For other places with the same name, see Moscow (disambiguation).

Since its founding in 1147, Moscow (Russian: Москва, Moskva) has been at the crossroads of history as the capital of empires and a frequent target for invaders. As the capital of the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union, and, today, the Russian Federation, it has played a central role in the development of the largest country in the world. For many, the sight of the Kremlin complex in the centre of the city is still loaded with symbolism and history.

Today, Moscow is a thriving, exuberant capital city that overflows with life, culture and sometimes traffic. A sprawling metropolis, the northernmost megacity on the planet, and the most populous city entirely within Europe, Moscow is home to numerous museums, Soviet-era monoliths and post-Soviet kitsch, but continues to pave the way forward as Muscovites move into the 21st century.



Central Moscow districts

  Central Moscow
Just north of the bend in the Moscow River. Includes the Moscow Kremlin, Red Square, St Basil's Cathedral, and the famous GUM department store.
  Moscow Central-North (Krasnoselsky South, Meshchansky South & Tverskoy South raions)
North from the Kremlin, east from Tverskaya Street, north from Pokrova Street, the area within the Boulevard Ring. Home to the famous TsUM department store, as well as the Bolshoi Theatre, one of the world's premier opera and ballet venues.
  Moscow Central-South (Yakimanka North & Zamoskvorechye raions)
Bordered by the Garden Ring and on north the Moskva River
  Moscow Central-West (Arbat, Khamovniki North, Presnensky East, Tverskoy South raions)
North from the Moskva River, west from Tverskaya Street, the area within the Boulevard Ring.
  Moscow Central-East (Basmanny West, Tagansky North raions)
North from the Moskva River, south from Pokrova Street, the area within the Boulevard Ring.

Outlying districts

  Moscow Outskirts
The outskirts of the city include areas between Moscow's Garden Ring and the Moscow Ring Road (MKAD). Also includes the Moscow International Business Center (MIBC), also known as Moscow-City, with its modern skyscrapers, a symbol of Russia's transition to capitalism in the 1990s.
  Zelenograd and New Moscow
Consists of Zelenograd (Зеленоград) and New Moscow, consisting of Novomoskovsky (Новомосковский) & Troitsky (Троицкий) Administrative Okrugs, in the southwest.


Red Square, painting by Fedor Alekseev, 1802

Moscow is the financial and political centre of Russia and the countries formerly comprising the Soviet Union. It has a population of around 13 million and an area of 2,511 square kilometres (970 sq mi) after an expansion in 2012. One-tenth of all Russian citizens live in the Moscow metropolitan area. Moscow is the second most populous city in Europe, after Istanbul, and has the most populous metropolitan area in Europe, with some 21 million residents. Moscow is in the UTC+3 time zone; there is no daylight saving time.

Many years since the break up of the Soviet Union, the economy has improved, and the modern era has brought upon a wide variety of construction projects, modern architecture and newer transport systems replacing the derelict ones during Soviet times.


Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation+Snow totals in mm
Average of Moscow
Imperial conversion
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation+Snow totals in inches

Moscow is a large metropolis on the Moskva River, which bends its way through the city. The historical center is on the northern bank of the river. The other major waterway is the Yauza River, which flows into the Moskva east of the Kremlin.

Much of Moscow's geography is defined by the 3 'Ring Roads' that circle the city at various distances from the centre, roughly following the outline of the walls that used to surround Moscow. With Red Square and the Kremlin forming the very centre, the innermost ring road is the Boulevard Ring (Bulvarnoye Koltso), built in the 1820s where the 16th century walls used to be. It runs from the Christ the Savior Cathedral in south-west central Moscow, to the mouth of the Yauza in south-east central Moscow.

The next ring road, the Garden Ring (Sadovoe Koltso), derives its name from the fact that landowners near the road in Tsarist times were obligated to maintain gardens to make the road attractive. In Soviet times, the road was widened, and there are now no gardens there.

The Third Ring Road, completed in 2004, is not much use for tourists but is a heavily used motorway which absorbs a bit of Moscow's traffic. It roughly follows the outline of Kamer-Kollezhsky val, the customs boundary of Moscow in the 18th – early 20th century. The outer edge of Moscow is largely defined by the Moscow Ring Road (widely known by its abbreviation: MKAD-Moskovskaya kolcevaya avto doroga), a motorway which is 108 km (67 mi) long and encircles the entire city (similar to London's M25 and Paris' Périphérique).



The climate of Moscow features warm summers and long, cold winters. Temperatures average below freezing for four months a year, between mid-November and mid to late March. Snow cover typically forms in late November or early December and melts in early April.

Get in


See Russia#Get in for visa requirements to Russia.

By plane


Moscow (MOW  IATA for all airports) has four commercial passenger airports. The ones foreign visitors are most likely to arrive in are Sheremetyevo and Domodedovo.

1 Sheremetyevo International Airport (SVO IATA) (32 km (20 mi) northwest of the centre of Moscow, in the city of Khimki), +7 495 232-65-65. The main hub of Russian flag carrier Aeroflot. There are 3 terminals: A (business charter aviation), B (domestic Aeroflot flights; being merged with terminal C), C (international Aeroflot flights; being merged with terminal B). Sheremetyevo Airport serves about 33 million passengers per year. Southern terminals was closed in 2022. Sheremetyevo International Airport (Q192733) on Wikidata Sheremetyevo International Airport on Wikipedia

To travel between the airport and the city:

  • Aeroexpress is the only rail link to the airport. Trains operate between the airport and the Belorussky Railway Terminal[dead link] in the northwest section of the city centre. It also makes some additional stops, namely at Okruznaya, Savelovsky train station and Begovaya, where you can take the metro too. Trains stop every 30 or 60 minutes from 05:00 to 00:30. The journey takes 50 minutes and costs 500 руб one-way if you buy your ticket at the airport or 450 руб if you buy your ticket online or via mobile app in advance. The ticket for a couple costs 850 руб, for a group up to 4 people - 950 руб. Keep your paper or mobile ticket for the entire Aeroexpress journey. From the Belorussky Railway Terminal, the journey to the city center takes an additional 20 minutes by metro.
  • Bus #851 (57 руб for a 90-minute transfer ticket purchased from the driver) and Bus #949 (80 руб) operate service between the terminals and the Rechnoy Vokzal Metro Station of Metro Line 2 (dark green). If taking a cheaper regular bus #851 or #817 (see below), the driver hands you a red card, which you then have to validate at the scanner, or you can purchase a ticket or Troika transport card at the ticket machine right at the bus stop in front of Terminal D arrival hall's exit. The majority of drivers don't speak any English, so don't depend on them for assistance. Once you get off the bus, continue by foot a few steps in the direction the bus was going in, and you'll see the metro station on your right in the first opening between the buildings. When returning to the airport, after leaving the Rechnoy Vokzal metro station, cross the street, go around the fence on the other side of the street and look for the bus under the orange-colored shopping center.
  • Bus #817 (57 руб for a 90-minute transfer ticket purchased from the driver) or Bus #948 (80 руб) operate service between the terminals and the Planernaya metro station, at the northwest terminus of Metro Line 7 (purple). The journey by bus to the metro stations takes approximately 40 minutes and the journey to the city centre by metro takes an additional 40 minutes. Buses operate from approximately 05:30 to 00:45.
  • Bus #1185 (200 руб operated by Aeroexpress, connects terminals B and C with Khovrino metro station. Every 15 min between 7:45 and 21:15, the journey lasts 20 min. Tickets can be bought online and in the bus.
  • Night Bus H1 operates every 30 minutes between 00:30 and 05:30. The bus operates between the airport, city center (including Kitay-Gorod Transport Hub, where you can change to other night routes), and Yugo-Zapadnaya metro station. Route plan can be found here[dead link].
  • Uber, which works in Russia in the partnership with the popular local service Yandex.Taxi, operates service to the city centre for a fixed base rate, before surge pricing, of 850-1000 руб for UberX class, depending on distance. Transfers to the other Moscow airports cost a fixed rate, before surge pricing, of 1500 руб.
  • Fixed Price Official Taxis are available, with the price based on the destination neighborhood. A fixed price official taxi costs 1800 руб to the city centre. Note that there is a toll of 100 руб for taking the highway to/from Sheremetyevo Airport.
  • Driving past the toll bar should be avoided whenever possible as there are fees to do so. In addition to entry charge of 100 руб/hour (rounded up to the next hour), after entering the toll bar, there is an extra charge from 100 руб/hour to 300 руб/hour, depending on the distance from the entrance and the comfort of parking—with an unofficial option of an unlimited-time stay for 300 руб. However, there are unofficial parking lots near the airport, with daily rates starting at 200 руб.

