Rail travel in Canada
Although trains are not nearly as ubiquitous and convenient a mode of travel in North America as in Europe or East Asia, they remain popular with some travelers because of the spacious design of the cars, the scenic routes, and the overall comfort of the train ride. Some people prefer to take trains because they do not require long waits at security like at airports, or because they are uncomfortable with flying. Unlike their European counterparts, passenger trains in Canada outside the urban cores can often be off-schedule, sometimes up to several hours late. Train rides in Canada often take much longer than car rides and plane rides, but, when the service is running well, the unique experience can trump the long ride.
- See also: Across Canada by train
The development of railways in Canada largely mirrors that of its southern neighbour, the United States. Railways once formed the backbone of Canada's long distance transportation system, and played a significant role in forming the Canadian federation, as railways enabled people and goods to move relatively quickly from the main population centres in Toronto and Montreal to major seaports along the coast such as Vancouver and Halifax. However, with the advent of private car ownership and commercial air travel following World War II, passenger railway lines in Canada went into a rapid decline from which they never fully recovered. Today, the Canadian railway system lags behind much of the rest of the developed world, and is primarily used for freight. There are no high-speed lines, and taking the train usually works out slower than driving yourself. Nevertheless, there has been a revival of sorts in rail transport since the beginning of the 21st century, and in the densely populated Windsor-Quebec City corridor, rail transport today is relatively reliable, and can be as fast as driving yourself when road traffic is heavy.
Canada's railway system primarily transports freight, and freight has priority over passenger rail-line use. Therefore, passenger trains are sometimes delayed. The country's two major railway companies, Canadian National Railway and Canadian Pacific Railway, turned over operation of their passenger services in 1978 to the state-owned VIA Rail Canada, which was designed with the American role model Amtrak in mind. In addition to VIA Rail Canada, a few smaller railways in remote areas of Canada also offer passenger service. Montreal (Exo), Toronto (GO Transit), and Vancouver (TransLink) have commuter rail. A number of companies offer excursion services primarily geared towards sightseeing and tours.
VIA Rail has been subject to widely varying political priorities as much if not more than Amtrak in the U.S. Significant funding and service cuts were sometimes followed mere years later by an exact reversal of policy and vice versa. The current Trudeau government has announced grand plans for railways and even a potential high-speed rail line along (parts of) the Windsor-Quebec corridor, but as of 2020 no more than talk has come of this. Provincial initiatives seem to have similarly gone nowhere.
For travel within Canada, the passenger rail system is (for the most part) a monopoly. For long-distance travel, it can cost more time and money to travel by train than to fly; for short trips, it's usually cheaper to take the bus and faster to drive yourself. Outside the Windsor-Quebec corridor, trains can be considered to be more hotels on tracks rather than a practical way to get from city to city. These trains offer comfortable seats or sleeping accommodations, unique scenic views, and meals at a premium price, if you have the extra time for the experience. Within the Quebec City - Windsor corridor, VIA Rail is more comparable to air travel; train travel will still take more time than flying, but taking the train in this region can be significantly cheaper than flying, considering baggage fees and taxi fares to and from suburban airports.
In a few remote regions, such as Churchill in northern Manitoba, rail has been left in service as it remains the only terrestrial means to reach a remote community. In contrast with the United States, where at the very least, the decline in passenger railway routes has been arrested, more and more Canadian passenger railway lines are abandoned. Examples of this are the lines of Courtenay-Victoria in British Columbia, Cochrane-Washago in Ontario and Matapédia-Gaspé in Québec which all closed in the 2010s. In addition, a growing list of destinations (such as Prince Edward Island and the island of Newfoundland) that have lost all rail service rely instead on the Trans-Canada Highway.
The peak periods for most rail companies in North America are somewhere between March/April and September; however, you should check with the rail company. In the off-peak season, prices drop significantly on most carriers.
All trains will have coach seats. For longer rides many trains have sleeper rooms. The price of these rooms depends on the quality - whether or not there is a sink, or a private shower/toilet. You will pay a considerable supplement for sleeper car service in addition to the regular fare. Meals are included in the price of sleeper class on The Canadian and The Ocean.
