This article provides an index to the countries of Europe and catalogues certains aspects such as currency, dialling codes and time zones that affect a traveller. Items that are the same across most of Europe, such as electricity, are not shown in the table, but are detailed, along with the relevant exceptions in separate sections.
The script used in the country concerned can be inferred from the script used when writing the country's name using its local format.
Driving is on the right on the European mainland, in Iceland and in Gibraltar, while one drives on the left in the other island nations (United Kingdom plus dependencies, Ireland, Malta and Cyprus). Petrol (gasoline) is dispensed by the litre throughout Europe. Distances and speed limits are posted in kilometres and kilometres per hour, except in the United Kingdom and its dependencies (apart from Gibraltar) where they are posted in miles and miles per hour.
Apart from Azerbijan, Belarus, Georgia and Russia who use 220 V at 50 Hz, all of Europe uses 230 V at 50 Hz. Plugs and sockets however vary from country to country; adaptors are available for travellers. The various types of plug are illustrated below and their usage by country is in the attached table.
C-type plug - Also fits E and F type sockets (max 2.5 amps)
The standard time in most of Europe apart from Russia and certain of its neighbours is GMT, GMT+1 or GMT+2. In 2023 those countries of Europe that observe daylight saving time will put their clocks forward at 0100 GMT on Sunday, 26 March and put their clocks back at 01:00 GMT on Sunday, 29 October.
Civitatis Vaticanae (Latin) Città del Vaticano (Italian)
€ - EUR - Euro
+1 / +2
C, F, L
§1: There are multiple systems of codes by which countries are identified. The international vehicle registration code must appear on the back of any vehicle that is travelling in a country other than the country where it is registered. Unlike the vehicle code which can have 1, 2 or 3 letters, the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code, which is shown here and used in many contexts, always has 2 letters.
§2: The first item is the symbol that is usually used in the shops, the second is the ISO 4217 code (which is used in banking) and the third the the name of the currency.
§3: Where three numbers are listed, they refer to Ambulance, Fire and Police respectively (i.e. in alphabetic order). For the sake of brevity, alternate numbers such as 999 in the United Kingdom are not shown.
§4: Standard timezone / Daylight saving timezone. In 2023 those countries of Europe that observe daylight saving time put their clocks forward at 0100 GMT on Sunday, 26 March and put their clocks back at 01:00 GMT on Sunday, 29 October.
§5: From 1 January 2024, Bulgaria will use the euro.
§6: Time in Kaliningrad is GMT+2, for the rest of European Russia, it is GMT+3.