2 Domodedovo International Airport (DME IATA) (45 km (28 mi) southeast of the centre of Moscow), +7 495 933-66-66. It carries slightly more passengers than Sheremetyevo International Airport on an annual basis. The airport is the base of S7 Airlines, and is also the preferred airport for most foreign airlines serving Moscow. Free WiFi is available throughout the airport. There are plenty of cafes, bars, restaurants, and shops in the airport. Domodedovo International Airport (Q186614) on Wikidata Domodedovo International Airport on Wikipedia

To travel between the airport and the city:

  • Aeroexpress trains operate between the airport and the Paveletsky Railway Terminal[dead link] in the southeast section of the city centre. Trains depart every 30 minutes from 06:00 to 00:30. The journey takes 50 minutes and costs 500 руб one-way if you buy your ticket at the airport or 450 руб if you buy your ticket online or via mobile app in advance. The ticket for a couple costs 850 руб, for a group up to 4 people 950 руб. Keep your paper or mobile ticket for the entire Aeroexpress journey. From the Paveletsky Railway Terminal, the journey to the city center takes an additional 20 minutes by metro.
  • Commuter trains are a cheaper method of traveling between the airport and the Paveletsky Railway Terminal[dead link]. The journey by commuter train takes 75 minutes and costs 120 руб.
  • Bus #308 operate around-the-clock between the airport and the Domodedovskaya Metro Station near the southeastern end of Metro Line 2 (dark green). There is plenty of space on the buses for luggage. The buses operate every 15 minutes, but every 40 minutes between 00:00 and 06:00. The trip takes 30 minutes and costs 120 руб. From the Domodedovskaya Metro Station, the journey to the center takes another 40 minutes by metro. When headed towards the airport, at Domodedovskaya Metro station, take the exit to the south (downtown side) turn right in the underpass, and follow it to the end, then take the stairs. There are crude stencilled signs of Bus 308 on the pillars to guide you. When you get to street level you will see a tall building across the street with blue words reading "Орехово-Борисово Северное". The bus stop is next to this building.
  • Uber, which works in Russia in the partnership with the popular local service Yandex.Taxi, operates service to the city centre for a fixed base rate, before surge pricing, of 850-1000 руб for UberX class, depending on distance. Transfers to the other Moscow airports cost a fixed rate, before surge pricing, of 1500 руб.
  • Fixed Price Official Taxis are available, with the price based on the destination neighborhood. A fixed price official taxi costs 1650 руб to the city centre.

3 Vnukovo International Airport (VKO  IATA) (30 km (19 mi) southwest from the centre of Moscow), +7 495 937-55-55 (Head Office). Vnukovo International Airport serves approximately 12 million passengers per year. Vnukovo International Airport (Q273462) on Wikidata Vnukovo International Airport on Wikipedia

To travel between the airport and the city:

  • Aeroexpress trains operate between the airport and the Kievsky Railway Terminal[dead link] in the southwest section of the city centre. Trains depart every 30 or 60 minutes from 06:00 to 00:00. The journey takes 40 minutes and costs 500 руб one-way if you buy your ticket at the airport or 450 руб if you buy your ticket online or via mobile app in advance. The ticket for a couple costs 850 руб, for a group up to 4 people 950 руб. Keep your paper or mobile ticket for the entire Aeroexpress journey. From the Kievsky Railway Terminal, the journey to the city center takes an additional 20 minutes by metro.
  • Buses #911 and #611[dead link] operates between the airport and the Yugo-Zapadnaya and Troparyovo Metro Stations, at the southwestern end of Metro Line 1 (Red). The bus journey takes 35-40 minutes and costs 36 руб if using Troyka transport card or 55 руб if paid to the driver. From the metro stations, the journey to the city center takes an additional 40 minutes.
  • Bus #32[dead link] operates between the airport terminal and the Novopederelkino Metro Station, at the southwestern end of Metro Line 8A (Yellow). Working hours are from 05:15 to 01:20 with ~15 minutes interval. The bus journey takes 25-40 minutes and costs 57 руб paid by cash to the driver. From the metro stations, the journey to the city center takes an additional 40-45 minutes.
  • Uber, which works in Russia in the partnership with the popular local service Yandex.Taxi, operates service to the city centre for a fixed base rate, before surge pricing, of 850-1000 руб for UberX class, depending on distance. Transfers to the other Moscow airports cost a fixed rate, before surge pricing, of 1500 руб.
  • Taxis are best booked either by using a mobile app or over the phone using reputable companies such as LingoTaxi, Ru-De-En-Taxi[dead link], RuskoTaxi[dead link]. Negotiate the price in advance; many taxis charge approximately 1800 руб to the city centre.

4 Zhukovsky International Airport (ZIA  IATA). An airport opened in 2016 with flights to Turkey, Sochi, and Central Asian countries. Zhukovsky International Airport (Q2388744) on Wikidata Zhukovsky International Airport on Wikipedia

Bus and train map (2019)

To travel between the airport and the city:

  • Bus #441э (82 руб) operates between airport and Kotelniki metro station. The bus journey can take from 30 to 60 minutes, dependent on traffic jams.
  • Yandex.Taxi, Gett, Citimobil and other taxi services.
  • Bus+Train service, more information can be found on airport's official website

By train

All aboard the Trans-Siberian!

Moscow is a railway hub, with connections to all parts of Russia and far into Europe and Asia. Due to its hub status, Moscow's train stations are often crowded; trains are the usual form of intercity transport for most Russians. The stations have a reputation for being unsafe but paradoxically the threat of terrorism has improved things: security gates, policing and surveillance deter the casual thugs and villains. Guard your valuables and yourself as you would in any big city.

All long-distance trains are operated by Russian Railways and its subsidiaries, except for a few international trains with other operators. Tickets can be bought at stations or online. For domestic trains, you can show the ticket officer your online boarding pass; however, international trains require a printed ticket. There are usually ticket counters with English-speaking personnel - they may be marked as such, or the clerk may direct you to another counter if they can't cope with your English. See Russia#By train 2 for more details on travelling in Russia by train.

From Saint Petersburg

Saint Petersburg can be reached in 4 hours via the high-speed Sapsan trains. There are seven departures daily each way, at 06:45, 07:00, 13:30, 13:45, 15:00, 19:25, and 19:45, with some trains stopping at Tver, Vyshniy Volochek, Bologoye, and Okulovka. Fares vary and are cheaper if bought well in advance but usually are in the range of 3000-6000 руб.

There are also 13 overnight trains that travel between Moscow and Saint Petersburg and overnight trains are generally cheaper than the Sapsan. The most famous is the luxurious Red Arrow (Красная стрела), a train painted in bright red that departs Saint Petersburg daily at 23:55 while the song Hymn to the Great City plays on its loudspeakers.

From Europe

All trains from Europe halted since 2020

From Eastern Russia and Asia
See also: Trans-Siberian Railway

Tickets for the Trans-Siberian Railway sell out and it is best to buy tickets well in advance. Tickets are sold by the operator as well as via agencies and resellers.

The main line of the Trans-Siberian Railway runs between Moscow and Vladivostok, the biggest Russian city on the Pacific Coast. The Rossiya train leaves Moscow every other day at 13:20, while the slower but cheaper trains #44 or #100 leave every day around midnight. Major stops include Yekaterinburg (24-31 hours; 2000-9000 руб), Omsk (35-48 hours), Novosibirsk (46-54 hours), Krasnoyarsk (54-66 hours), Irkutsk (68-81 hours; 4700-23000 руб), Ulan Ude (75-89 hours), and Vladivostok (7 days; 10000-34000 руб).

The other routes of the Trans-Siberian Railway, between Moscow and China, are more popular among tourists. There are two weekly trains to/from Beijing (US$500-1,200), the Trans-Mongolian (Train #4) via Ulaanbaatar and the Trans-Manchurian (Vostok/Train #20) via Manchuria. Both journeys take six nights but the ride via Mongolia offers more scenery.

