit eateries which are 150-200 years old, serving famed Lucknowi Biryani (mutton & Basmati rice preparation with exotic herbs), nehari, kulcha, sheermal and many more traditional dishes.

Varanasi is another city where people live for eating. It is famous for the Hindu Vegetarian style which includes chaat, tikki, and kachori, among others.


Always have a keen eye to famous drinks like Lassi, Kullahd, etc. People will guide you very well for that.

Stay safe[edit]

Uttar Pradesh is notoriously known for kidnapping, particularly outside the metropolitan cities. While this is mainly of concern to residents, as always, travel sensibly and remain vigilant.

Go next[edit]

This region travel guide to Uttar Pradesh is an outline and may need more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. If there are Cities and Other destinations listed, they may not all be at usable status or there may not be a valid regional structure and a "Get in" section describing all of the typical ways to get here. Please plunge forward and help it grow!