Remember to tip your server in the dining car and the dining room attendant. If you are travelling in a sleeper car, in which meals are included, the standard tipping rate is about $2 for breakfast, $3 for lunch and $5 for dinner. Bedroom attendants are typically tipped about $10 per person per night, but you can tip more of the service was exemplary. If you're travelling on The Canadian, keep in mind that the crews change over at Winnipeg, so be sure to tip the bedroom attendant for the first leg before reaching Winnipeg.
On the Rocky Mountaineer, the standard accepted tipping rate is about $30-40 per person in SilverLeaf and $35-45 per person in GoldLeaf for a two-day trip.
Passenger rail companies
Servicing western and eastern Canada
- See also: Rail travel in the United States
- Amtrak, ☏ , toll-free: . Operates trains between the United States of America and Canada on three lines. From Seattle to Vancouver on the Amtrak Cascades; from New York City to Toronto on the Maple Leaf (with VIA Rail staff on the Canadian side and Amtrak staff on the American side); and from New York City to Montreal on the Adirondack.
- VIA Rail Canada, toll-free: . The one remaining national network, federally-owned and subsidized but still not inexpensive. Cross-country passenger service in three mainline segments Halifax-Montréal, Quebec City-Montréal-Toronto-Windsor, Toronto-Vancouver. This is the only option, if traveling across Canada by train.
Serving western Canada
- Canadian Pacific Railway (CP), toll-free: . Turned its passenger services over to VIA Rail in 1978 (and most were eliminated in 1986), but inaugurated its luxury Royal Canadian Pacific service in 2000. A limited six-day, five-night 31-passenger tourist train with 19 restored staterooms using 1919-1931 era rolling stock, this Calgary-Vancouver luxury run is niche marketed at typically $11,000/person; passengers must be 18 or over.
- Keewatin Railway Company, ☏ . First nations-owned company that operates a subsidized connecting train service from The Pas to Pukatawagan which reaches isolated native communities in that region of Manitoba (7.5 hours, twice a week).
- Rocky Mountaineer, toll-free: . Privately-owned, runs daytime sightseeing Rocky Mountaineer tourist trains from Vancouver-Banff and Vancouver-Jasper. As there are no sleeper cars, a two-day trip incurs one night's hotel stay, which is arranged by the company and included in your fare. The upside is that the entire journey is made during daylight hours, meaning that you get to admire the scenery for a longer period. Only operates from late April to early October.
- TransLink, ☏ . This public transit network has the West Coast Express train route that operates on weekdays between Vancouver and Mission, taking about 1.25 hours each way. Trips operate toward Vancouver during the morning commute and toward Mission during the afternoon commute.
- White Pass and Yukon Route, ☏ , [email protected]. Operates out of Skagway, Alaska, and stops in Northern British Columbia on its way to Carcross, Yukon. The route length is 108 km (67.5 mi) and takes 4.5 hours each way. Provides access to a trailhead of the Chilkoot Trail. Service operates from May to early October.
Serving eastern Canada
- Canadian National Railway (CN). Turned its passenger services over to VIA Rail in 1978, but acquired the Algoma Central Railway in 2001 and operates passenger services on this line, most notably the Agawa Canyon Tour Train.
- Exo, toll-free: . A public transit network that operates five commuter train routes in the greater Montreal area, of which one route operates daily and the other routes operate on weekdays only.
- GO Transit, ☏ , toll-free: . GO Transit is a public transit network that operates 7 commuter train lines radiating from Toronto serving municipalities within and near the Greater Toronto Area. The Lakeshore West and Lakeshore East lines operate every day from 6AM to 1AM between Burlington and Oshawa. Three other lines have limited mid-day service to Unionville (Markham), Aurora and Brampton. GO Transit's other train destinations have only rush-hour, peak-direction service.
- Ontario Northland, toll-free: . This railway, owned by the province of Ontario, operates the Polar Bear Express tourist train (Cochrane-Moosonee) in the remote northern part of the province. Traveling the route one way takes 5 hours.
- Train de Charlevoix, ☏ , [email protected]. Operates a daily train between Quebec City and La Malbaie with stops in Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré, Petite-Rivière-Saint-François, Baie-Saint-Paul, Les Éboulements, and Saint-Irénée. Travel time is 4 hours each way between Quebec City and La Malbaie. This tourist train runs along the 125 km route with views of the Saint Lawrence River and mountains.