Train stations in Moscow


Moscow has 10 train stations, 9 of which are near metro stations close to the center of Moscow. Be sure to note the station from which your train is departing, which will be indicated on the ticket, or online. Three stations (Leningradsky, Yaroslavsky, and Kazansky) are on one huge square, informally known as the "Three Stations' Square". A running joke among Moscow taxi drivers since the Soviet times is to be able to pick up a fare from one of them to the other, taking the unwary tourist on an elaborate ride in circles. Be prepared for enormous queues trying to enter or exit the Metro at peak times, as people are getting off or on the commuter trains.

# Train Station Nearby Metro Station(s) Destinations of Interest to Tourists
1 Belorussky (Белорусский вокзал)[dead link] Belorusskaya (Train 23/24 Paris, Strasbourg, Frankfurt), (Train 17/18 Nice, Monte Carlo, Genoa, Milan, Verona, Innsbruck, Vienna), (Train 21/22 Prague, Olomouc), Berlin, Ostrava, Warsaw, Smolensk, Minsk (10h), Kaliningrad, Brest, Uglich, Kalyazin, Rybinsk, Aeroexpress trains from/to Sheremetyevo International Airport.
2 Kazansky (Каза́нский вокзал)[dead link] Komsomolskaya Kazakhstan, Ulyanovsk, Uzbekistan, Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan (11 hr, 2500 руб 2nd class), Novorossiysk, Orenburg, Ossetia, Altay, Ufa, Mordovia, Penza, Cheboksary, Mari El, Tumen, Rostov-on-Don, Adler, Kolomna, Ryazan.
3 Kiyevsky (Киевский вокзал)[dead link] Kiyevskaya Chișinău, Kaluga, Bryansk, Aeroexpress trains from/to Vnukovo International Airport.
4 Kursky (Ку́рский вокзал)[dead link] Kurskaya, Chkalovskaya Vladimir, Nizhny Novgorod, Samara, Tula, Oryol, Kursk, Sochi, Crimea, the Caucasus.
5 Leningradsky (Ленингра́дский вокзал)[dead link] Komsomolskaya Pskov, Saint Petersburg, Tver, Veliky Novgorod, Petrozavodsk, Murmansk, Helsinki, Khimki, Klin, Tver.
6 Paveletsky (Павелецкий вокзал)[dead link] Paveletskaya Almaty, Astrakhan, Baku, Donetsk, Luhansk, Saratov, Tambov, Volgograd, Aeroexpress trains from/to Domodedovo Airport.
7 Rizhsky (Рижский вокзал)[dead link] Rizhskaya Riga, Krasnogorsk, Istra.
8 Savyolovsky (Савёловский вокзал)[dead link] Savyolovskaya Local destinations only, including Dmitrov
9 Yaroslavsky (Яросла́вский вокзал)[dead link] Komsomolskaya Rostov Veliky (express, twice a day, 3 hr, 450 руб), Sergiev Posad (express, twice a day, 1 hr, 300 руб), Yaroslavl (14 per day, 4 hr, 500 руб), Vologda, Trans-Siberian Railway trains to Siberia, the Russian Far East, Mongolia, and China.
10 Vostochny (Восточный вокзал) Cherkizovskaya, Lokomotiv Anapa, Kursk, Murmansk, Nizhny Novgorod, Novorossiysk, Saint Petersburg, Samara, Sochi, Volgograd.

By car

See also: Driving in Russia

Many entry points to Moscow over the Ring Road and into the city feature rotating roadblocks, where teams of traffic police may stop a vehicle, especially if it is not featuring Moscow plates. You may be stopped and questioned but you'll be allowed to proceed if you have all the proper documents.

From Europe

Foreign cars, especially expensive cars, might attract unwelcome attention, and there is cumbersome paperwork involved to enter Russia by car.

The direct way to drive from Germany, Poland, or Belarus is along the road, although it requires having permission to enter Belarus. If you can't enter Belarus, an alternative is to go via Latvia using the from Riga.

The provides easy access from Finland through Saint Petersburg and Novgorod. This route is also known as Russian Federal Highway . Traffic on the is heavy.

By bus


It is generally easier to travel to/from Europe or other parts of Russia via plane or train so most visitors to Moscow will not use the intercity buses.

Lux Express operates coach service between Moscow and various cities in Europe. Buses arrive to and depart from the Severnye Vorota Bus Station next to the Khovrino Metro Station on Metro Line 2 (green) in the northern section of Moscow. Destinations include Tartu (14 hours, €49), Riga (15 hours, €55), Tallinn (16.5 hours, €55), Vilnius (18 hours, €66-73), Warsaw (26 hours, €80-92), Minsk (34 hours, €78), Budapest (36 hours, €95-112), Prague (36 hours, €97), and Berlin (40 hours, €97-109).

Many domestic intercity buses stop at the Moscow Intercity Bus Terminal, next to the Shchelkovskaya Metro Station at the eastern terminus of Metro Line 3 (dark blue). Buses to the popular tourist destination of Suzdal operate from this station.

There are also several small bus stops and stations with buses to/from small towns that are not commonly visited by tourists.

  • 5 Moscow Central (Schyolkovskiy) Bus Terminal aka Intercity bus station (Центральный Автовокзал, Московский междугородный автовокзал) (Shelkovskaya Metro station (the last station of the (3) line, in northeast Moscow). Under highway overpass), +7 499 748-8029. Daily 04:00-23:15. Intercity buses to Russian and some former Soviet Union cities depart from here. This is the only place in Moscow from which public transport is available directly to Suzdal. Moscow Central Bus Terminal (Q4304027) on Wikidata Moscow Central Bus Terminal on Wikipedia
  • 6 Intercity buses Krasnogvardeiskaya (Krasnogvardeiskaya Metro station). Southern way.
  • 7 Regional buses, Proezd Stratonavtov (пр. Стратонавтов), 9 (Tushinskaya Metro station), +7 495 491-8215. To west/northwest direction within the Moscow region, Volokolamsk, Zvenigorod, Ruza.
  • 8 Intercity bus station Yuznye Vorota (Автостанция Южные Ворота). Southeastern direction toward Ryazan. Voskresensk, Yegoryevsk, Bronnitsy, Lukhovitsy. Yuzhnyye vorota (Q21026895) on Wikidata
  • 9 Intercity bus station Kotelniki (Автостанция Котельники) ((7) Kotelniki Metro station). Southeastern direction toward Ryazan. Voskresensk, Yegoryevsk, Bronnitsy, Lukhovitsy. (Q61891734) on Wikidata
  • 10 International bus station Severnye Vorota (Автовокзал Северные Ворота) ((2) Khovrino Metro station). Northern direction toward St. Petersburg, northeastern toward Riga, Tartu, Pskov, western toward Mariampole, Smolensk. Severnyye vorota (Q60220837) on Wikidata

By boat


There is no scheduled passenger service to Moscow by boat; however, cruise ships do provide service to the Northern River Terminal, on the Moscow Canal near the Khimki Reservoir. The pier is not convenient to the city and it can take over 2 hours to reach the city centre by car.

A system of navigable channels and locks connects the Moskva River with the Volga River, which is further connected to the Baltic Sea, White Sea, the Azov, the Black Sea, and the Caspian Sea. In the Soviet times this allowed the official propaganda to refer to Moscow as "a port on the five seas".

By bicycle


Moscow is the easternmost destination of the EuroVelo cycling routes. Eurovelo Route 2, the Capitals Route, is a 5,500 km (3,400 mi) route starting in Galway, Ireland, passing through Dublin, London, Berlin, Warsaw and Minsk before terminating in Moscow.

Get around


By public transport


While central Moscow is best explored on foot, it's easiest to use the metro to cover larger distances. The metro is comprehensive, boasts some great architecture, and is relatively cheap. City buses, trolleybuses, trams and metro operated under "Moskovskii transport" franchise by different operators but common fare system.

The simplest way to pay for public transportation is to purchase a ticket for 1 or 3 days in a ticket machine in any metro station. A 3-day ticket costs 438 руб. The ticket machines have an English interface and accept credit cards and cash, and the ticket is valid for unlimited rides on the metro, MCC, tram, trolleybus, and city bus. All Mosgortrans-operated lines and legal suburban bus operators accept contactless bank cards.

The cheapest way to use the public transportation system is to purchase a plastic Troika[dead link] re-loadable smart-card. The card costs 50 руб and can be redeemed for cash at the end of your trip. You can "top up" your balance at any metro station. For each trip taken, 40 руб will be deducted from your card. If you make a change from the metro to a ground transport or other way around within the next 90 minutes of your trip, the next shoulder will cost you only 22 руб. The Troika card also can be used in the format of the app for NFC-compartible smartphones. If you pay with a contactless card or via Apple/SamsungPay, 44 руб will be charged from your card account. Alternatively, red single-trip paper cards can be purchased at metro stations at a cost of 57 руб, other options include either 2 or 60 trips.

