- Anti Atlas, Morocco — the westernmost extension hugging the Atlantic coastline
- High Atlas, Morocco — as the name suggests, the highest section of the range, and is the site of its perhaps best known attraction, Marrakech
- Middle Atlas, Morocco — east from the High Atlas, and not as high, the Middle Atlas is known for its cedar forests and Barbary macaques
- Saharan Atlas, Algeria — inland from the high plateaus of Mediterranean Algeria
The mountain range is rich in wildlife, although some of its species are critically endangered or outright extinct in the wild, and belongs with the Eurasian ecoregion.
Much of the Atlas Mountains are inhabited by the Berber people.