- Tshiuetin Rail Transportation, ☏ , toll-free: , [email protected]. 10-12 hr of spectacular scenery from Sept-Îles to Schefferville, an otherwise-inaccessible mining community in northern Québec. This line is owned by three First Nations (Aboriginal) groups. This line does not connect to the rest of the North American rail system. One-way: $96.62. Round-trip: $174.15.
There are three international trains that are operated by Amtrak, the U.S. passenger rail company, with connections to VIA Rail Canada trains in Canada. These trains must be booked with Amtrak, except for the Maple Leaf which can also be booked with VIA Rail Canada. Each train has a scheduled customs stop of about 1-1¾ hours at the international border.
- Amtrak Cascades is a route between Vancouver, BC and Eugene. There is a daily round trip between Vancouver, BC and Seattle, and between Vancouver, BC and Portland via Seattle. Between Vancouver, BC and Portland, stops include Bellingham, Mount Vernon, Everett, Edmonds, Seattle, Tukwila, Tacoma, Lacey (Olympia), Centralia, Kelso (Longview), and Vancouver, WA. Travel time to Vancouver, BC from Portland is 8 hours, from Tacoma is 5.5 hours, from Seattle is 4 hours, and from Bellingham is 2 hours. When traveling on the Amtrak Cascades, border control takes place at Pacific Central station both for departing travelers to the United States and arriving passengers from the United States.
- The Maple Leaf, jointly operated by Amtrak and VIA Rail Canada, runs between Toronto and New York City once a day in each direction stopping at Oakville, Burlington, Grimsby, St. Catharines, Niagara Falls (Ontario), Niagara Falls (New York), Buffalo, Buffalo (Depew), Rochester, Syracuse, Rome, Utica, Schenectady, Albany (Rensselaer), Hudson, Rhinecliff, Poughkeepsie, Croton-on-Hudson, and Yonkers. Travel time to Toronto from Niagara Falls (Ontario) is 2 hours, from Buffalo is 4.25 hours, from Syracuse is 6.75 hours, from Albany is 9.5 hours, and from New York City is 12.5 hours. It is possible to travel with this train from Toronto to Niagara Falls in the morning and return to Toronto in the early evening. Border crossing processing takes place in Niagara Falls, where passengers must detrain with their baggage. Train crew members are staffed by VIA Rail within Canada, and by Amtrak within the United States. Scenic features along the route are the Niagara Gorge, the Finger Lakes region, and the Hudson River Valley
- The Adirondack connects Montreal to New York City once a day in each direction stopping at Saint-Lambert, Rouses Point, Plattsburgh, Westport, Ticonderoga, Saratoga Springs, Schenectady, Albany (Rensselaer), Hudson, Rhinecliff, Poughkeepsie, Croton-on-Hudson, and Yonkers. via Schenectady and Albany (Rensselaer). Travel time to Montreal from Plattsburgh is 4.25 hours, from Albany (Rensselaer) is 8.5 hours, and from New York City is 11.5 hours. Border control take place when the train arrives at the border. Scenic features along the route are Lake Champlain and the Hudson River Valley.
In addition, Amtrak has some train routes that do not enter Canada, but that stop at cities adjacent to the Canada-United States border.
- There is a train route between Chicago and Pontiac via Detroit. Detroit is adjacent to Windsor, which has a train route operated by VIA Rail Canada (see below). Public transit bus service is available in and between Detroit and Windsor.
- There is a train route between Chicago and Port Huron. Port Huron is adjacent to Sarnia, which has a train route operated by VIA Rail Canada (see below). There is no public transit between Port Huron and Sarnia.
VIA Rail Canada
Sleeper cars are available on some of VIA Rail Canada's long-distance services. Some long-distance trains also feature a dining car where you can purchase meals during the journey. Meals in the dining car are typically included in the ticket price for sleeper car passengers. The following are VIA Rail Canada's routes from east to west:
- The Ocean has three departures a week per direction making the journey between Montreal and Halifax via Drummondville, Sainte-Foy (near Quebec City), Riviere-du-Loup, Mont-Joli, Campbellton, Moncton and Truro. The train operates with modern European Renaissance cars, famously purchased by VIA Rail Canada when planned sleeper services through the Channel Tunnel from Great Britain to mainland Europe were cut. A trip takes about 22 hours between Montreal and Halifax, travelling overnight.