Also there is unlimited tickets for 1, 3, 30, 90 or 365 days which is very useful, if you plan to use public transport a lot.

By metro

Moscow rail systems map 2023 with planned extensions up to 2026
The Metro in Moscow

The Metro is open from 05:30-01:00. Station entrances are closed at 01:00, and at this time the last trains depart from all of the termini stations. After 01:00, many locals will enter the train station using the exits, which are still open. Service on the ring line runs until 01:30, although entrances are closed at 01:00. The down escalators are also shut off at 01:00.

There is signage in the Metro stations in English and the Latin alphabet, but these signs are not everywhere. Each train carriage has a map in Latin script and there is one near the entrance to each station. Note the direction of the train before you alight. It is worth printing a map of the metro system in both Cyrillic and Latin letters to take with you.

All trains in the system have free WiFi onboard, but you will need to have a Russian phone number to get the authorization code to access the WiFi. Some of the older train cars are not climate controlled.

2 or 3 stations may be connected as transfer points but will each have a different name. There are 2 stations called Smolenskaya and 2 stations called Arbatskaya, but the station pairs are not connected to each other despite having the same name. Some of the stations are very deep underground, and transfer times between certain metro lines can take a lot of time. In the city centre, it can save time to go directly to the above-ground entrance of the line you want to take rather than to enter at a connecting station and transfer underground. On the escalators, stand on the right and walk on the left except for peak hours, when standing on the left side is also allowed.

Some of the train stations include beautiful architecture and it is worth taking a guided tour of the metro system. The most interesting stations in terms of decor are Komsomolskaya (ring line), Novoslobodskaya (ring line), Kievskaya (ring line), Kropotkinskaya (Line #1 - red), Kievskaya (Line #3 - dark blue), Arbatskaya (Line #3 - dark blue), Ploschad' Revolyutsii (Line #3 - dark blue), Mayakovskaya (Line #2 - dark green). Also look at the architecture of the ground entrance building of Arbatskaya (Line #4 - light blue) and Krasnye Vorota (Line #1 - red). History buffs may appreciate that Metro Line #1 (red) has the oldest stations, opened in 1935.

The Vorobyovy Gory Metro Station on Line #1 (red) is unique in that it is on a bridge crossing the Moscow River. This bridge also carries auto traffic road on another level. There is a beautiful view through the transparent sides of the station. A great observing point around Moscow is located nearby on Vorobyovy hills, next to the main building of Lomonosov Moscow State University.

There are a couple of unique trains operating through the system and you will be lucky if you get to ride them. Aquarelle (Watercolor) is a train that includes an art gallery. The train operates daily on Line #3 (dark blue). The Sokolniki Retro Train is a train modeled after the original 1930s trains and it occasionally is placed into service, usually around a major anniversary of the metro system.

The metro is relatively safe, although pickpockets are a problem, as they are in any environment where a lot of people are pressed together. Opportunistic petty crime, such as snatching someone's mobile phone and jumping out just as the doors are closing, is also commonplace. Take the usual precautions at night when gangs of inebriated teenagers may look for an excuse to beat someone up. There is no train guard or conductor, so the first car near the driver may be the safest. Every car is equipped with an intercom to the driver's cabin; they are beige boxes with a grill and a black button near doors, and mostly work, unless visibly vandalized.

By Central Circle train


The city has rehabilitated the old rail loop that lies between the Third Transport Ring and the Ring Road. It was built in the beginning of the 20th century, and last had passenger service in 1934. It was then used for shuttling freight trains in and out of the city without having them clog the main stations. The comfortable Siemens Desiro trains (called "Lastochka" in Russia) provide service between 05:45 and 01:00, with 5-10 minute intervals. The entire circular journey takes an hour and a half. The Moscow Central Circle (МЦК -pronounced as Em-Tse-Ka) is integrated into the Moscow Metro, and is denoted by a pink hollow contour on the maps[dead link], but there are few interchanges, with some of the stations marked as adjacent being as much as 15 minutes apart on foot. It is, however, useful for trips that avoid transfers in the center, and the trains are rarely packed. The same tickets as for Metro are valid, and where you need to transfer from one mode to the other (and correspondingly leave the system and enter through the barrier again), the Troika cards would recognize it and not charge you the second time. Unlike the Metro, it is allowed to carry bicycles on the Central Circle.

By bus

Validation of ticket
Mosgortrans bus in current blue transport livery on Spartakovskaya Street and Yelokhovo Cathedral on the foreground.

Every large street in the city is served by at least one bus route. Most Moscow buses operate 05:30-01:00.

Numbers with an added 'к' or red sign ('к' for короткий — short) are shorter routes than their regular counterparts (for example bus 164 has a longer itinerary than 164к).

Numbers with an added 'м' (magistral routes; 'м' for магистральный) indicate more frequent routes, numbers with an added 'е' ('е' for экспресс, but uses cyrillic 'е' as there is the same letter 'e' in latin alphabet) are express routes (which are subclass of magistral routes) and skip a lot of small stops.

Bus on night route н5 on 01:26

Numbers with an added 'н' ('н' for ночной — night) indicate night services, few other routes also operate during the night.

Numbers with an added 'т' indicate diesel bus replacing withdrawn trolleybus line, does not mean anything special. Since August 2020, there is only one trolleybus route Т which connects Komsomolskaya square and 3 railway stations, "Krasnoselskaya" metro station and Yelokhovo Square.

Numbers with interval 901—908 is express buses, that skip many stops.

Main lines of buses are frequent until the late evening.

A useful mobile app called Yandex Maps helps you locate a nearest bus, trolleybus or tram on the line.

By tram


There are several tram routes, although trams are not common in the city centre.

Map of Moscow tram (2023)

By commuter rail


Local commuter trains (electrichkas) operate between the Moscow train stations and the suburbs of Moscow Oblast, but are of little use for seeing the tourist attractions. Schedules can be accessed online at the official operator site and

Strelka and Troika cards are not valid for commuter trains, except if you have a multi-day commuter train ticket on your Troika card. Most stations have ticket machines with credit card and cash accepted.

Since 2019 an MCD (reads as Em-Tse-De) service of frequent trains - similar to Berlin's S-Bahn or Paris' RER - started on two lines, so some railway rides can be paid by Troika card. Single ticket costs 38 руб within the city limits and 45 руб within the closest outskirts.

By monorail


Moscow Monorail is a 4.7 km (2.9 mi) monorail line with 6 stations. It is slower, less frequent, and has shorter operating hours when compared with the metro (every 30 min, 08:00-20:00). However, the view is picturesque. It is useful to get to the Ostankino Tower, or to get to the VDNKh exhibition centre from Metro Line #9 (silver). Interchanges between Moscow Metro and Monorail is free, no additional fee will be charged.

By taxi

Caution Note: Beware of unofficial taxis that like to hang around tourist areas. They use a taxi meter; however, their meter goes by a fabricated inflated rate. A 10-minute ride can easily cost 3000 руб instead of 400 руб. Make sure to negotiate a fixed price before entering. Smartphone-based apps such as Uber, Yandex Taxi, Citimobil and Gett (previously GetTaxi) are popular and reliable in Moscow and the rating systems and customer support force the drivers to be accountable.



Rates for UberX are the cheapest among taxi services. Non-surge rates are 50 руб base fare + 8 руб per minute + 8 руб per kilometer, with a 100 руб minimum.

It is possible to negotiate the price with taxis drivers and not use the meter. Taxi fares within the Garden Ring are generally under 250 руб. When negotiating with a street taxi, if you don't like the amount one guy is charging, you'll doubtlessly find another driver in a minute or two. Try to get an idea if the drivers know where they are going as many will pretend they know how to get to your destination just to get your business. Smartphone-based apps eliminate this problem since the drivers follow a GPS and the rates are fixed.

Taxi operators


There are several taxi services operating in Moscow, the most noticeable on the streets being Yandex.Taxi, they're booked via the mobile app. The cars are mainly yellow-black-white Skodas, Kias or Hyundais. They will charge the minimum rate of 250 руб no matter the distance. Other popular hailing apps that often offer cheaper fares than Yandex.Taxi, are Citimobil, Taxi Maxim, Rutaxi - they all have English interface.

If you're not good in Russian, there are several English-speaking taxi services operating in Moscow, the most notable being LingoTaxi. Prices are generally higher but booking by phone is easier.

By car


Using a car in Moscow can be very time consuming and stressful. Moscow beyond the center is cut by railroads, industrial districts and rivers, so the road network is very irregular with tight bottlenecks between well-connected areas. The street system was never designed to accommodate even a fraction of today's vehicles and the traffic jams never seem to clear until the night. Evening jams lasting the entire night into the morning rush hours are rare but not unheard of. You will have to compete for the right-of-way with seasoned drivers who know the tangle of the streets inside out and will not think twice before cutting you off at the first opportunity. One bright spot is the dearth of the large 18-wheeler trucks on Moscow roads. Sometimes, all traffic on major thoroughfares may be blocked by police to allow government officials to blow through unimpeded, sirens blaring.

There is very little parking. Parking illegally can lead to a hefty fine of 2500 руб and your car being towed. If you are driving to Moscow, park as soon as you can at a safe place such as your hotel and use public transit. Parking is usually not free and the costs can be found online. Expect to pay 80 руб/hour for the parking within the Boulevard Ring and the district, 200 руб/hour - between Boulevard Ring and Garden Ring, 40 руб/hour between Garnen Ring and Third Transport Ring. Payment is available through SMS (Russian SIM-cards only), mobile app or at parking columns (usually accepting credit cards only). You have to pay for the full hour upfront, unused money will be sent back to your account. Like many other Russian cities, parking spaces, even parking lots, are disorganized, making safe parking a challenge.

However, if you have driven in New York City, Rome or Athens before, then it's not that hard to get accustomed to Moscow traffic. Just don't try to drive across the city during rush hours or you can be stuck for as long as 3 hours in traffic jams. Check one of the many traffic jam information websites before you start your journey. Taking the metro may actually be faster than driving. The most popular sites are Yandex Probki [dead link] and Rambler Probki [dead link].

As of 2019, many or most local drivers consider official speed limits more of a guideline than anything. Driving up to 19 kilometres per hour (12 mph) above speed limit usually isn't punished (at least for locals), and in many places driving 30–40 kilometres per hour (19–25 mph) above speed limit is common in case of light traffic. The punishment system for bad driving is very lax. Some mobile apps give warning about automated cameras and they see wide use. Besides, some cars operate with speedometer broken. This is especially the case of microbus drivers operating on private suburban lines. Reckless driving is common, especially late at night on mostly empty streets. Drunk driving isn't uncommon, especially late at night. Paradoxically, rush hours are a lot safer to drive at, since traffic flow speed is naturally restricted.

Roads are almost empty during holidays at the beginning of January and May as well as during weekends and the summer. Friday evening in broad summer (roughly April to October) show great jams towards outside the city, while Sunday evening and Monday morning show great jams towards the city. Great jams can surround May and winter holidays.

Gas stations: BP, Lukoil, Gazpromneft, Rosneft gas stations all have good quality gasoline.

By ship


Boats are not the best way to move around the city fast, but they do offer great scenery.

  • 1 Stolichnaya Sudokhodnaya Kompania (Capital River Boat Tour Company). depart about once hourly, every day. Several scenic routes geared for tourists] with prices in the range of 400-800 руб. A pass is included in some hop-on-hop-off tours. 400-800 руб.
  • 2 Flotilla Radisson Royal, Naberezhnaya Tarasa Shevchenko, 9, (Ukraina Hotel embankment) (M: Krasnopresnenskaya). Several year-round cruises. Unlike other tourist boats, these boats can move on ice very smoothly so that the waiter can easily pour champagne in crystal glasses on a table. There are huge panoramic windows to protect against the wind. The food is overpriced. The trips depart from either Hotel Ukraina or Gorky Park. 650-2000 руб.

By bicycle


Velobike[dead link] operates a bike sharing network that has over 4000 bicycles available at over 430 bike stations throughout city. To use it, you first have to register on the web site, mobile app or via terminal on bike station. Membership rates are 150 руб per day, 500 руб for a month, or 1200 руб for whole season. Usage fees, which are in addition to membership fees, vary, but the first 30 minutes are free. This is intentional to encourage people to use the system for short place-to-place trips; however, after riding for 30 minutes, you can dock your bike into a station, wait 2 minutes, and then take the bike out again to restart the timer. The service is only operational between April and November. After docking the bike you should get a text message confirmation. If you do not get a confirmation, you should call the company; otherwise, you may be fined.

By hop-on-hop-off bus


The hop-on-hop-off bus is a convenient way for tourists to see the major sights quickly and efficiently. The buses feature English-speaking guides to answer any questions. A 1 day pass costs $24 for adults and $15 for children.


Individual listings can be found in Moscow's district articles



Moscow has many attractions, but many of them are not friendly to a non-Russian-speaker. English-language newspapers like The Moscow Times, Element [dead link], Moscow News and others can help to navigate towards English-language friendly attractions and services.



Make sure you visit a Russian bathhouse (banya) while in Moscow, as it's an important Russian tradition and some Russians, especially aged 40+, go at least once a week. Have a hot steam, followed by a good whipping with birch branches. While it's not the most pleasant experience, the benefits you'll receive afterward will enable you to understand why Russians are loyal to their banya.

  • 1 Sandunovskye Baths (Sanduny), Neglinnaya Str. 14 Building 3-7 (Metro: Kyznetsky Most or Trubnaya), +7 495 782-1808. The oldest and most famous Banya in Moscow, it looks like a palace with enormous halls, marble stairs, and frescos. The restaurant serves drinks for the complete after-banya experience. 90-minute guided tours are available on Tuesday evenings. 4-person bath room: From 4000 руб/hour, with a 2-hour minimum.
  • Pokrovskie Baths, Bagrationovsky proezd, 12 (Metro: Bagrationovskaya). Has a famous steam room with horseradish-flavored steam. Wide selection of brooms from birch tree, tatarian maple, lime tree, and eucalyptus. Prices are cheaper than other banyas.
  • Rzehvskye Baths, Bannyi Proezd 3a (Metro: Prospekt Mira), +7 495 681 10 74. Daily 09:00-22:00. 120 years old but renovated.
  • Lefortovskie Baths, Lefortovsky Val, 9A (Metro: Aviamotornaya), +7 495 362-55-70 07. Famous for its traditionally-Russian massage with brooms soaked in mead where cold water is poured on you to get the blood flowing!


  • 2 Moscow State Circus, prospekt Vernadskogo (просп. Вернадского), 7 (near the University), +7 495 930-03-00, . Tickets 10:30-19:30. A state-owned enterprise, opened 30 April 1971 is an auditorium in Moscow, with a seating capacity of up to 3,400. The circus has 5 arenas (equestrian, water, illusionist, ice rink, and light-effect) located 18 metres below the floor. Touts may be selling tickets outside and can save you a lot of queueing, and they'll speak more English than the ticket office. Sometimes they are selling tickets at the cover price, and sometime at twice the price. Ask and make sure before parting with your cash. From 200 руб. Moscow State Circus (Q154409) on Wikidata Moscow State Circus on Wikipedia
  • 3 Moscow Nikulin Circus. Moscow Nikulin Circus on Tsvetnoy Boulevard (Q1518042) on Wikidata Moscow Circus on Tsvetnoy Boulevard on Wikipedia


  • Bolshoi Theatre, one of the oldest and best known ballet and opera companies in the world.

Ice skating

  • 4 Gorky Central Park of Culture and Leisure ("Центральный парк культуры и отдыха (ЦПКиО) имени Горького"), Krymsky Val (Крымский вал), 9 (Across the Moskva River from Park Kultury Metro Station), +7 495 995 0020, . 10:00-17:00, evening 17:00-23:00. It is most famous but overcrowded and ice is not always in ideal condition. The Park opened in 1928. morning 200 руб, evening 300 руб.
  • 5 Luzhniki aka Kristall skating ring (Каток «Кристалл» и каток «Балет на льду»), Luzhnetskaya nab.(Лужнецкая наб.), 24 (M: Sportivnaya). Excellent ice, although service can be tough and open hours are not always convenient.

The winter rinks at Chistye Prudy or Izmaylovsky Park are other alternatives.