- Northern Quebec trains, which operate into areas of wilderness, where hikers and kayakers can request that the train stop anywhere along that portion of route.
- The Montreal–Jonquière train that operates between Montreal and Jonquière via Shawinigan. Travel one way from terminus to terminus takes about 9 hours.
- The Montreal–Senneterre train operates between Montreal and Senneterre via Shawinigan. Travel one way from terminus to terminus takes about 11.5 hours.
- The Quebec–Ontario Corridor is a network of VIA Rail Canada train routes extending between Quebec City in the northeast and Windsor in southwest Ontario. The Corridor offers comprehensive intercity passenger service to many cities including Quebec City, Montreal, Ottawa, Kingston, Toronto, Brantford, Kitchener, London, Sarnia and Windsor. The Corridor has more than 30 trains operating in either direction on weekdays, and is popular with business travellers and tourists due to fast services that are, in most cases, as fast downtown-to-downtown as commercial airlines. The routes between Toronto, Ottawa and Montreal are VIA Rail Canada's busiest and most frequent; they also have the largest discounts (such as "Escape" fares) if booked well in advance. Besides economy class, trains also offer business class with complimentary meals and alcoholic beverages. Both classes offer complimentary wi-fi and seat power outlets. Routes in the Quebec-Ontario Corridor include:
- Between Sarnia and Toronto including stops in London, St. Marys, Stratford, Kitchener, Guelph, Georgetown, Brampton, and Mississauga. Travel time between Toronto and Sarnia is 5 hours.
- Between Windsor and Toronto including stops in Chatham, London, Ingersoll, Woodstock, Brantford, Burlington, and Oakville. Travel time between Toronto and Windsor is 4.25-4.5 hours.
- Between Toronto and Ottawa including stops in Oshawa, Port Hope, Cobourg, Trenton, Bellevile, Napanee, Kingston, Gananoque, Brockville, and Smiths Falls. Travel time between Toronto and Ottawa is 4.25-4.75 hours.
- Between Toronto and Montreal including stops in Oshawa, Cobourg, Belleville, Kingston, Brockville, Cornwall, and Dorval. Travel time between Toronto and Montreal is 5.25-5.5 hours.
- Between Ottawa and Quebec City including stops in Alexandria, Dorval, Montreal, Saint-Lambert, Saint-Hyacinthe, and Drummondville. Multiple trains per day travel in each direction. Travel time between Ottawa from Quebec City is 6 hours, between Ottawa and Montreal is 2.25 hours, and between Montreal and Quebec City is 3.5 hours.
- The Canadian is VIA Rail Canada's classic, transcontinental train between Toronto and Vancouver, including stops in Sudbury, Sioux Lookout, Winnipeg, Portage la Prairie, Saskatoon, Edmonton, Jasper and Kamloops. The train departs 2 to 3 times per week. The full journey takes 4 days between Toronto and Vancouver with overnight travel. The train can be very expensive but then it is also effectively a travelling hotel with restaurant. To reduce the cost, consider VIA Rail Canada's "deals" on sleeper accommodations 2–3 weeks before travel that can reduce the price by 75 percent. "Escape" fares also provide a deep discount. The trains contain both sleeper berths and cabins, as well as reclining economy seating. Three meals per day are cooked in the train's dining car. These are included in sleeper fares and are available for purchase for economy passengers.
- The Sudbury–White River train operating between Sudbury and White River, both located in Northern Ontario. Traveling one way from terminus to terminus takes around 8.75 hours.
- The Winnipeg–Churchill train (formerly called the Hudson Bay) connects with the Canadian in Winnipeg and takes travellers from the south to the far north of the province of Manitoba via parts of eastern Saskatchewan, with three departures a week to Churchill via The Pas and Thompson. The train to Hudson's Bay is popular with winter tourists who travel north to see Churchill's population of polar bears and tends to sell out early. A trip takes 2 days between Winnipeg and Churchill, travelling overnight.
- The Jasper–Prince Rupert train (formerly called the Skeena) connects with the Canadian in Jasper and operates to Prince Rupert. Traveling one way between Jasper and Prince Rupert involves 7.75 hours on the train between Jasper and Prince George, and 12.5 hours on the train between Prince George and Prince Rupert. The train makes an overnight stop in Prince George, where passengers must leave the train and therefore will need to book a hotel room.