  • Sun of Moscow, Europe's tallest ferris wheel (140 m height) opened in 2022.
  • Watch football: Moscow has four teams playing in the Premier League, the top tier of Russian football. They often qualify for European tournaments, and their stadiums are used for international games. The four are:
FC Locomotiv Moscow play at RZD Stadium, completed in 2002 with a capacity of 27,000. It's in the northeast of the city, use metro station Locomotiv (aka Cherkizovskaya) on Circle Line 14 and Red Line 1.
PFC CSKA Moscow play at VEB Arena, completed in 2016 with a capacity of 30,000. It's in the northwest of the city, use metro station CSKA on Lines 8A and 11.
FC Spartak Moscow play at Otkritie Arena (aka Spartak Stadium), completed in 2015 with a capacity of 45,000. It's on the northwest edge of the city, use metro station Spartak on Line 7.
FC Dynamo Moscow play at the VTB Arena (aka Lev Yashin Stadium), that was opened on the site of demolished historical Dynamo stadium, in 2019 with a capacity of 25,000. It's north of city centre, use metro station Dinamo on Line 2, or Petrovskiy Park on Lines 8A and 11.
Big games (including the 2018 World Cup Final) are often played at Luzhniki Stadium. This Russia's national stadium and doesn't have a resident team. Built in 1956, it was upgraded twice in 1996 and 2017 to a capacity of 81,000. It's southwest of the centre, use metro station Luzhniki on Line 14, or Sportivnaya or Vorobyovy Gory on Line 1.
  • 6 Kva-Kva Water Park, Kommunisticheskaya Ulitsa, 1, Mytishchi (inside XL Family Entertainment Center), +7 495 258 06-83. Daily 10:00-22:00. Water Park affiliated with Maxima Hotels (discounts for guests). There are 7 high trills (90-120 meters length) and a pleasant surprise for extremers – Tsunami trill – unique in Russia. There are also 4-line trills – Multislide and a special area for kids – a small tropical town with shallow pool. Kva-Kva Lagoone offers hydromassage. There’s also pure Russian bath, Finnish sauna, Turkish bath (hamam) and Kva-Kva spa-salon. Night discos take place every weekend, with free admission for Maxima Hotel guests. 225-745 руб.
  • Hot air balloon ride, Suburban Moscow. 4400-5000 руб.
  • 7 Moscow Zoo (Московский зоопарк), Bolshaya Gruzinskaya str., 1 (M: Barrikadnaya or Krasnopresnensky), +7 499 252 3580, fax: +7 495 605 1717, . Tu-Su 10:00-17:00. The oldest (1864) and the biggest zoo in Russia, has over 6000 animals representing about 1000 species and covers an area of about 21.5 hectares. 300 руб, photo cameras free of charge; summer weekends 500 руб.


Moscow State University

Moscow remains the educational center of Russia and the former USSR. There are 222 institutes of higher education, including 60 state universities & 90 colleges. Some of these offer a wide-spectrum of programs, but most are centered around a specific field. This is a hold-over from the days of the USSR, when Sovietwide there were only a handful of wide-spectrum "universities" and a large number of narrow-specialization "institutes" (mostly in Moscow & St.Petersburg). Moscow offers some of the best business/management, science, & arts schools in the world. Moscow is also a popular destination for foreign students to learn Russian.

State Universities

  • 3 Moscow State University (Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова), Leninskye gory (Ленинские горы), 1; Prospect Lomonosovsky (M: Universytet), +7 495 939 10 00, fax: +7 (495) 939 01 26, . The largest school in Moscow (nearly 50,000 students) and Russia's most prestigious university. Mostly liberal arts & the sciences. Courses only in Russian, except:
  • LMSU Institute of Russian Language and Culture. Russian courses from 4 wk-3 semesters: pre-university Russian (to prepare for a Russian-language university education, teaches jargon/vocabulary for 6 fields), preparation to be a teacher of Russian, & 6 levels of Russian for fun.
  • 4 Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Московский Физико-Технический институт (государственный университет)), Dolgoprudny, per. Institutskiy 9 (Metro: Altufyevo 5.4 km (3.4 mi) take taxi bus №545 (456C) until “MIPT” stop (~15 minutes)), +7 495 408-51-45, . One of the most prestigious science universities in Russia.
  • 5 Moscow State Institute of International Relations(MGIMO) (Московский государственный институт международных отношений (Университет) МИД России, often abbreviated МГИМО, MGIMO). One of the most prestigious foreign relations universities in the world, this school of 5000 has trained over two thirds of Russian government officials and many others in the CIS. Courses only in Russian.
  • 6 Moscow Aviation Institute (State University of Aerospace Technologies) (Московский авиационный институт), Volokolamskoye shosse (Волоколамское шоссе), 4 (Metro Voykovskaya 700 m, Metro Sokol 800 m), +7 499 158-0002, fax: +7 499 158-29-77, . Specializes in Aviation-related science & engineering. Courses in Russian, but the school has "Pre-school" Russian courses & a tolerance for some English.
  • 7 Bauman Moscow State Technical University (Московский государственный технический университет им. Н. Э. Баумана), Ul. 2-ya Baumanskaya (2-я Бауманская ул.), 5, +7499 263-6391, fax: +7 499 267-4844, . Engineering and technology. Oldest technical university in Russia. Offers courses only in Russian.
  • 8 Russian State Medical University (Российский национальный исследовательский медицинский университет имени Н. И. Пирогова), Ul. Ostrovityanova (ул. Островитянова), Dom 1 (M: Belyaevo or M: Konkovo), +7 495 434-3174, . Otherwise referred to as Pirogov institute, it was founded in 1906. It has a huge campus for an exclusively medical faculty. Presumably Russian-language only.
  • 9 I. M. Sechenov First State Moscow Medical University (Первый Московский государственный медицинский университет имени И. М. Сеченова), Trubetskaya ulitsa, 8 (Metro Frunzenskaya 400m, metro Sportivnaya 750 m). As the name suggests, this school offers Medical & Pharmacological degrees exclusively. It claims to be the oldest medical school in Russia and used to a medical department of Lomonosov Moscow State University. Courses in Russian, but Russian courses for English-speakers offered. First 2-3 years courses can be in English, afterwards in clinical years mainly in Russian.
  • 10 People's Friendship University of Russia (RUDN), Miklukho-Maklaya str., 6 (M. Belyaevo, Yugo-Zapadnaya 1.5 km (0.93 mi)), +7 495 434-70-27, . Comparable to an American public university, this school offers everything from French to Engineering to Hotel Management. It has European accreditation & specializes in teaching foreign students. Courses in Russian, but offers many Russian-language courses.
  • 11 Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation (Финансовый университет при Правительстве Российской Федерации), Leningradsky Prospect, 49 (M. Aeroport 600 m, Metro Dinamo 1 km (0.62 mi)), +7 499 943-98-55, fax: +7 499 157-70-70, . The first in the history of Russia specialized financial institute of higher education. Alma mater of many famous Russian businessmen and government officials (one of the wealthiest person in Russia Mikhail Prokhorov, Governor of Krasnoyarsk Krai Lev Kuznetsov, Deputy Prime Minister Alexander Khloponin, CEO of Gazprombank Andrey Akimov and some others)
  • 12 Plekhanov Russian University of Economics (Российский экономический университет им. Г. В. Плеханова), Stremyanny per. 36 (Metro Serpukhovskaya 200 m, Metro Dobryninskaya 300 m), +7 499 237-85-17. Established in 1907, is the oldest institution with focus on economics in Russia's tertiary education.



You will need a work visa which is not an easy process. The visa needs to be arranged well in advance of traveling. It is possible to work in Moscow, you just need to find a good company to support you. The main obstacle for many foreigners will be a mandatory Russian language exam required to obtain a work permit.



Credit card acceptance is widespread. ATMs are plentiful, display in English and accept the major card networks such as Visa/Plus and MasterCard/Cirrus. Currency exchange offices are plentiful in the city, but be sure to count your change and note that the advertised rates sometimes don't include an added commission or only apply to large exchanges. Be sure to break your 5000 руб and 1000 руб notes where you can since the smaller merchants, street vendors and even many metro clerks often refuse them.

Shopping malls


Large shopping malls are common near metro stations.


Russian borsch

Dining establishments in Moscow range from food stalls near metro stations to quick canteen-style 'Stolovaya' eateries to American-style fast food chains to overpriced restaurants catering to tourists to high-end restaurants where you can spend 10000 руб.

Restaurants and cafes promising "European and Caucasus cuisine" generally cater to tourists and are usually bad; seek a restaurant that specializes in a single region instead (Georgian, Russian, Italian, French, etc.).

Many small restaurants offer lunch specials costing 200-250 руб. These deals are valid from 12:00 to 15:00 and include a cup of soup or an appetizer, a small portion of the main dish of the day, bread and a non-alcoholic beverage.



For information on tipping in restaurants, see Russia#Eat.

Ethnic food


Authentic ethnic food from countries of the nearby Caucasus (Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia) is common in Moscow. Japanese food, including sushi, rolls, tempura, and steakhouses are very popular in Moscow. Other Asian cuisines including Vietnamese, Thai, and Chinese are becoming increasingly more common.



Street food


Free-standing kiosks serving sausages, meat pies, or kebobs are plentiful, although the origins of the meat served is questionable and the food has been known to occasionally make people sick.

Muscovites are also fond of their ice cream, consumed in any weather, even in the dead of winter, cheap and usually of superior quality; kiosks can be found all over the center and near all Metro stations.

Fast food chains

  • Burger King[dead link], Hesburger[dead link], and KFC[dead link] have locations near almost every shopping mall. It is common to pay extra for condiments.
  • Black Star Burger[dead link] - Restaurant chain specializing in burgers with locations throughout Russia.
  • Kroshka-Kartoshka – These green kiosks sell microwave-baked potatoes as well as toasted sandwiches and a few drinks. Hot and filling, but rather expensive for a potato.
  • Riksha Ivan ("Ivan the Rickshaw") – Quick Chinese-like cuisine; fried rice with meat to go.
  • Teremok[dead link] – This chain started as a fast-food specialized on blinchiki, Russian crepes that come with a variety of fillings, with somewhat national old-fashon touch towards style and cuisine. It is however graduated beyond fast-food, where it fails to compete with international McDonalds and the like. Teremok is one of the cheapest chains offering a proper quality 3-course meals, including a soup, a main dish with a salad and a dessert. The drinks are overpriced, but not unreasonably so.
  • Kruzhka[dead link] – Serves cheap food and mugs of beer. 20 locations around Moscow. The menu is relatively simple, consisting mainly of types of kebab and shawarma, with fries. Sports events are on often shown on televisions or a big screen.
  • Prime Star – Specializing in natural food such as sandwiches and salads. 400 руб for a cold soup, salad, and beverage.
  • Dodo Pizza[dead link] - Chain restaurant specializing in pizza and pasta with locations throughout Russia. They also offer delivery.

Canteen-style cafeterias


Known as столовая (stolovaya) in Russian, in these establishment, you take a tray, move along a counter with food (either taking the dishes yourself or asking the staff to give you a bowl of soup, a plate of vegetables, etc.) and pay at the cash register at the end of the counter. These self-serve establishments trace their origin to Soviet times, and have decent quality food, no waiting time, and affordable prices. Canteen chains include Café Moo-Moo (30 locations) and Grabli (Грабли). One particularly famous one in Moscow is Stolovaya 57 in the famous GUM department store.

Foodcourts 2.0


This term is used in articles by local food critics: since 2016, several special food courts were opened with independent and small food chains, for those people who get bored of McDonald's-like food. They offer a wider choice of cuisines.

  • 1 Danilovskiy market. Danilovsky Market (Q20113579) on Wikidata
  • 2 Usachevsky market. Usachevsky market (Q61819867) on Wikidata
  • 3 Gastroferma. (Q61819884) on Wikidata
  • 4 Food store (Entrance from ulitsa Kuznetskiy Most). 24/7. The center one. (Q61819912) on Wikidata
  • 5 Depot. Former trolleybus park #4. The biggest one. (Q61819944) on Wikidata
  • 6 strEAT. M-Th 10:00-22:00, F-Su 10:00-23:00. near Avtozavodskaya metro station. (Q61819944) on Wikidata


  • Ресторан-караоке La Verona, Ulitsa Rossolimo, 7 (near Park Kultury Metro Station and Gorky Park), +7 495 997-22-27. Karaoke and Italian.
  • Kharbin (Харбин), Bolshaya Yakimanka ul. 56 (m. Pervomayskaya). Daily 11:00-23:00. Non-Europeanized authentic Chinese restaurant with therefore generous portions, each main can typically fill a couple. Both run entirely by and where 80% of clients are Chinese. Try turtle soup; eggplants in caramel sauce. Loud karaoke weekend evenings. No credit cards. 1000 руб per person for a filling dinner without alcohol.
  • VietCafe, Several locations. A popular chain of Vietnamese restaurants. 500 руб.
  • Acha Chacha . Leningradsky prospekt, 9b building 1. 12:00-00:00. Cosy restaurant of Caucasian cuisine near Belorusskiy train station that managed to avoid that annoying style of many other Georgian places mainly based on the imagery of Georgia taken from the Soviet era. Cash only but there is an ATM right at the entrance.


  • Chemodan (Suitcase), Gogol Boulevard 25/1 (Metro: Arbatskaya, Kropotkinskaya), +7 (495) 695 3819. Specifically a Siberian restaurant, with a menu featuring the freshest river-fish from Siberia's vast rivers and lakes, game dishes from the riches of the taiga forests, pickles and preserves featuring mushrooms and berries. Good food, good service. Mains: 700-1500 руб.
  • Expedition Northern Cuisine, Pevcheskiy Pereulok 6, +7 495 775-60-75. Northern cuisine, specializing in seafood. Mains: from 1000 руб.
  • Cafe Pushkin (Кафе Пушкинъ), Tverskoy Blvd 26А (Metro: Tverskaya, Pushkinskaya). Has a cafe and restaurant (cafe is cheaper). A fake 19th-century mansion (built in 1999) that pretends to be a tourist attraction, not just a place to eat. The legend goes that so many foreigners were asking for the restaurant with this name that they finally opened one. With a stretch of imagination the food might pass for what it purports to be, the aristocratic Russian cuisine from the Czarist times. Still, it's probably the only place in Moscow to try true Russian cuisine, as it's cooked at home (at least, it's quite difficult to find another of the same quality).
  • Gambrinus Na Kiyevskoy, Bol'shaya Dorogomilovskaya Ulitsa, 4 (Metro: Kievskaya), +7 499 380-87-77. European cuisine with wide selection of beers and view of city skyline.
  • White Rabbit, 3, Smolenskaya Square (Metro: Smolenskaya), +7 495 66 33 999. Astonishing interiors in fusion style. Combining an old fireplace with fretted designer furniture and an active bar in the middle of the hall with a 360 degree panorama view of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Ukraina hotel. You get an outstanding view on the Garden Ring, the New Arbat and the river Moscow through the windows.


Individual listings can be found in Moscow's district articles


  • Tema Bar, Potapovsky pereulok (Потаповский переулок), 5 (Metro: Chistye Prudy, near Chistye Prudy Boulevard), +7 495 624-27-20, +7 495 979-21-22, . It offers a long cocktail list, including all-time favorites like Screwdrivers, Cosmopolitans and Manhattans. The bar is packed on Friday and Saturday nights.



Nightlife in Moscow is bustling, intense and exciting. It starts quite late; it's common for the headliners to start at 02:00-02:00. Most noticeable are areas near Solyanka street and Krasniy Oktyabr' place. At summer time a lot of clubs opening open-air terraces called "verandas". Most of clubs in Moscow are very picky of who they let in, so make sure you have a positive attitude and dress up if you are going to a fancy club.

Gazgolder[dead link] (not far from Kremlin) is among the best.



Moscow has several café chains with great coffee including Coffeemania and Coffee Bean[dead link]. Moscow also has a good selection of tea saloons. High-quality infusion teas such as Newby, are widely available in cafes, both in packets and loose.

Asking to add boiling water to the tea you ordered earlier is a practice that some cafes don't welcome, but normally it's acceptable.


Individual listings can be found in Moscow's district articles

Stay safe


Moscow enjoys a relatively low crime rate.

Patrol Police vehicle

Drunk people are the most likely sources of problems. In the past years, lots of policemen were corrupt, and it was best to avoid them. Nowadays Moscow has a Tourist Police force, whose officers are able to speak foreign languages and help tourists. Police officers are equipped with body-cameras.

It is preferable to avoid some parts of the outer districts of Moscow, especially in the south. Some of those areas are notorious for gopniks (drunkards notorious for muggings and starting fights with strangers, and will do so seemingly unprovoked), who normally hang out in sparse residential areas and in industrial zones. The same problems can be witnessed in the surrounding regions and in other Russian cities as well.