Fares, passes & discounts
VIA Rail Canada offers discounted fares to youth and seniors:
- Youth (12-25) and International Student Identification Card holders get 30% off economy class, 10% off sleeper class, and 10% off multi-day passes (note: this includes the student discount)
- Seniors (60+) get 10% off economy class.
Additionally, passengers may be entitled to unadvertised discounts on top of these fares by being a veteran or member of the Canadian Forces, or through membership to some organizations and professional/alumni associations. As of 2022, Hostelling international members are also eligible at 12.5% discount from VIA Rail Canada.
Make arrangements ahead of time to get lower fares. VIA Rail often has 50% off sales or last minute discounts. Tickets in coach are often reasonably priced and competitive with equivalent plane tickets, however these tickets do not include food and drink on board, requiring coach passengers to pay in the service cars. Sleeper tickets, though significantly more expensive, include food in the prices and allow other privileges exclusive to such passengers.
"Escape" fares offer heavily discounted, non-refundable VIA Rail Canada tickets that are available in limited quantities with various conditions when purchased in advance. These also have a 50% exchange penalty. For example, a June 2023 trip ticket from Toronto to Montreal could cost $54 "Escape", versus $104 regular "Economy". Seats at "Escape" prices are limited in number available per train, and tend to sell out earlier than higher priced seats.
VIA Rail Canada offers "Sleeper Plus Class Deals" on overnight trains. These large discounts for sleeping accommodations are available only to a certain city on a certain train and day, and there are many such discounts listed.
VIA Rail Canada offers hikers, kayakers and residents of remote regions the option of special stops at almost any point on several rural routes, as long as passengers purchase their tickets and specify their exact destination 48 hours in advance. This is not available on all routes: most importantly, the Quebec-Ontario corridor is excluded, as are the prairies west of Winnipeg. Please consult the link for more information on stops that are permitted.
From the beginning of June to the end of October, VIA Rail Canada now allows cyclists to bring their bikes as is aboard trains running in the Corridor to Toronto, Montreal, Ottawa, Quebec City, London, Windsor (Ontario), Jonquiere, and Senneterre. There is a fee of $20 plus tax for each direction of travel and you must check your bicycle at the baggage counter one hour before departure. After that, you are not guaranteed a space for your bike. Upon arrival at Toronto, Ottawa, London, Windsor, or Montreal, the train crew will bring your bike to you at the baggage claim area in the station. At all other stops, you might have to go to the baggage car to retrieve your bike. Do not leave any equipment (i.e. pannier bags) attached to your bike when you check it in. These must be checked in separately. Check the VIA Rail Canada website for train schedules with bike racks.
- Main article: Rocky Mountaineer
Rocky Mountaineer is a private company that runs long-distance luxury sightseeing trains out of Vancouver. Its most popular and arguably most scenic route is the First Passage to the West, which travels between Vancouver and Banff in 2 days, along the old route of The Canadian, stopping overnight at Kamloops where a one-night hotel stay is included in the ticket price.
Rocky Mountaineer trains have large windows and a glass-domed roof designed to let you take in the views as it travels along, with GoldLeaf passengers also having access to an outdoor viewing platform. Breakfast and lunch is included in all Rocky Mountaineer fares; served to your seat in SilverLeaf class, while GoldLeaf passengers have a separate dining room on the lower deck where meals are served.
Canadian National Railways
- Agawa Canyon Tour Train, toll-free: . This heritage train tour provides access to a vast wilderness region from Sault Ste. Marie to Hawk Junction (near Wawa). Day trips run daily from mid-June through mid-October.
- Niagara Weekend GO Train Service. GTA commuter rail operator GO Transit offers year-round weekend train service between Toronto Union station and Niagara Falls (Ontario). There are 4 trips per day on Saturdays, Sundays, and most official holidays. These trains feature special bicycle cars which have bike racks on the lower level and seating on the upper level. You can recognize them by the bicycle decals on the sides. There is no additional charge to bring your bike aboard and space is given on a first-come-first-served basis. These trains make intermediate stops at Exhibition (Toronto), Port Credit (Mississauga), Oakville, Burlington, and St. Catharines.