While traveling in Moscow, as in the rest of Russia, you should always have your passport with you. If you look non-white, your papers may get checked more often than otherwise. The police may demand to see your papers to check if you have been registered within 7 business days of your arrival into Moscow. Always remember that if you stay in a hotel then you are automatically registered and will be handed a confirmation paper at a time of check-in, so don't worry in this case. The police are usually looking for migrants from Central Asia and unless you fit this profile, you are unlikely to be questioned.

Women should take caution walking alone late at night since they may receive unwanted attention from drunk men. Women should also stay clear of large companies of men in front of bars, restaurants, etc. It is best to walk with a friend if possible.

Streets can become very slippery in winter. Wear shoes or, even better, boots with decent grip to prevent twisted ankles. Ice patches can be hard to spot. A waterproof raincoat is also sensible.

Traffic is poorly handled, and vehicle accident rates are very high.

If you need help with translation, ask students or pupils: younger people are more likely to be able to help you than the older generations.



For information on using telephones and buying SIM cards in Russia, see Russia#Connect.

Mobile Internet is quite affordable in Russia, but you have to buy Russian SIM-card first.

Wireless Internet


Moscow Metro has Wi-Fi in all trains. It is ad-supported.

Mosgortrans has Wi-Fi spots on every bus, trolleybus and tram. Also sometimes you can find Wi-Fi spot on a public transport stop.

Beeline Wi-Fi[dead link] operates the largest network of both paid and free Wi-Fi access points. If there is a charge, you can pay online via credit card.

There is a large network of free Wi-Fi hotspots in the city centre; check your device in the middle of a busy area and you may find one.

Many cafes and restaurants offer Wi-Fi - ask for password. Most bookstores offer free Wi-Fi, including "Dom Knigi" on New Arbat Street or "Respublika" bookstore on Tverskaya near Mayakovskaya Metro Station.

Some establishments that offer free Wi-Fi may require you to verify an authorization code sent to a Russian phone number before gaining access, but for the most part, foreign numbers also work as of 2016.





Moscow is one of the global diplomatic capitals, competing with Berlin, Brussels, Beijing, Paris, London, Tokyo and Washington D.C.. Most of the world's countries have their embassies in the city.

Go next


Since Moscow is the biggest transportation center in Russia and one of the main points of entry for the foreign tourists, it is a convenient starting point for exploring much of European Russia. Even traveling through Moscow to Caucasian and Central Asian countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan etc.) could be cheaper than direct flights from Europe/North America. Travel deals to Moscow are not rare and ticket prices are often pretty low within the former USSR.

  • Golden Ring — Old cities and towns rich in historical buildings in the heartland of Muskovy Russia. There are many tourist companies organizing guided tours, but travellers with rudimentary knowledge of Cyrillic alphabet can do it independently. Many guidebooks are available in English.
  • 1 Nizhny Novgorod — the so-called "younger brother of Moscow." Never call Nizhny Novgorod as Novgorod, it's 2 absolutely different cities. Nizhny Novgorod is located about 400 km from the capital of Russia. You can get there from Moscow only 3½ hours by train Lastochka or Strizh. If you want to get there with comfort, then it's best to take tickets in the compartment. However, 3½ hours in a reserved seat are not very tiring for moving.
  • 2 Saint Petersburg — 13 overnight trains leave Moscow for the 7-hour (or thereabouts) journey, arriving the next morning. Don't try to save on sleeper accommodations; you won't like the coach car unless you aren't counting on getting any sleep at all (but in this case, you'd be better off taking one of the daytime high-speed Sapsan trains - they take around 4 hours, and the vistas rushing by on the other side of the window are lovely). You might even consider paying the extra money for a first class sleeper cabin which has two comfortable beds. Included in the price is a small snack for supper and breakfast. There is also an attendant for each carriage who is willing to make tea in classic metal and glass tea glasses. Very civilised way to travel. Though air travel is a preferred way of transportation.
  • 3 Tver — Known as "Tiny Petersburg" thanks to its city structure. The administrative center of Tver Oblast. The Volga river divides the city into two very different parts.
  • 4 Sergiev Posad (Сергиев Посад) (by car: 70 km (43 mi) from Moscow via the Yaroslavsky Highway - by electrical train: from Yaroslavsky Station, “Sergiev Posad” stop (1½ hr); by Bus № 388: from VDNKH Metro station to Sergiev Posad; then you can go by a bus (or a minivan) to the “Center” or walk along Sergievskaya ul. (street) to the observation platform on the Blinnaya gora ( mountain) and admire a magnificent view of the Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra). - Famous old Orthodox monastery (Troitse-Sergieva Lavra). Commuter trains from Yaroslavsky Station, several daily; travel time about 1½ hours.
  • 5 Kolomna (Коломна) (114 km (71 mi) (by rail) southeast of Moscow). A nice medieval town (2-3 hr from Moscow) with a number of very interesting churches and monasteries
  • 6 Arkhangelskoye Palace (Арха́нгельское), Krasnogorsk (Metro stations: "Tushinskaya"). - One of the finest of Moscow Oblast's usadbas (estates) is only a short elektrichka ride away from Moscow and makes a fine day excursion.
  • 7 Kubinka Tank Museum (Бронетанковый музей в Кубинке) (67 km (42 mi) W of Moscow centre), +7 800 707-01-07. Tu-Su 10:00-17:00. One of the finest armour collections in the world. About one hour west of the city. Access is restricted.
  • 8 Monino Central Airforce Museum (Центральный Музей Военно-Воздушных Сил) (35 km (22 mi) E of Moscow centre, walkable from Monino railway station, Yaroslavsky suburban rail line). - A very large airfield and some hangars with a lot of planes, some of them unique (Tu-144, "Ilya Murometz", T-4, a lot of ramjet fighters, helicopters, etc).
  • 9 Leninskiye Gorki (Го́рки Ле́нинские) (10 km (6.2 mi) south of Moscow city limits), +7 495 548-9309, . - An old country estate, expropriated by the Communist authorities after 1917 and used by V. Lenin as his country residence when he became ill. Large museum, although pretty decrepit now.
  • 10 State Borodino War and History Museum and Reserve (Государственный Бородинский военно-исторический музей-заповедник «Бородинское поле») (By suburban train: from the Belarusian railway station to "Borodino" or "Mozhaysk" station (2-3 a day, 2 hr) or intercity bus № 457 to Mozhaysk further - by bus to the "Borodino" museum). Warning: preodered group visits only. This is the site of the famous Battle of Borodino. Museum and national historic site.
  • 11 Melikhovo (Ме́лихово) (65 km (40 mi) south of Moscow). Chekhov's country house
  • 12 Yasnaya Polyana (Я́сная Поля́на) (12 km (7.5 mi) SW of Tula and 200 km (120 mi) S from Moscow.). Tolstoi's country house
  • 13 New Jerusalem Resurrection Monastery (Новоиерусалимский монастырь) (between Novoierusalimskaya (15 min on foot) and Istra (15 min by bus) elektrichka stations, around 60 km (37 mi) from Moscow, Trains to Istra, from Moscow’s Rizhsky Vokzal (Riga Station) (~20 a day, 1½ hr, 130 руб) (2011)). A monastery-fortress (male, working) with a number of museums inside and next to the walls: Wooden architecture museum, local history museum, art and history museum, etc. The monastery was founded in 1656 by Tzar Alexis II and Patriarch Nikon (his "cell", a three-storey house stands in the park outside the monastery walls) to resemble the original Jerusalem.
  • 14 Savvino-Storozhevskiy monastery (Саввино-Сторожевский монастырь) (65 km (40 mi) W; Commuter trains from Belorussky station to Zvenigorod , several daily; travel time ~1 hr, 1.5 km (0.93 mi) west to monastery, which is on a nearby hill.). A beautiful monastery with interesting history, closely connected to Russian Tzars.
  • 15 Dmitrov (Дмитров) (65 km (40 mi) North from Moscow (trains from Savelovsky station, several daily, 1½ hr)). A town, on Moscow Channel, with old churches, interesting sculptures in the streets and a number of museums
  • 16 Snegiri (40 km (25 mi) NW from Moscow (Volokolamskoe hwy), trains from Rizhsky Station, several daily, travel time about an hour). - Settlement, that boasts a monument to the Defense of Moscow during World War II, with a good collection of tanks, and a museum.
Routes through Moscow
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This city travel guide to Moscow is a usable article. It has information on how to get there and on restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please feel free to improve it by editing the page.